|Publication number||US6328 A|
|Publication date||Apr 17, 1849|
|Publication number||US 6328 A, US 6328A, US-A-6328, US6328 A, US6328A|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Referenced by (2)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
alphabet, or numeral iigure, sign, which arrangement of be changed at pleasure, yso as to transmit secret or other important not understood by the key or index of the seby an arrangement ALEXANDER BAIN, or LoN'DoN, ENGLAND.
IMPROVEMENT IN ELECTRIC TELEGRAPHS.
Specilicatien forming part of Trotters Patent No. 6.398,
To all whom may concern:
Be it known that I, merly of Edinburgh,
ALEXANDER BAIN. now of thev city of Londutet'l Apri] 17, 1849.
don, at present-in the city of New York, ele'ctric telegraph engineer, a subject of the Queen of Great Britain, have invented and made and applied to use-certain new ments in graphs, (for which original the 'Constructioninvention a patent and useful Im proveof Electric Telewas granted to me by the government of Great Britain and Ireland, of December, 1846,)
dated in' London the 12th for which said original invention, including other additional and important improvements thereon, ters Patent of the United States,
following is a specification.
I now seek Let. of which the lThe said improvements diii'er with all other precedent modes employed in electric telegraphs, first, by using electricity in a manner independent of any magnetic action; secondly, in composing a message or communication by perforations through paper bei-ng arbitrary, may
communications by'signs those not having cret arran gement; thirdly,
in sets of characeach of which represents a letter of the or other needful perforated signs,
of mechanical `means through which theI nonconducting substance of the paper passlng between the electrically-excited parts of the machinery interrupts the circuit, except when the perforated parts forming the signs pass between the electrically-excited parts of the machinery, and place thes manner that completes ting a corresponding electric receiving apparatus at the e in contact 'in a the circuit, transmitpulsation to the distantl station;
fourthly, in recording the pulsations so given by the intermittently-passed chemically-prepared paper as permanently to record on electric fluid on 'in such a manner the chemicallyprepared substance a succession of signs corresponding used at the transmittin g-station;
in the arrangement which a communication, be simultaneously machine to any plurality ator nearly at aswill be shown hereinafter,
to the perforations in the papers and, fthly,
of mechanical means by when composed, can transmitted through one. of distant vstations the same instant of time, and
with a rapldityunknown in electro-tel'egraphic apparatus wherein magnetic influences are admitted.
The mode of effecting these operations is fully and Substantially set forth in the followqing drawings, making part of this specification of the said improvements, in which the several sheets show the successive parts of lthe machinery and operations, and these are. described in the order in which the parts are used, the like letters, numbers, or other marks of reference employed herein, where the same mark is used more than once, applying alike to thesamc parts in all thcigures and sheets referred to. a
In these drawings, Figure 1, Sheet 1, is a front or full elevation of the machine for cutting paper into strips. Fig. 2 is an end elevation of the same at the end A of Fig. l, with the driving-hamlle B removed.-
a is av bed-plate of wood. a a' standards.' c? a2 are two lower tie-rods, with shoulders inside and screws and nuts outside. c isa spreaderrod, merely shouldered, 4the upper part of each standard, to gage their distancev apart. a* are lower journal boxes carrying the lower shaft, a5. journalboxes carrying the upper shaft, a". rIhe shaft a5 carries the lower roller, a". The shaft a" carries the upper roller, a. rlhese rollers areformcd with handed serrated grooves, as shown ,in the drawiugs,the pitches from the backof each groove to the edge of the next being exactly alike, to cut paper, when passed through in equally wide parallel slips, for use in thetransmitting part of the machinery, by the edges of the serrated grooves dividing the paper, with 'the operation of rotary parallel cutters. ".Lhe end adjusting-screw, end ot' the shaft a", gives the means of keeping the cutting-edgesin contact, and the vertical adjusting-screws b adjust the pressure of the top roller on the one below. The'handleB may be asedindiiferently on the upper shaft, as shown, or on the other end ot' the lower` shaft, as may be convenient. machine will he fully obvious without further explanation, and it is described as the bestare two metal longitudinal this purpose.
