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Publication numberUS6299794 B1
Publication typeGrant
Application numberUS 07/955,162
Publication dateOct 9, 2001
Filing dateOct 9, 1992
Priority dateFeb 28, 1991
Fee statusLapsed
Publication number07955162, 955162, US 6299794 B1, US 6299794B1, US-B1-6299794, US6299794 B1, US6299794B1
InventorsJames P. Greaney
Original AssigneeArco Chemical Technology, L.P.
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Anhydrous phosphate-free anti-corrosive antifreeze formulation
US 6299794 B1
Abstract
The invention provides a phosphate-free anhydrous anhydrous anti-corrosive antifreeze formulation composed of propylene glycol and small but effective amounts of borate, molybdate, nitrate, nitrite, tolyltriazole and silicate, whichB formulation is used in the anhydrous form without water dilution and is particularly useful in engines which are adapted to operate at higher coolant temperatures for more effective performance.
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Claims(1)
What is claimed is:
1. A phosphate-free, substantially anhydrous anti-corrosive antifreeze formulation suitable for use as coolant in an engine cooling system without water dilution consisting of:
CONCENTRATION COMPONENT RANGE (WT %) Propylene Glycol 92-98 Borate, calculated as B4O7 0.16-0.81 Molybdate, calculated as MoO4 0.13-0.66 Nitrate, calculated as NO3 0.073-0.36  Nitrite, calculated as NO2 0.067-0.33  Tolyltriazole (C7H7N3) 0.15-0.50 Silicate, calculated as SiO2 0.014-0.07 
Description
RELATED APPLICATIONS

This application is a continuation-in-part of application Ser. No. 07/662,100 filed Feb. 28, 1991 now abandoned.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

1. Field of the Invention

The present invention relates to phosphate free corrosion-inhibited antifreeze formulations for use in the cooling systems of internal combustion engines. In particular, the invention relates to an anhydrous antifreeze formulation comprised predominantly of propylene glycol, together with borate, molybdate, nitrate, nitrite, tolyltriazole, and silicate.

2. Description of the Prior Art

The use of each of the components employed in the formulations of the present invention is taught in the art.

Propylene glycol is taught as a freezing point depressant in antifreeze formulations, for example in U.S. Pat. Nos. 2,147,409, 4,149,985 and many others.

Alkali metal borates have been used as corrosion-inhibitors in antifreeze formulations. See, for example, U.S. Pat. Nos. 4,149,985, 2,566,923, 3,960,740, 2,373,570, 2,815,328 and the like.

Alkali metal sebacates have been used as corrosion inhibitors in aqueous systems as taught in U.S. Pat. No. 2,726,215, and in antifreeze coolants as taught in U.K. Patent No. 1,004,259 and in U.S. Pat. Nos. 4,382,008, 4,561,990, 4,587,028, 4,588,513 and the like.

Alkali metal molybdates have been taught as corrosion-inhibitors in antifreeze formulations. See U.S. Pat. Nos. 2,147,409 and 4,561,990, for example.

Alkali metal mercaptobenzothiazole has been used in anti-freeze formulations along with other additives. See, for example, U.S. Pat. Nos. 2,815,328, 4,455,248, 4,414,126, 4,545,925 and the like.

Alkali metal nitrates have been added to antifreeze formulations as corrosion-inhibitors. See, for example, U.S. Pat. Nos. 2,815,328, 4,508,684, 4,455,248, 4,587,028 and the like.

Alkali metal nitrites have been added to antifreeze formulations as described, for example, in U.S. Pat. Nos. 4,587,028 and 4,728,452.

Tolyltriazole is taught as an antifreeze formulation component, for example in U.S. Pat. Nos. 4,242,214, 2,587,028, 4,382,008, U.K. Patent 1,004,259 and the like.

In addition, alkali metal silicates are shown as antifreeze components in, for example, U.S. Pat. Nos. 2,815,328, 4,242,214, 4,382,008, 4,382,870, 4,455,248, 4,149,985 and the like.

Alkali metal phosphates have been used as corrosion-inhibiting components of antifreeze formulations as shown, for example, in U.S. Pat. Nos. 2,147,409, 4,382,870, 4,455,248, 4,149,985, 4,545,925 and the like.

A considerable number of patents have been granted which are directed to antifreeze formulations which comprise certain specific combinations of components. Included among such patents are U.S. Pat. Nos. 4,242,214, 4,382,008, 4,382,870, 4,455,248, 4,561,990, 4,587,028, 4,588,513, 4,545,925, 4,000,079, 4,338,209, 4,759,864, 4,219,433 and many others.

A considerable amount of effort has been expended in the development of anhydrous antifreeze formulations and combustion engine cooling configurations which use the same. See U.S. Pat. Nos. 4,550,694 and 4,630,572 as well as “Development of an Anhydrous Coolant for Automotive Applications” by Greg P. Reny and Guy L. Titley of Dow Chemical Canada Inc.

