US 635290 A
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No. 635,290. y Patented Oct. 24, |899.
` W. D. BLACK.
(Application mea sepa. 27, 189s.)
NI'IED STATES WILLIAM D. BLACK, or BRADDooK,
PENNSYLVANIA, ASSIGNOR OF ONE- APPARATUS FOR CLEANiNG, .DR|LLlNG, AND PUMPING DEEP WELLS.
SPECIFICATION forming part of Letters Patent No. 635,290, datedV October 24, 1899.
Application filed September 27, 1898. Serial No. 691,971. (N0 model- To all whom it may concern:
Be it known that I, WILLIAM D. BLACK, of Braddock, in the county of Allegheny and State of Pennsylvania, have invented a new and useful Improvement in. Apparatus for Cleaning, Drilling, and Pumping Deep Wells, of which the following is a full, clear, and exact description, reference being had to the accompanying drawings, forming part of this' specication, in which- Figure 1 is a vertical section showing my improved apparatus as arranged for cleaning or drilling. Fig. 2 is a similar view showing the parts in position for pumping. Fig. 3 shows the device as arranged for cleaning after it has been put in position in the well; and Fig. 4 is a detail perspective view, partly broken away, showing the parts on a larger scale.
My invention relates to the cleaning and pumping of deep wells, and is more especially designed for use in wells where the hole produced by shooting the Well has become filled up by accumulations of sand. I-Ieretofore before the liner-casing for the pump could be put in position in wells of this character the well had to be cleaned out by a special operation with a set of tools therefor, thus involving a long delay and expense. Moreover, when the liner was in position the sand would gradually pack around it, so as to prevent the oil from entering the pump-barrel, thus necessitating lifting vout the liner and again cleaning out the well. My invention overcomes these difficulties and is designed to provide an apparatus which will cut its way through the sand in the well by pressure of liquid and also to provide means for cleaning out the well after the liner-casing has been put in place and without removing it. It is further designed to provide the above apparatus, arranged in connection with the pumping apparatus, so that the whole will be lowered together and will clean a way for itself through the sand.
In the drawings, 2 represents a lower section of the well-tubing, having a couplingsocket 3, upon which rests a loose spider 4, having arms 5 5.
6 is a liner-casing having at its upper end an inner socket 7, which rests upon the spider 5 while the apparatus is lowered into the well, this socket being of sufficiently large inner diameter to pass over the coupling-sockets of the tubing. To the lower end of the linercasing is secured a perforated conical head S, having a central hole 9, the end of which is covered by a hollow conical cap 10, having inner ribs l1 itting against the head, this cap being secured by set-screws 12. The cap is provided with a hole 13, registering with and of smaller diameter than the hole 9, and preferably covers the head, as shown. The lower portion of this liner-casing is provided with a series of perforations 14 and with an interior conical guide and spacing-sleeve 15.
To the lower end of the lowermost tubingsection is secured the working barrel 16, which is of smaller internal diameter than the tubing and is secured thereto by an ordinary coupling17. Secured to thelower end of the working barrel is a hollow anchorlS, the connecting-socket 19 for which is provided with a tapered seat for the standing valve 20. This standing valve is of hollow cylindrical form and is provided with the usual ball-valve 2l and cage therefor. Below the cage the Valve is provided with flexible packing-rings 22, which it neatly within the working barrel.
Vhen the device is used for cleaning or boring through sand, a tube 23 is screwed into the lower end of the standing valve, this tube having perforations 26 vnear its upper end and extending through a reduced socket 27 at the lower end of the anchor, which fits neatly around the pipe. Then the parts as thus arranged are lowered into the well, the liner-casing will hang upon the spider supported on the tubing until the end of this liner rests upon the sand at the bottom of the well. As the tubing is lowered it will slide down within the liner-casing until the lower end of the pipe 23 rests upon the inner face of the head 8, as shown in Fig. l. As the casing is further lowered, the standing valve being supported upon the tube 23, the working barrel will slide down over this standing valve until the valve is brought above the upper end of the Working barrel and enters the larger bore of the tubing.