perforations to for-n1 the signs it may be proper ing description, and shown in the accompany-v the standards, y
to enter a socket in" a5 are upper Theluse's of this known l.application of mechanical means for .Before describing the means of making the j to describe the signs hitherto found most available byreferring to Fig. 7, Sheet 1, vby whichA it will be seen that the letter A is formed by one small dot nd a line, thus: the letter B by a dot, a-line, and a dot, thus: -,'and
so on of the rest; but it will be seen that all the .und is to be precededby the numerator and followed by the denominator of the given fraction, thus: will represent ive-eighths, and so on of all the other signs. these signs are arbitrary and changeable but, as will be seen hereinafter, the means of composing, transmitting, and recording signs are equally effective for any other system of signs that may hereafter be found either better in arrangement or more especially applicable for any particular object.
he mechanical means ofcom posing any com munication by the above or any agreed system of signs by perforations ythrough paper' are also s hown in Sheet 1, wherein Fig. 3 is a general side elevation, Fig. 4 a front elevation, Fig. 5 a sectional elevation through the central line of Fig. 6, which is a plan of what will be understood as a'small punch-press, shown as full size for use, and the acting parts tted with reference to thi-s particular purpose.l In these b'.. is the bearing-block, which maybe made and placedin any convenient manner, and carries the badi-plate b3 of the standard b4', on the 'foot of which is the guide-block b5, formed with a wide shallow groove beneath, and with 'anunder cut bevel on the left side, shown full on Fig. 3, and by dotted lines in Figs. 4 and 6, allowing the operator to see the perforations as they are made through the A steady pin and screw hold the block on the bed, and the die llies under the block 'b5 and has a conical hole opening downward to' the top of a' hole, 2, in thebed-plateba and block b2. The punch 3 passes throughthe headof the standard b, with a pin, into a groove to keep the punch from turning, and has an expansive helical spring, 4, round it, footing on the guidearm of the standard, and at top taking a pin, ze, in the punch. The shoulder ofi-the drivinghead 5 comes down on aleather washer beneath.
The slots 6in the plate b, or staples on the plate, serve as entering and leaving guides to' the paper b;' and the set-screws 7 in the guide-V arm ofthe standard serve to center the shaft of the punch as it wears in use. The p'unch is cylindrical, having a iiat endand a sharp edge, and the wholeof the parts very accurately tted and adjusted together without any lateral It has been before noticed that,
shake in the punch, so that it enters the die properly. -When so completed the compositor passes a strip of paper, of any required length,
`from beneath, through the right-hand slot 6,
and under the guide-block b5, out and'downward through the left-hand slot 6, when the compositor strikes the head 5 witha small bai'. of wood, covered with leather or india-rubber, in his right hand, which forces the punch-point through the paper into the die, cutting out a small disk that falls through the die and holes below. The expansive spring 4 throws the punch up, while' the compositor, by his lcft linger and thumb, draws the paper on tostrike successively again on the punchhead at the required distance, which, for a second or next successive single perforatiomshould be equal to the diameter of one dot, the space between adot and the commencement cfa line the same.
To form a line the compositor draws the paper on a little less than the diameter ot' a dot. suc.- cessively, until he has struck the punch so many times as will ,form a line equal to three diameters of one dot, leaving a spacev between the ends and the commencements of lines, in the saine manner, equal to the diameter of one dot,'the space between each two letters equall to four dots, and the space between each two successive words equal to the diameters of eight dots. This process Iforms groups of perforations in a continuous line, each of which groups completeV a sign representing a letter or numeral, and the larger spaces show the ends and commencements of .words that so placed, are formed and read from left to right, along the center of the paper, in the same manneras common writing or printing. In this manner acompetent compositor, withathorough knowlfedge of the signs, will compose a communication nearly as fast as it can be set up4 in type, and as fast as the same quantity of matter can be marked upon paper, by magnetism operating through mechanical means. When all the perforations are made the paper strip is to be. wound on .a roller which tits into the transmitting-machine, so that the communication is ready to be passed through that machine, which is next to be described, as follows: v
' In the Sheet 2, Fig. 8 is a half-size plan of the transmitting and receiving apparatus. One such complete apparatus is to be placed at each station.
In Sheet 3,Fig. 9 isa front elevation 011 the side H of Fig. 8. Fig. 10 is an end elevation of theend I, Fig. 8. In the Sheet 4, Fig. 11 is aneud elevation at and Fig. 12 is an elevation of lthe side L, Fig.
