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Publication numberUS6403802 B1
Publication typeGrant
Application numberUS 09/511,420
Publication dateJun 11, 2002
Filing dateFeb 22, 2000
Priority dateSep 10, 1998
Fee statusLapsed
Publication number09511420, 511420, US 6403802 B1, US 6403802B1, US-B1-6403802, US6403802 B1, US6403802B1
InventorsSteven P. Nolan, Jinkun Huang, Mark L. Trudell, Chunming Zhang
Original AssigneeUniversity Of New Orleans Research & Technology Foundation
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Use of catalyst system comprising nickel, palladium, or platinum and imidazoline-2-ylidene or imidazolidine-2-ylidene in amination reactions
US 6403802 B1
Abstract
This invention provides a process for conducting amination reactions. The processes of the present invention make use of N-heterocyclic carbenes as ancillary ligands in aminations of aryl halides and aryl pseudohalides. An amination can be carried out by mixing, in a liquid medium, at least one strong base; at least one aryl halide or aryl pseudohalide in which all substituents are other than amino groups, wherein the aryl halide has, directly bonded to the aromatic ring(s), at least one halogen atom selected from the group consisting of a chlorine atom, a bromine atom, and an iodine atom; at least one primary amine and/or at least one secondary amine; at least one metal compound comprising at least one metal atom selected from nickel, palladium, and platinum, wherein the formal oxidation state of the metal is zero or two; and at least one N-heterocyclic carbene. One preferred type of N-heterocyclic carbene is an imidazoline-2-ylidene of the formula
wherein R1 and R2 are each, independently, alkyl or aryl groups having at least 3 carbon atoms, R3 and R4 are each, independently, a hydrogen atom, a halogen atom, or a hydrocarbyl group.
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Claims(73)
What is claimed is:
1. A process for conducting a reaction in which an amination product is formed, which process comprises mixing, in a liquid medium,
i) at least one strong base;
ii) at least one aryl halide or aryl pseudohalide in which all substituents are other than amino groups, wherein the aryl halide has, directly bonded to the aromatic ring(s), at least one halogen atom selected from the group consisting of a chlorine atom, a bromine atom, and an iodine atom;
iii) at least one primary amine and/or at least one secondary amine;
iv) at least one metal compound comprising at least one metal atom selected from nickel, palladium, and platinum, wherein the formal oxidation state of the metal is zero or two; and
v) at least one N-heterocyclic carbene selected from the group consisting of an imidazoline-2-ylidene wherein the 1 and 3 positions are each, independently, substituted by a secondary or tertiary group which has at least three atoms, or a protonated salt thereof, an imidazolidine-2-ylidene wherein the 1 and 3 positions are each, independently, substituted by a secondary or tertiary group which has at least three atoms, or a protonated salt thereof; a bis(imidazoline-2-ylidene) wherein a bridging moiety is bound to one nitrogen atom of each ring, and wherein the remaining two nitrogen atoms are each, independently, substituted by a secondary or tertiary group which has at least three atoms, or a protonated salt thereof; and a bis(imidazolidine-2-ylidene) wherein a bridging moiety is bound to one nitrogen atom of each ring, and wherein the remaining two nitrogen atoms are each, independently, substituted by a secondary or tertiary group which has at least three atoms, or a protonated salt thereof, or mixtures of two or more of the foregoing.
2. A process according to claim 1 wherein said N-heterocyclic carbene is an imidazoline-2-ylidene of the formula
or a protonated salt thereof, wherein
R1 and R2 are each, independently, alkyl or aryl groups having at least 3 carbon atoms, and
R3 and R4 are each, independently, a hydrogen atom, a halogen atom, or a hydrocarbyl group.
3. A process according to claim 1 wherein said N-heterocyclic carbene is an imidazolidine-2-ylidene of the formula
or a protonated salt thereof, wherein
R1 and R2 are each, independently, alkyl or aryl groups having at least 3 carbon atoms, and
R3 and R4 are each, independently, a hydrogen atom, a halogen atom, or a hydrocarbyl group.
4. A process according to claim 1 wherein said N-heterocyclic carbene is a bis(imidazoline-2-ylidene) of the formula
or a protonated salt thereof, wherein
R1 and R2 are each, independently, alkyl or aryl groups having at least 3 carbon atoms,
R3 and R4 are each, independently, a hydrogen atom, a halogen atom, or a hydrocarbyl group,
R3′ and R4′ are as defined for R3 and R4, and
R5 is a bridging group that links the two imidazoline rings.
5. A process according to claim 1 wherein said N-heterocyclic carbene is a bis(imidazolidine-2-ylidene) of the formula
or a protonated salt thereof, wherein
R1 and R2 are each, independently, alkyl or aryl groups having at least 3 carbon atoms,
R3 and R4 are each, independently, a hydrogen atom, a halogen atom, or a hydrocarbyl group,
R3′ and R4′ are as defined for R3 and R4, and
R5 is a bridging group that links the two imidazoline rings.
6. A process according to claim 1 wherein said liquid medium comprises at least one ether.
7. A process according to claim 6 wherein said ether is a cyclic ether.
8. A process according to claim 7 wherein said ether is 1,4-dioxane.
9. A process according to claim 1 wherein said aryl halide or aryl pseudohalide is an aryl chloride.
10. A process according to claim 9 wherein said aryl chloride is selected from the group consisting of 4-chlorotoluene, 1-methoxy-4-chlorobenzene, 1,4-dimethyl-2-chlorobenzene, and methyl-4-chlorobenzoate.