The well having IOO been filled with water, oil, or other liquid before the standing valve is raised above the working barrel, as soon as this valve enters the tubing the liquid will flow down around the valve and passing through the holes 26 in the upper end of the tube 23 it flows down this tube and passes out through the reduced hole in the cap lO and through the spaces between the inner ribs of this cap. As the liquid is forced out under the pressure of liquid which ills the well, it will cut away the sand and dirt, and by slowly lowering the tubing, so as to keep the standing valve within this tubing, the apparatus will cut a path for itself until it reaches the bottom of the well. The device may also be used in this manner for deepening wells which have been drilled to the sand, the apparatus cutting a way through this sand stratum. Then the bottoni of the well is reached, the tubing is lifted until the standing valve rests upon its seat in the bottom of the lower end of the working barrel, and the tube 23 is lifted upwardly within the liner-casing. The parts are then ready for pumping, thc standing valve operating in the same manner as the stationary standing valve now used.
Vhen the hole around the liner-casing becomes filled in during the operation of the well to such an extent that the oil does not iiow into the liner-casing, I lower through the tubing andv into the working barrel a string of rods having at their lower end a screwthreaded plug which is engaged with a hole in the cage of the standing valve. The standing valve and tube 23 are then drawn out of Athe well and in its place I lower a similar standing valve, with the tube 24 attached thereto, this tube having a closed lower end and being provided with a series of perforations 25 near its lower end and perforations 2S near its upper end, as shown in Fig. 2. In the ordinary pumping of the well this tube and the standing valve are in the position shown in Fig. 2; but when the hole becomes clogged up the tubing is lowered until the parts assume the position shown in Fig. 3, the standing valve again being brought above the working barrel and into the tubing. The well being filled with a liquid, this liquid will flow down around the standing valve into the tube 24 and, passing out of the perforations near its lower end, will be forced out through the perforations in the liner-casing, thus digging away the sand and cleaning out the well, so that the oil may again be drawn through this casing. As this cleaning operation is a simple and rapid one, the well may be cleaned as often as desired, the tube 24E remaining in the casing, with its lower end closing the hole at the bottom of this liner-casing, and the working barrel being lifted to the position of Fig. 2 whenever pumping is to be resumed.
XVhen it is desired to remove the apparatus from the well, I draw the standing valve and its attached tube 2i out and drop a ball into the liner of such a size that it will enter the hole in the head and close the hole in the cap at the bottom of the liner. I then lower a standing valve having a tube 23 attached and then till the tubing with iiuid. The parts are then placed in the position shown in Fig. 1 and the fluid is forced upwardly between the cap and the head, the end opening in the cap being closed by the ball, so that the liner is freed from the sand orsediment surrounding the same and can be readily removed.
The advantages of my invention will be apparent to those skilled in the art, since the heretofore tedious and expensive step of cleaning out the well is rendered unnecessary, the apparatus clearing a way for itself by reason of the liquid which is forced out through the head under the heavy pressure. Moreover, after the liner-casing is in place the well may be easily cleaned without removing any of the parts by merely lowering the tubing with the working barrel at its lower end.
Many changes may be made in the form and arrangement of the parts, since l. The combination with aliner-casin g having at its lower end a tapering head provided with outlet-holes, of a standing valve having a support to prevent its downward movement, and a working barrel movable over the standing Valve and arranged to control the flow of liquid through the head; substantially as described.
2. The combination with aliner-casing,hav ing at its lower end a tapering head provided with outlet-holes, of a standing valve having a perforated supporting-tube extending into the head, and a working barrel movable over the standing valve and arranged to control the iiow of the liquid out through the head; substantially as described.
3. The combination with a liner-casing having a sliding connection with the tubing of a well, of a working barrel secured to the tubing, a standing valve resting within the barrel, and a tube depending from the standing valve the barrel being arranged to move over the valve; substantially as described.
I. The combination with a perforated linercasing having sliding connection with the tubing and supported thereon while being lowered into the well, of a workin g barrel secured to the lower end of the tubing, a hollow anchor secured to the working barrel and having a reduced lower end, of a vertically-movable standing valve resting within the barrel, and having a perforated tube leading downwardly through the lower end of the anchor; substantially as described.
5. A pumping apparatus for deep wells, having a working barrel provided with a seat for a standing valve, a perforated tube extending downwardly from the standing valve, the working barrel being arranged to move over the valve, and the liner-casing having a perforated head upon which the tube leading from the standing valve rests; substantially as described.
l a tube depending from the standing valve and having its end fitting about the hole in the head and lneans for bringing the standing t5 Valve above the top of the Working barrel; substantially as described.
In testimony whereof I have hereunto. set my hand.
WILLIAM D. BLACK.
L. A. OONNER, Jr., H. M. CORWIN.