8. These last four figures are all shown in one-fourth size. In all these ve gures C is the bed-frame, and D D are the legs to sustain E, the box containing and sustaining the machinery. Fis a hand-wheel outside of G, wh'ich letter Cr refers to the space and frames of the clockwork,.in ywhich o is the principal shaft from F to the nrs-i: wheel, o', gearing to 8, theilrst pinion and shaft. This pinion gears the side K ot' Fig. 8;
protrude from' theeatch-bar c".
. ively form low, but otherwise in the usual way, and needs Vno further description, except that it isregulated as to speed by the contact of .the upper. sides of the upper arms with the lower edge of the tube 11, formed as a female screw to receive the male screw on the lower end ofthe tube 12, which is attached to the bar above, so that by turning the tube 1 1 to unscrew from the tube 12 the friction on the arms of the governor 1s mcreased, and,'as a consequence,
the speed of the machine decreased. The con- -trary eifeet is produced by turning the tube 11 to screw upward. lu the space denoted by the letter G the frames, and most of the clockworks, and some other parts,rcferred to by suc- Aees'sii'e. marks, are shown by dotted lines as box E. The 'internal standbeing -within the ards and other supports are not shown, to avoid a complexity ot' lines; but these parts are all duly provided, and the pillars and frames that support thel governor are as shown in the drawings.
The action of the governor is communicated las follows: Two frames, 13, carry 14, the fulcrnm kof a lever and weight, 15, .lying inside.
the fulcrum, the other portion prolonged ontward-asa fork, 16, the arms of which pass, one on each sidethegovernor-slider, between collets that lift the arms 16, and a pieccof brass, 17, on their outer ends, out ot' contact 'with the parts below them when the machine is in work and when not inv work the contact of these parts serves a purpose that will be tran s The proper motions are given to the as folF mitting apparatus from the wheel F,
lows: On' the inner end ofthe shaft carrying -the means of regulating the pressure ofthe the second pinion, 9, a pipe, 18, is riveted, that carries a cross-bar, c5. 4This bar 'takes on its opposite sides the ends of pins 19, that protrude from 'a catch'bar, c, which is on this end of the principal internal shaft, c", lying across the machine, in two fran1es,e, that respectively form bearings for the ends of the shaft c7, which, atthe opposite end, carries a cross-bar, 2U. This bar must be made of ivory,- or any other nou-conducting substance strong enough for the purpose, and that will be effective in isolating theelectric current in' the transmitting parts of the machine, so that it does not go through the bar c7 to the other side'of the machine. The ivory bar 20 takes on its opposite sides the points of pins 21, that This is on the inner end of the shaft 22, that carries the leading roller d, so that'the nbars and pins collectlopen clutch-frames, that allow of detaching the leading roller d from the shaft e7 `without disturbing the other parts of the work.
The outer end 4of the shaft 22 lies in the lower or brush 36 on a shaft, 32,
forked and open piece forms upward-like open-bearings for the shaft 24, that carries the pressing-roller d.
At X a small standard supports an arm,25, that forms the fulcrumof the pressing-'lever and weightd. The weight, sliding on-.the lever, is adjusted t'o give a proper pressure, and secured there by the screw 26. The leverd2 terminates in a fork, 27, the parts of which lie oneon each side the pressing-rollend on the shaft 24, to keep the roller d' down to draw the paper through, as is hereinafter shown; but when the transmitting part is not in use the lever d2 and weight may be turned back over the fulcrum and hang down by the front of the box E.
' The bearing-plate d will be best made of metal, and supported at the front ofthe box E by metal brackets 28, as seen best iu Fig. '9, to keep the transmitting parts duly in place and 'adjustment to each other.
lThe open bearings 30, on d, carry the shaft 29 ot the paperroller d4. A pair pf. pins, X, go through the horns of the hearings 30, andi a pair of rising-springs, 34, press against the under side of the shaft 29, toi create a friction between their points and the xle, and between the axle and the pins X su cient to prevent the" paper on the roller unwinding too quick when in use. the paper onto the roll'er.