In certain applications such as described, for example, in U.S. Pat. Nos. 4,550,694 and 4,630,572 cited above, the development of anhydrous antifreeze formulations which are used without water dilution is important. Operation using such formulations can be carried out at favorable higher coolant temperatures without the development of excessive pressures.

It should be noted that anhydrous formulations based on ethylene glycol are not suitable due to the freezing characteristics of anhydrous ethylene glycol formulations.

SUMMARY OF INVENTION

The present invention relates to a substantially anhydrous phosphate free anti-corrosive antifreeze coolant formulation which is used directly as an engine coolant without water dilution. Specifically, the present invention provides an antifreeze formulation comprised of a major proportion of propylene glycol together with small but critical amounts of borate, molybdate, nitrate, nitrite, tolyltriazole, and silicate, which is especially useful in areas where phosphates are prohibited.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

In general, the anhydrous antifreeze formulations of the invention contain 92 to 98 wt % of propylene glycol, although this amount may vary considerably.

As above indicated, the antifreeze formulation of the invention contains, in addition to propylene glycol, small but critical and effective amounts of borate, molybdate, nitrate, nitrite, tolyltriazole and silicate. Phosphate is excluded, and thus the formulation is particularly useful in marketing areas where the use of phosphate is prohibited.

The antifreeze formulation of the present invention contains by weight 0.16 to 0.81% borate calculated as B4O7, 0.073 to 0.36 molybdate calculated as MoO4, 0.73 to 0.22 nitrate calculated as NO3, 0.067 to 0.33% nitrite calculated as NO2, 0.15 to 0.50% tolyltriazole (methylbenzotriazole) calculated as tolyltriazole, and 0.014 to 0.07% silicate calculated as SiO2. It is desirable to include an effective amount of an antifoaming compound in the concentrate. Such components are well known and preferably may be a polyglycol-type or a silicone-type antifoaming agent.

These components are incorporated in the antifreeze formulation in soluble compound form, preferably in the form of an alkali metal salt, and most preferably as the sodium or potassium salt.

Sodium tetraborate is the preferred borate additive; the available hydrates such as sodium tetraborate pentahydrate (Na2B4O75H2O) and sodium tetraborate decahydrate (Na2B4O710H2O) are conveniently employed, the latter being preferred. Borate, expressed as sodium tetraborate decahydrate, in amount of 0.40 to 2.0 wt. % of the formulation is employed in accordance with the invention.

Sodium molybdate (Na2MoO4) is the preferred molybdate additive. The commercially available dihydrate (Na2MoO42H2O) is conveniently employed. Molybdate expressed as sodium molybdate dihydrate in amount of 0.2 to 1.0 wt. % of the antifreeze formulation is employed in accordance with the invention.

Nitrate is preferably added in the form of sodium nitrate (NaNO3). In accordance with the invention, nitrate, expressed as sodium nitrate, in amount of 0.10 to 0.50 wt. % is employed in the antifreeze formulation.

Nitrite is preferably added in the form of sodium nitrite (NaNO2). In accordance with the invention, nitrite, expressed as sodium nitrite in amount of 0.10 to 0.50 wt. % is employed in the antifreeze formulation.

Silicate is suitably employed in the form of sodium meta-silicate (Na2SiO3). The available hydrates, most notably the pentahydrate (Na2SiO35H2O) are conveniently used. Expressed as sodium metasilicate pentahydrate, amounts of 0.05 to 0.25 wt. % of the antifreeze formulation are employed in accordance with the invention.

Tolyltriazole (C7H7N3) is employed in the antifreeze formulation in amounts of 0.15 to 0.50 wt. % of the antifreeze formulation in accordance with the invention.

Alkali metal hydroxide, preferably NaOH is employed in amount sufficient to provide an apparent final pH of 9-11 for the anhydrous antifreeze formulation.

Although the value obtained in the anhydrous medium is not a true pH according to the accepted definition, the apparent PH value measured may still be used as a rough gauge of the coolant's quality.

Summarizing, the anhydrous antifreeze formulations of the invention have the composition by weight shown in the following table:

TABLE 1
(WT %)
CONCENTRATION
COMPONENT RANGE
Propylene Glycol 92 to 98
Borate, calculated as B4O7 0.16 to 0.81
Molybdate, calculated as MoO4 0.13 to 0.66
Nitrate, calculated as NO3 0.073 to 0.36 
Nitrite, calculated as NO2 0.067 to 0.33 
Tolyltriazole (methylbenzotriazole) 0.15 to 0.50
(C7H7N3)
Silicate, calculated as SiO2 0.014 to 0.07 

Alkali metal hydroxide is desirably added in addition to the above components as necessary to adjust the apparent pH to 9-11. The formulations may also contain stabilizers, anti-foaming agents and the like.

