US 635192 A
Abstract available in
Claims available in
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
No. 635,192. Patented 00f. l7, I899. l. H. SAPP.
MUSIC-AL lNSTRUME NT.
(Application filed May 25, 1899) (No Model.) 2 Sheets-Sheet l.
N0. 635,l92-. Patented Oct. l7, I899.
l. H. SAPP.
MUSICAL INSTBU MENT.
(Application fild May 25, 1899.)
(No Model.) 2 Sheets-Sheet 2.
Wiigzssas gmc bfljapp lg zljfov,
m: uonms PETERS 00.. FMOTOLITNCL. wAsHmqToN, a. c.
UNITED STATES PATENT ISAAC HUDSON sAPP, or PAPEITI, TAHITI, ASSIGNOR on oNE-EALE TO WILLIAM r. STUART, or OAKLAND, CALIFORNIA.
$PEOIFICATION forming part of Letters Patent No. 635,192, dated October 17', 1899.
Application filed May 25, 1899. Serial No. 718,195. (No modeLl To all whom it may concern:
Be it known that I, IsAAo HUDSON SAPP, a citizen of the United States, residing at Papiti, Island of Tahiti, Society Islands, in the South Paciiic Ocean, have invented a new and useful Musical Instrument, of which the following is a specification.
This invention relates to musical instru ments, and more especially to that class there of having stretchable heads-such as drums, banjos, and other devices of this character; and the invention includes, broadly, a musical instrument having a stretchable head in combination with an expansile head tensioning or tightening tube, and for the purpose of illustrating the peculiar construction and manifold advantages of the same I have represented and will hereinafter describe it in connection with a drum.
With these ends in view the invention consists in the novel combination of elements and in the construction and arrangement of parts which will be hereinafter fully described and claimed.
To enable others to understand the invention, I have illustrated the preferred embodiment thereof in the accompanying drawings, forming a part of this specification, and in which Figure 1 is a perspective view of a drum provided with a head-tightening device constructed in accordance with my invention and parts being broken away to more clearly illustrate certain features of the invention. Fig. 2 is a detail in plan view of an expan siletension-regulatingtube. Fig.3isatransverse section of the drum. Figs. l, 5, 6, and 7 are sectional details hereinafter more par ticularly described and showing, respectively, modified forms of tension-regulating devices.
Like characters denote like and corresponding parts in each of the several figures of the drawings.
As hereinbefore set forth, my invention is applicable to any of the musical instruments including stretchable heads, whether they be I provided with one or more of the latter, and
it is illustrated in the drawings in connection with a'drum.
The drum represented includes in its construction a body or shell A, provided with the upper and lower heads 13 and C, respectively, and the drum-body has near its heads the circuinferential annular grooves 2 and 3, respectively, as illustrated in Fig. l, for the purpose of receiving the expansilehead-ten sioning tubes hereinafter more particularly described. designated by a and 5, respectively, and are preferably made of rubber, although it is evident that they may be made of rawhide, leather, or any flexible material that will contain an expanding fluid. Any fluid may be employed for expanding the tube; but 1 provide means for effecting the introduction of air into the same for the purpose of securing the peculiar result, and thereby insuring lightness When the heads are taut or stretched.
The annular grooves 52 and 3 form seats for receiving the tubes 4 and 5, respectively, the latter being preferably made continuous so as to insure the even tightening of the heads.
The heads B and 0 prior to their introduction are soaked in water until soft and pliable and are then laid across the ends of the body or shell A and the projecting portions pulled toward and across the annular grooves 2 and 3, respectively, and consequently over the annular air-tubes a and 5. The margins of the heads are then fastened in the narrow annular grooves G and 7 by means of the split rings 8 and 9 or equivalent means, the ends of which are provided with lugs, as 10 and 12, respectively, to receive the adjusting-screws l3 and 14, by turning which the diameter of the split rings can be decreased, thereby to firmly hold the same, and consequently the two heads, in place. It will be understood that the tension-regulating tubes 4 and 5 are disposed within the grooves 2 and 3, respectively, at points between the edges of the drum and the places'at which the two heads are secured by the split rings 8 and 9 and that said tubes are located between the heads and the body of the drum, whereby when air is pumped into said tubes the latter will be expan ded and will thereby force that part of the heads lying over the grooves radially outward, so as to effect the tightening of said heads.