'Atd is a standard forming an index-plate, carrying a stud havingyonit asocket-pipe, 35, with a binding-screw that secures a brush or comb of metal, 36, the points of whichoverlie the paper having the perforations, and these points complete the electric circuit by contact vthrough the perforations in the paper, with the transmitting-roller d5 lying under the comb A pointer, 37, on the socket-pipe 35, lgives pointsof the comb 36 on the roller 5, and -keeping that pressure equal b y a screw, going through thepointer 37 into shallow .holes in the index-plate d0. 1 fg,-
The guides 4,0, on each side the paper-roller d, hangl on joints vunder the plate di', and their lower ends take a bracket, 41, haring notches, by which the guides 40 are kept to the paper when winding on, and from the pa-v per when winding oi. The guides '4 2 keep the paper fair on the transmitting-roller d5; f
The brass' wire-d is attached bya bindingscrew to the standard d", and carried on by staples inside the box E, end is attached at d, by abinding-screw to the wire 38, that leads to the distant station.
At 39 is the wire pole of the .voltaic screw, 43.
battery, with a binding- 44, on the front of the machine, completing. thecircuit to d, ferred to. i l
At 45 is a' spring, with an inverted stud. nn-
bearings of two standards,l 23, placed on the bearingfplate d. The same The handle 3l serves to wind in open bearings 33.
so that'athe other connecting to the positive These are in contact with a plate,
the bearing-plate before re v mode.
der the free end, to form contact with the conducting-block 46, when required.
47 is a continuation ofthe spring 45, extending to the binding-screw da, and thence at 48 39 to the binding-screw 43, and thence by the conductingplate 44, then travels on to the plate' dt; thence through the transmittingroller d and perforations in the paper containing the message, to the brush 36; from thence, by the pipe and stud 35, to the wire d?,- thence to the distant station by the long telegraph-wire 38. The paper being a nonconductor of. electricity, flows cnthro'ugh the wire 38 in a series o'f intermittent long, and short pulsations, regulated by the porforaticns in the paper as they successively pass. under and allow the points of the wire brnsh'36 to come in contact with the roller d5, thus ,transmitting these electric pulsations to the receiving-station with much greater ra idity than by any other known VIt is proper here to remark that the same wire 38'which transmits a communication fromi one station to another also receives in the opposite direction any communication from the second or other station to the first station, as hereinafter shown. For the purpose of giving a preparatory signal to the receivingstation that a message is' spring 45 serves, -when' pressed down in contact withthe block 46, to
'to' be -sient on, the
transmit a current into the wire 38- by the plate 47. This circuit is completed by simply pressing th spring 45 onto the block 46, and may be occasionally used to transmit short notices. Having thus shown thefconstruction, oper'- ation, and e'ect of the transmitting portion Y of the apparatus, the receiying and recording portion comes-next in order. All these portions are? embodied in Figs. 8, 9, `10, 11, and 12, Sheets 2, 3, and 4';- bnt it is rst to be ccnsidered that a similar machine is to be placed at each of'two distant stations, so`that the wire 38 is employed as the connection .to and from each. Then thefollowing description will A befully understood.
it' may be properV to notice .that the figures shomtwo ,large receiving metal cylinders,l M, and to explain that the general description .following `will onlyrefer Ato the operations effected with one cylinder, as the second lis to be considered as an auxiliary, to beready for the lelectric current .for each entire revolution use when the first is either removed to trail scribe a previous communication or to com plete any communicationso long that it cailnot be contained on the grst cylinder. These -cylinders and their shafts t either position in the machine', and one canv be equipped for use while the other is in action. The principal shaft" is fitted in nearly the center ofitslength with a double pulley, e', to give motion to an endless cord or band 51. The first bight of this lies round the puiley. A second bight descends to pass through a pulley, 52, that supports a weight, 53. rlhe next bight passes over a pulley, 54, andthe fourth bight passes under the-receiving-cylinder M to the pulley e'.
The cylinder M is mounted on ashaft that does not revolve with the cylinder. The part e2 of the'shaft is blank', but they part eais made as a screw with a left-handed thread cut intov it. This'part is lodged in' the opening 55rin the side of the box E. The end ofthe part c is lodgedin a metal hearing, 56, on the opposite side of the box, with a pin going through the shaft that slips into a hole in the bearing.,
so that the shaft cannot turn; but that and the cylinder may be conveniently lifted ont and replaced when needful. The screwel end of the ri ght-hand shaft, Fig. 8, appears to overliethe wire d; but the wire is so much below the shaft that they do not touch.-
On the endof each cylinder that is next the screw are slotted steel slips e, formingtongues, the points of which enter and travelronnd the screw. A guide and steady screw; 57, goes through a slotzin the slip. gives' the means -oflslidingthe slip. and a guide and set-screw, 59, secures the slip when ad; j usted.