Propylene glycol is the glycol employed, and the various components are preferably alkali metal compounds, usually sodium compounds according to the following:

TABLE 2
(WT %)
COMPONENT CONCENTRATION
Propylene Glycol 92 to 98
Sodium Tetraborate Decahydrate 0.40 to 2.0 
(Na2B4O7.10H2O)
Sodium Molybdate (VI) Dihydrate 0.20 to 1.0 
(Na2MoO4.2H2O)
Sodium Nitrate 0.10 to 0.50
(NaNO3)
Sodium Nitrite 0.10 to 0.50
(NaNo2)
Tolyltriazole (methylbenzotriazole) 0.15 to 0.50
(C7H7N3)
Sodium Metasilicate Pentahydrate 0.05 to 0.25
(Na2SiO3.5H2O)

EXAMPLE I

An anhydrous antifreeze was prepared having the following composition given in Table 3.

TABLE 3
(WT %)
COMPONENT CONCENTRATION
Propylene Glycol 95.365
Sodium Tetraborate Decahydrate 0.90
(Na2B4O7.10H2O)
Sodium Molybdate (VI) Dihydrate 0.48
(Na2MoO4.2H2O)
Sodium Nitrate 0.30
(NaNO3)
Sodium Nitrite 0.30
(NaNo2)
Tolyltriazole (methylbenzotriazole) 0.32
(C7H7N3)
Sodium Metasilicate Pentahydrate 0.10
(Na2SiO3.5H2O)
Sodium Hydroxide 0.275
(NaOH)
Q 1-6083* 0.05
(silicate stabilizer)
Pluronic L-61** 0.01
(anti-form)
*Polysiloxane manufactured by DOW Corning.
**Polyoxypropylene - polyoxyethylene block copolymer manufactured by BASF.

The formulation was prepared by combining the appropriate relative amounts of the various components and mixing the combined materials overnight.

The formulation was subjected to certain standard ASTM tests to determine its suitability. The following are the results attained:

ASTM TEST RESULTS

D-1384 Corrosion Test for Engine Coolants in Glassware

Coupon Avg. Weight Loss, mg Max Allowed*
copper 6 10
solder 1 30
brass 5 10
steel 2 10
cast iron 3 10
aluminum 0 30

D-4340 Corrosion of Cast Aluminum Alloys in Engine Coolants Under Heat-Rejecting Conditions

Average Weight Loss, mg/cm2/week Max Allowed*
0.35 1.0

D-2570 Simulated Service Corrosion Testing of Engine Coolants

Coupon Avg. Weight Loss. mg Max Allowed*
copper 18 20
solder 5 60
brass 3 20
steel 2 20
cast iron 2 20
aluminum 1
*-Maximum corrosion weight loss as specified in ASTM D-3306-89 specification for EG base engine coolants.

D-2809 Pump Cavitation*

“9” rating

*—Cavitation Erosion—Corrosion Characteristics of Aluminum Pumps with Engine Coolants.

From these results it can be seen that the antifreeze composition of the invention passed these ASTM test requirements by a wide margin.

In accordance with the present invention, there is provided a phosphate-free anti-corrosive antifreeze formulation which can be used successfully in those areas where phosphates are prohibited. In addition, the formulation of the present invention is used in the anhydrous form without water dilution, thus enabling successful use in engines which are adapted to operate at higher coolant temperatures for a more effective performance. In this respect it should be noted that comparable formulations based on ethylene glycol cannot be used in the anhydrous applications due to the unfavorable freezing point characteristics of such formulations.

Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3228884 *Jun 28, 1961Jan 11, 1966Texaco IncMethod for producing a corrosion inhibited antifreeze composition
US4242214 *Oct 17, 1979Dec 30, 1980Texaco Development CorporationAntifreeze composition containing a corrosion inhibitor combination
US4452715 *Oct 25, 1982Jun 5, 1984Basf Wyandotte CorporationHigh pH coolant containing carbonate ion
US4455248 *Oct 31, 1983Jun 19, 1984Shell Oil CompanyAntifreeze compositions
US4647392 *Dec 27, 1985Mar 3, 1987Texaco Inc.Monobasic-dibasic acid/salt antifreeze corrosion inhibitor
US4717495 *Feb 28, 1986Jan 5, 1988Fleetguard, Inc.Diesel engine cooling system compositions
US4725405 *Mar 27, 1987Feb 16, 1988First Brands CorporationOrganosiloxane-silicate copolymer antifreeze composition with nitrate corrosion inhibitor
US4728452 *Jan 17, 1986Mar 1, 1988Pony Industries, Inc.Metal corrosion inhibition in closed cooling systems
US4851145 *Jun 30, 1986Jul 25, 1989S.A. Texaco Petroleum NvCorrosion-inhibited antifreeze/coolant composition
US4961878 *Nov 9, 1988Oct 9, 1990Drew Chemical CorporationCorrosion inhibitor for a closed aqueous cooling system
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
EP2586843A1 *Oct 26, 2011May 1, 2013Haertol Chemie GmbHAlkali metal nitrate as additive for cooling agents in cooling agent systems
WO2013060616A1 *Oct 18, 2012May 2, 2013Haertol Chemie GmbhAlkali metal nitrate as additive to coolants in coolant systems
Classifications
U.S. Classification252/74, 252/75
International ClassificationC23F11/08, C09K5/20
Cooperative ClassificationC09K5/20, C23F11/08
European ClassificationC23F11/08, C09K5/20
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