By seating the two tubes in the annular grooves the walls of the grooves serve to limit the sidewise movement of the tubes when air The tension-adjusting tubes are is forced into the latter, and as the tubes are located between the heads and the body of the drum these two parts serve to prevent bursting of the tubes.
Each of the tubes is provided with an airsupply pipe designated, respectively, by 15 and 16, extending inward therefrom through the body of the drum and then downward and then outward and again through the body of the drum, it being understood that each of these tubes extends through the drum, but does not pass through the heads thereof, as in case openings or holes were formed in the heads to receive the tubes the heads would be materially weakened. The air supply pipes, which extend transversely from and communicate, respectively, with the tensionregulating tubes 4 and 5, are screw-threaded at their outer ends to receive the removable caps 17 and 18, which may be detached for the purpose of coupling an air-pump of suit able construction to either of the pipes, and
, each of the latter is provided with a valve (designated, respectively, by 19 and 20) of the tapered type adapted to fit against correspondingly-shaped seats at the ends of the two pipes where they project outside of the drum.
Drum-heads before using should be tightened up, and this operation can be readily effected by removing the caps 17 and 18 and successively connecting an air-pump to the projecting ends of the air-pipes and 16, so as to supply the communicating endless inflatable tubes at and 5 with air for the purpose of tightening the heads. lVhen the drum is not in use, the heads should be let down or loosened, and this can be quickly and easily accomplished by removing the caps 17 and 18 and forcing the tapered valves 19 and 20 away from their seats to permit the escape of air from the tension-tubes at and 5 and the consequent deflation of the latter.
The hoops or rings 21 and 22, usually of wood, surround the opposite ends of the body or shell A and the overhanging portions of the heads B and C and are connected by one or more rods, as 23, the latter being conveniently fastened to the said body or shell near the middle of the latter; but it is to be distinctly understood that these hoops or rings and rod or rods perform no part of the headtightening operation, they simply being employed for convenience in carrying the instrument and to protect the edges of the heads from injury at the places where the heads come in contact with the edges of the drum-body.
It is to be distinctly understood that the invention is not in any manner limited to the hereinbefore described construction, for I have illustrated and will hereinafter describe certain modified forms. It is obvious also that a single tube could be employed for tightening two heads.
In Fig. 4 the inflatable tubes 24: and 25 are of slightly-different shape and are adapted to fit against the plain surface of the body or shell A and between the outwardly-extending beads 26 and 27 upon the opposite edges of said body or shell. As in Fig. 1, the heads B and C are stretched over the opposite ends of the body and are held in the annular grooves 6 and 7 therein by rings or equivalent devices 8 and 9. On the introduction of air into these tubes 24: and 25 the stretching of the heads over the beads 26 and 27 will take place.
In Fig. 5 the body of the drum is outwardly flared at its opposite ends, as at 23 and 29, respectively, and between these flared portions and located upon the plain surface of the body the rings and 31 are slidable, these rings being peripherallygrooved, as at 32, to receive the margins or turned-over portions of the heads B and C, such portions of the head being held in the grooves by rings or equivalent devices Sand 9.
The inflatable tubes 4 and 5 are located in the spaces bounded by the drum-body, the flared portions 28 and 29 thereof, the turnedover portions of the heads A and B, and the slidable rings 30 and 31. On the introduction of air into these tubes the latter will be inflated outwardly and toward each other, thereby stretching the drumheads radially outward and moving the rings 30 and 31 toward each other for stretching the two heads inward, whereby the tensioning effect is applied in transverse directions.
In Fig. 6 the shell or body of the drum is like that represented in Fig. 5; but instead of fastening the margin of the heads to the body or shell of the drum I wrap the same around the wooden hoops or rings 33 or 3st, which encircle the opposite ends of the drum, and a second pair of hoops or rings, as 35 and 36, are adapted to act against the first-mentioned rings, and these hoops 35 and 36 are connected with the drum-body by circular strips of leather or analogous means. The tubes 4L and 5 are introduced into the space between the flared portions 28 and 29 and the leather strips 37and 38, and the inflation of the tubes will draw the outermost rings 35 and 36 toward each other through the medium of the intermediate strips- In Fig. 7 the shell or body A is cylindrical and the heads are wrapped around the rings 33 and 34-, as shown in the previous figure,
the rings being movable toward each other by the second pair of rings 39and 10, slidable in the cup-shaped receivers -11 and 12, located beyond the ends of the drum and connected to each other and to the shell by means of rods 43. The inflating-tubes are located in the annular receivers 41 and 42 and fit against the rings 39 and for forcing the latter toward each other when said tubes are inflated for the purpose of tightening the heads.