In Fig. 8 dotted li'nes show the relative position that the right-hand or other cylinder will take -when it has been fully used. The dotted lines to the left-hand cylinder show the rela' A tive positionA of either of the vcylinders when `first ready for work.v The operation of these parts is that while the apparatus -is in work the band 51 beneath causes the cylinders to rotate in the direction of` the black arrows on them, and the steel tongues in the screw-thread give them a vgradual motion across' the machine in the direction ofthe red arrows, which` motion is equal to the pitch of one screw-thread of the-cylinder, so that marks made by a xed point in contact withany substance on the cylinder are made and l can be read'from left torightin successive lines, the same as common 'printing or writin g.
. The standards c5 are fitted below with arms forming bearings 60 for thearbors of the pulleys 54. At their tops the standards-carry the aigles e of the stems 61. These have on their points the holders e", which are fitted to eceive the writing or marking styles 6 2. The 'se styls are best made of'liardened and tempered stee .e
.A hand-pin," 58,
' sans` l s Above and' upon each holder ci la bracket- -covered ou the upper surface with oil bya very piece, 63, receives a set-screw, 64,' to regulate' clean sponge. For this good salad-oil will anthe styles 62, and on one side of each holder swer; but other oils will answer it' they do not e" ar knife, 49, isset on a screw-pivot, so that eyaporate too quickly, because the use of the 4 by-throwing it forward a portion of the paper oil is to' lessen the .evaporation of the chemimaybe cut from thecylinder, and when thrown cals next noticed by retaining their moisture. back it is out of operation. The paperis then to be turned over and washed In the Fig. 10, Sheet 3, and Fig. 11, Sheet 4, with aclean sponge containing a solution of parts are shown' by dotted lines that from nitric acid., prussiate of potash,'and liquid amthe inclosure of the box and the overlying of monia in the following proportions. The amthe upper parts cannot well'bc shown inany monia is merely added to prevent the'other other manner." In these e is a cross-shaft set ingredients from rotting the paper: two parts, in the same line with the shaft c ofthe wheel by measure, of pure nitric acid, twenty parts, F, and connectedv to that shaft by bars and by measure, -of a saturated solution of pruspins, forming an open clutch-frame, 65, similar siate of potash in distilled water, and two'parts to those on the shaft c'f. This shaft c has a of pure liquid ammonia, mixed together; The
frame bearing at the end next the wheel c', paper so prepared is to beleid, with the oiled and atthe opposite end terminates in bearings surface upward, on and round the cylinder, 67 outside the box, and is fitted with a square, and the lapping ed ges fastened with a little 50, on which the operator may place a handleV gumwater. l The cylinder is then to be put in to work the machine in the absence ot' a perplaceand the steel style 62 is to be turned onson to work the wheel F. to the paper, as shown in Figs. 9 and 12. The
Withinthe box the shaft e8 carries a pointer, apparatus is then ready to receive a transmit- 66, one in front' of each of the two dialse?. ted communication. The machinery is then These are so placed that. the-person at the to be worked by a man at the wheel F' at the wheel F sees the dial next the operator, and rate of one revolution of -the wheel per minute,
- the operator sees the dial next the wheel F, so the same as in transmitting a communication,
that either or both personshave occular'meaus and as before stated. of knowing that the machinery shall only be -The operator at any onedistant station tra-nsdriven utthe rate yof one revolution of the mits the electric current in pulsations reguwheels F land el in each succeeding minute of lated by the perforations in` the paper he is time by awatch placed in view of. the person using, as already explained, and these pulsaat the wheel and of the operator, as this unitions are received by the wire 38, as before menf formity of speed is essential tothe correct optioned. They pass by the screw d and standerat-icn and effects of the acting parts at both ards e5, axle e6, thence to the stem 61, and the transmitting and receiving stations. through that to the style 62, and through the In Fig. 8,Sheet'2, and Fig. 12, Sheet 4, f is a chemically'prepared paper to the cylinder M conducting-plate, the ends of which are in leaving a series of dark marks on the paper, contact with the blank ends e2 of the cylinwhich, though less in size, will be in number der-shafts. This plate f has near the center and position al1-exact transcript of the perfoof its length a'knee-piece, f', the'horizontal rations in thepaper used at the transmitting-v' arm of which lies above the points of the two station. It is proper to notice that steel styles arms 16 and plate 17 of the lever 15.` When leave a dark mark approaching black or bluethe apparatus is not in work the piece 17 lies blackon the paper; but copper styles will s on the top cfa piece, 70. (Seen best in Fig. 12.) leave a brown mark on the paper. It is not The piece-70 is connected by. a wire, 71, to the intended todiscuss the theory of the causes wire 72, which passes round the box to the that produce these effects land facts; lnor is it standards e at each end. The screws 68, intended -to claim the use of any particular Fig. 12, go through the box into the'clockchemicalsolutions,eitherseparateorconjoined, work,'an`d hold a second conducting-plate, f 2. because the paper saturated with a solution This' is by a binding-screw, 69, connected to a of nitric acid only will receivea communicawire, f3, that leads to a `copper plate in the tion that will not become visible until the pat earth. per is washed with a solution of prussate of The general action, uses, and effects of these potash. Therefore, any chemical solutions may parts are as follows: To receive a communicabe used that will produce the besteiects, and4 tion the wire brush 36 is to be turned back to I have stated the solutions-ot nitric acid and the right by means of the pointer 37, to be prussiate of potash as those that I have hithl out of contact with the transmitting-roller d". erto found most effective in practical use. Af Then. take apiece of ne,good, smooth paper, ter the current has produced its mark and the width of which should be equal to the passed into the cylinder Mit passes into the lengths of the cylinder, and longv enongh'to go axle e?, thence to the conducting-plate f at the round the cylinder M, with the ends lapping back of the Jnachine, Fig. 12. This has a over each other about a quarter of an inch. kueed piece, f', the horizontal arm of which Thispaper is to-be previously prepared as folis above the piece. of brass17 ou two arms, 16, lows: It is to be laid on any clean surface that ot' the lever 15, and by ,contact with that while acidstwill not act on. The paper is then to be the machine is working -the electric current 4ing-stations at,
passes into the' clock work, thence by the screwsvGS to the plate f2, Fig. 12, thence by the binding-screw 69 and wiref3 to a copper plate, which is to be buriedin theearth at the nearest convenient point to the instrument. The current then passes, b'y the moisture of the earth, to .the negative pole of the source of the electric power. When' the machine is not in 4action any'curren ts that may be sent through this circuit will pass from the wire 38, by the standards er on the right-hand end of the machine, to the wire 72, thence to the wire 71, from that to the piece of brass 70, thence by the brass 17 to the arm 16, and thence to the clock-work, thence by the wire f 3 to the earth.
. By these arrangements if there are a plurality of machines in any one circuit, the 'machines not in use cause no interruption to the-elecf tric circuit. These several electric connections are the best that have hitherto been used, but may be varied in several vways other than those described and shown; but it is to be particularly borne in mind that in any case the. electric current must pass from the marking-style to the chemically-prepared paper, and not from the paper to the marking-style.
Having detailed theconstruction, op'eration,
and effects of these improvements as applied from one telegraph station to another, the means are now to be described by which one communication is to be transmitted from a transmitting-station to any plurality' of receivor very nearly at, the same instant of time. v
In the Sheet 5 the Fig. 13 is a plan ot' a transmitting-machine, shown asofone-halfsize, for transmitting a communication simultaneously to each of six distant stations. vIn Sheet 6, Fig. 14 is a front elevation of the same machine, seen on the side N of Fig. 13. Fig. 15 is an end elevation, as seen at the end U of Fig. 13. Fig. 16 is a back elevation, as seen on the side P of Fig. 13; and Fig. 17 is an end elevation at-the end Q'of Fig. 13.
In these figures R is the bed or table frame, and S the legs that support the machinery. g g are pillars and rods surrounding the work -and sustaining a cover when the machine is not in use. g are standards, and g2 a platformboard. It is needful that all'these parts should be of hard, dry wood, that will be a non-con- 'ductor of electricity and also be effective to carry the working parts of the machinery.