the numerous and complex devices usually presentininstruments of this character. The heads can be tightened independently, thereby allowing the use of a very thin snare-head and a heavy batter-head, by means of which a better tone is produced. The heads are tightened absolutely even all around, and consequently there is no danger of drawing the shell or head out of shape in tightening, as is so often done with rope and rod tighteners. The elasticity of the air within the airtubes allows the heads to expand or contract under atmospheric changes, and thus the heads are preserved. This is a great advanrage over the old rod-tighteners, which keep the heads so tight that they lose their elastic properties and fail to vibrate. lhe drumshell may be made of very much thinner material, the air-pressure being so even that there is no danger of crushing it. Consequently much lighter instruments can be con-- structed, which is quite an item to a drummer on a long march. The vibration of the heads is improved, and the shell itself being bound by nothing but alayeroi": elastic air is free to vibrate. The heads are not as liable to tear on the edge of the shell, as the pull is radially outward instead of down on the shell, and the tighteners never slip, as do the leather braces on the old rope-drums.
Changes in the form, proportion, size, and the minor details of construction within the scope of the appended claims may be *esorted to Without departing from the spirit or sacrificing any of the advantages of this invention.
Having thus described the invention, what I claim is- 1. A musical instrumentincludinga stretchable head and an expansile head-tensioning tube, substantially as described.
2. Amusicalinstrumentincludinga stretchable head and an endless expansile head-tensioning tube, substantially as described.
3. A musicalinstrumentincludinga stretchable h'ead, an eXpansilehead-tensioning tube, and means for limiting the movement of the latter, substantially as described.
4. A musical instrument including a body,
a stretchable head secured to the body, and an expansile head-tensioning tube located between the head and the body, substantially as described.
5. A musical instrument including a body having a groove, a head on the body, means for securing the head in place, and an expansile head-tensioning device located in said groove, substantially as described.
6. Amusical instrument including a body, a head stretched over the same, means for securing the marginal portion of the head to the body, and an expansile head-tensioning device located between the head and the body, substantially as described.
7. A musical instrument including a body, a head stretched over the same, means for securing the head to the body, a tube adapted to receive a fluid and constituting a head-tensioning device, and a supply-pipe communieating with said tube and provided with a detachable cap, substantially as described.
8. A musical instrument including a body, a head stretched over the same, means for se curing the head to the body, a tube adapted to receive a fluid and constituting a head-tensioning device, and a supply-pipe communi eating with said tube and provided with a detachable cap, and also having a valve, substantially as described.
9. A musical instrument including a body, a head stretched over the same, an expansile tubesituated between the head and the body, and a supply-pipe extending through said body and having a removable cap, substaib tially as described.
10. Amusicalinstrumentincludingabody, a head, a tubular tensioning device, and a split ring surrounding the head and serving to hold the latter in place on the body, substantially as described.
11. A musical instrument including a body having a groove, a head stretched over the body and the edge thereof being disposed in said groove, a ring for holding said edge in said groove, and a tubular tensiouing device disposed between the stretched-over portion of the head and the body, substantially as described.
12. A musical instrument having two grooves, a head stretched over the body of the instrument, a split ring for securing the edge of the head in one of the grooves, a tubular tensionin g device disposed in' the other groove, a ring surrounding the head, and means for connecting the said ring with the body of the instrument, substantially as described.
13. A musical instrument including a body having two grooves, a head stretched over the body, a split ring'for securing the head in one of the grooves and having lugs, an adj Listing-screw carried by said lugs, a tubular eXpandin g device exposed in the other groove between the head and the body, a supplypipe communicating with said tube and provided with a detachable cap, a ring surrounding the stretched-over portion of the head, and a rod connecting said last-mentioned ring with said body, substantially as described.
In testimony that I claim the foregoing as my own I have hereto affixed my signature in the presence of two witnesses.
ISAAC HUDSON SAPP.
WILLIAM F. STUART, AUGUSTA LEWIS.