At T is the inclosure of the clock-works,with
all the interior parts and the governor, the same asthose previously described and shown, asused in the former apparatus, except that` the governor has neither slide nor cross-lever; and the Figs. 15 and 17 show those frame-plates and binding-pillars, with the wheels and shafts or arbors of the clock-work in full lines, that couldonly be denoted by' dotted lines in the drawings', that include the same parts in the former machines. In these .figures the driving-wheel is marked U instead of F.
V V are a pair ot' standards fixed on the bed-piece, forming guides for the paper and carryingtheshaft 73 of the paperroller g3,with a handle and. balance-weigl1t,74. These receive thepaper that contains the communicain line with the roller, gives space for a quam.
tity of paper on the roller.
On the foot of a small two-part standard, g5, is a guide-fork, 77. (Seenin dotted lines in Figs.
14 and 16, and full in Fig. 17.) This fork -77 leads the paper to the guide-roller 7 S, .the arbor. of which is in openA bearings on the standards 9 5, with pins to keep the arbor in place. The six double standards foot, are screwed to the platform g2, and nre iiAtted each with an open bearingcarrying the arbors of the successive transmitting-rollers, 80. These are shown as six, but may be more or less in number.
At g'a double standard is fitted with two open bearings on each upright. The lower bearings carry the arbor of the leading roller, 81. The upper bearings carry the arbor ofthe pressing-roller S2, and a guide-forli, S3, on the foot ofthe standard g' has one arm on each side of the rollers 81 and 82, and a cross-shaft,A
97, from the clock-works'l connects the driving-power with the leading-roller 81 by open clutch-frames having the same parts and action as have been already shown and described in the former machines.
The pillars 84 o n g2 are tt'ed at their tops as bearings to sustain the journals of a crosshead, S5, that takes this end of a carrier-bar,
g8, which has on each side a plate, 86, that is' cut into a series o f tive pendent bearings, 87, one descending between 'eachtwo of the trans` mitting-rollers 80, and each' pair of bearings carrying between them a small guide-roller. (Shown in place, but not marked.) Each pendant is lengthened below -the roller, to form guideson each side of the paper as' it passes" over the transmitting-rollers and beneath the guide-rollers.
A fork, 99, with leveling-screws, 88, overlies the arbor on each side ot' the pressing-roller 82, and a screw and nut, 89, on this end o'f the bar g8,'secures the tlangeof the fork g and holds one of two standards, h h, on the bar g. These standards carry the bar and adjustable weightQO.' The whole of the parts attached to the bar ya are fitted to serve the purpose of guiding the perforated papertrulyina compound-curved line over the transmitting-'rollers and beneath the pendentrollers, so thatthe paperpasses with a tension that causes la 79, each pair on on'e- ,slight lpressure von each transmitting-roller;
and the weight 90, through the fork g", keeps thepressingroller 82 down on the leadingroller 81 with a pressurel regulated by the position or pnderosity of the weight to draw the paper through ,the machine at a proper and regular speed. To aid this operation the circnmferences of the rollers ,8l and 82 may be slightly rough'ened.
When it is intended to enter one end of a paper for passing it through the machine, the bar gs, with its appendages, are to be lifted out of place and laid onto the wooden bearingstandardsl W. Theseare placed on the bed of the machinen for this purpose, and when the paper is entered and placed the bar and its appendages are to be returnedto their proper position.
The standards h are screwed on the platform g2, and each terminates upward, as an index-plate, h2. 0n this each has a stud and pipe carrying a comb or brush that overlies the corresponding transmitting-roller and an index-pointer and pressure-screw to regulate the contact of the brush and roller, all made and operating precisely in the same manner as the comb or brush that completes the electric circuit in the former or transmitting machine before described.
It may be proper to notice that the standards of the transmitting-rollers and those ot' the combs or brushes are insulated as regards each otherthat is, they do not any one touch another, and both are insulated', as regards any other electric action, by the platform g2,which, for this purpose, must be made of very dry and hard wood, and it will be found best in practice to have hard, dry wood asl the material for the whole of the table frames and legs used for supporting this machinery.
At are two dials with pointers on the crossshaft 92. These are all fitted and placed as already described to assist in regulating the speed at which the machinery must be worked.'
Each .standard 79 is connected to a bindingscrew, h3, by awire, 93, and thence by a wire,
94, each tothe positive pole, or thatby which the electricity leaves each separate battery, or other tit ,source of electricity which 'travels in the direction of the arrows.
' It must also he noted that thefnegative pole of each battery must beput in electric communication with the earth. The wires 95'each lead from a separate comb-standard, h', by a binding-screw, h", and leading-wire 96, to a separate distant station.
It is believed to be sufficiently plain, without much explanation, that as the perforations composed in the paper successively pass under each comb the electric circuit willbe completed by the points ot' the comb coming in contact with the roller through each perforation, and that a corresponding series -ot' rapid electric pulsations will be thus communicated simultaneouslyto the marking-style at each distant station.
,yet effected the :It is proper to remarkfthatthe battery in connection with each transmitting-'roller must he of proportionate strength to the distance the current has to travel; and these arrangementsadmit `of so graduating the strength of each battery, because each separate circuit is totally and entirely independent of any other circuit; and each circuit 'is completed at the receiving-stationindependentof any other station, and thecommunication ltransmitted is received and recorded at each receiving-station in Athe same'manner and with the same .effects as if made by the single-acting machine iirst described.
IAll other electric tclegraphs hitherto used are dependent on the motive power of electromagnetism4 for their action, and many mechanical means have been sought or tried whereby s to adapt this power for use, the main principle remaining the same in all. The machines are consequently all designated electro-magnetic tclegraphs but electricity travels with avelocity capable of giving several thousand signals per minute of time, and any apparatus composed more or less of ponderous bodies, having also to give motion to other and similar bodies, cannotV act with more than a fraction of the velocity with which electricity travels,- and another and greater hindrance is that however skillful an operator may be he can r only o'pen `and close the electric circuit in ,a
manner which again reduces the-numerical velocity of its pulsations, and no other mode has correct transmission of the same communication to a plurality of distant receiving-stations. I have, therefore, in my hereinbefore-describedinvention rejected magnetism'altogether, and caused the pulsations of 'the electric current to be transmitted through groups of perforatious forming signs, which 'are recorded at thev receiving-station by the pulsations of the electric current acting on chemically-prepared paper in the manner de-` scribed and shown, so that the circuit is completed and interrupted by the operation of the composed communication itself, without the electric current havin g to produce any mechanical motion, and without any manipulation of the operator in forming the intermittent pulsations of the electric current, th shy ecctin g the transmission ofa communication to one or a plurality of distant receivin g-stations with far greater rapidity than by any other known mode. n
It is not deemed requisite to describe or refer to theV voltaic or any other source lof electricity; nor is it intended to claim the application of that or any other electric source to these purposes; nor is it intended to claiman y of the parts employed hereinirrespective of the uses to which they are severally put, scribed; but,
I do claim as new and of my own invention and desire to secure by Letters Patent ot' the United States#- f l 1. The composing of electro-telegraphic comas hereindesenting thc'signs to be transmitted, irrespective ot' the general arrangement. of the collec: tive or individual signs, and irrespective of the mechanical means employed to make theperforations.
2. 'The application of paper so` perforated to open and close an electric circuit, or several successive circuits, thereby transmitting the electric current or currents in successive pnlsations that correspond with the pcrtbrations in the paper, substantially in the manner described and shown vbut including any merely practical or ecnvcmeumvariations ot' themel chanical means or materials or fabrics em ployed that are analogous or equi-valent in their operations and eiects. y
3. The application of any suitable chemically-prepared paper, without regard to the chemical ingredients used for such a purpose, to receive and record signs forming communications, such signs being made by the pulsations of an electric current or currents -transmitted from 'a distant station, said current operating directly, and without theintervention f any secondary current or mechanical contrivance, through a suitable metal markingstyle, that is in continuous contact with the re- 'cciving .,\paper, thereby making marks thereon,
which marks correspond 'with the groups ot' perforations` in the paper composing the transmitted communication, or may be given bythe .pulsations from the spring 45 arr-fi block 46, so
that in either case these form the received com, munication, substantially in the manner and wi th the effects described and ing any merely practical variations, analogous and equivalent in the'means employed and.
the effects produced thereby.
In witness whereot'I have hereunto set my hand, in the city of New Yorkrthis 17 tn day of April.- A. D'. 1848.
y ALEXANDER BAIN Witnesses W. SERBELL LEMUEL W. ERRELL.
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