11. A process according to claim 1 wherein said aryl halide or aryl pseudohalide is an aryl bromide.
12. A process according to claim 11 wherein said aryl bromide is 4-bromotoluene.
13. A process according to claim 1 wherein said aryl halide or aryl pseudohalide is an aryl toluenesulfonate.
14. A process according to claim 1 wherein said aryl halide or aryl pseudohalide is an aryl trifluoromethanesulfonate.
15. A process according to claim 14 wherein said aryl trifluoromethanesulfonate is either nethoxy-4-(trifluoromethanesulfonate)benzene or methyl-4-(trifluoromethanesulfonate)benzoate.
16. A process according to claim 1 wherein said aryl halide or aryl pseudohalide is a phenyl halide or phenyl pseudohalide.
17. A process according to claim 16 wherein said phenyl halide or phenyl pseudohalide is chlorobenzene.
18. A process according to claim 16 wherein said phenyl halide or phenyl pseudohalide is bromobenzene.
19. A process according to claim 1 wherein said aryl halide or aryl pseudohalide is a naphthyl halide or naphthyl pseudohalide.
20. A process according to claim 19 wherein said naphthyl halide or naphthyl pseudohalide is 1-bromonaphthalene.
21. A process according to claim 1 wherein said amine is a primary amine.
22. A process according to claim 21 wherein said primary amine is either aniline or hexylamine.
23. A process according to claim 1 wherein said amine is a secondary amine.
24. A process according to claim 23 wherein said secondary amine is selected from the group consisting of di-n-butylamine, piperidine, and N-methylaniline.
25. A process according to claim 1 wherein said amine is a naphthylamine.
26. A process according to claim 25 wherein said naphthylamine is 6-methoxy-2-naphthylamine.
27. A process according to claim 1 wherein said metal compound comprises a palladium compound.
28. A process according to claim 27 wherein said palladium compound is selected from the group consisting of palladium acetate, palladium chloride, and dipalladium tris(dibenzylideneacetone).
29. A process according to claim 1 wherein said metal compound comprises a nickel compound.
30. A process according to claim 29 wherein said nickel compound is bis(1,5-cyclooctadiene)nickel.
31. A process according to claim 30 wherein said strong base is cesium carbonate.
32. A process according to claim 1 wherein said strong base is an alkali metal salt.
33. A process according to claim 32 wherein said alkali metal salt is either a potassium salt or a cesium salt.
34. A process according to claim 33 wherein said salt is selected from the group consisting of potassium carbonate, potassium tert-butoxide, cesium carbonate, and cesium fluoride.
35. A process according to claim 1 wherein said strong base is potassium tert-butoxide, wherein the metal compound is selected from the group consisting of palladium acetate, palladium chloride, and dipalladium tris(dibenzylideneacetone), and wherein the aryl halide or aryl pseudohalide is an aryl chloride.
36. A process according to claim 1 wherein said strong base is either potassium carbonate or potassium tert-butoxide, wherein the metal compound is selected from the group consisting of palladium acetate, palladium chloride, and dipalladium tris(dibenzylideneacetone), and wherein the aryl halide or aryl pseudohalide is either an aryl trifluoromethanesulfonate or an aryl toluenesulfonate.
37. A process according to claim 1 wherein said N-heterocyclic carbene is an imidazoline-2-ylidene or a protonated salt thereof.
38. A process according to claim 2 wherein R1 and R2 of said N-heterocyclic carbene are the same, and each is a 2,4,6-trimethylphenyl group or a 2,6-diisopropylphenyl group.
39. A process according to claim 3 wherein R1 and R2 of said N-heterocyclic carbene are the same, and each is a 2,4,6-trimethylphenyl group or a 2,6-diisopropylphenyl group.
40. A process according to claim 4 wherein R1 and R2 of said N-heterocyclic carbene are the same, and each is a 2,4,6-trimethylphenyl group or a 2,6-diisopropylphenyl group.
41. A process according to claim 5 wherein R1 and R2 of said N-heterocyclic carbene are the same, and each is a 2,4,6-trimethylphenyl group or a 2,6-diisopropylphenyl group.
42. A process according to claim 38 wherein said N-heterocyclic carbene is a protonated salt of an imidazoline-2-ylidene.
43. A process according to claim 2 wherein R3 and R4 of said N-heterocyclic carbene are the same, and each is a hydrogen atom.
44. A process according to claim 3 wherein R3 and R4 of said N-heterocyclic carbene are the same, and each is a hydrogen atom.
45. A process according to claim 4 wherein R3 and R4 of said N-heterocyclic carbene are the same, and each is a hydrogen atom.
46. A process according to claim 5 wherein R3 and R4 of said N-heterocyclic carbene are the same, and each is a hydrogen atom.
47. A process according to claim 38 wherein R3 and R4 of said N-heterocyclic carbene are the same, and each is a hydrogen atom.
48. A process according to claim 38 wherein said strong base is a potassium salt and wherein said metal compound is a palladium compound.
49. A process according to claim 48 wherein said potassium salt is potassium tert-butoxide, and wherein said palladium compound is selected from the group consisting of palladium acetate, palladium chloride, and dipalladium tris(dibenzylideneacetone).
50. A process according to claim 38 wherein the molar ratio of metal atoms of the metal compound to aryl halide or aryl pseudohalide molecules is in the range of from about 0.01:1 to about 0.05:1.
51. A process according to claim 4 wherein said N-heterocyclic carbene is a protonated salt of a bis(imidazoline-2-ylidene).
52. A process according to claim 51 wherein R1 and R2 of said protonated salt are the same, and each is selected from the group consisting of a 2,4,6-trimethylphenyl group, a 2,6-dilsopropylphenyl group and a 2,4,6-triisopropylphenyl group.
53. A process according to claim 51 wherein R3′ and R4′ of said protonated salt are the same, and each is a hydrogen atom.
54. A process according to claim 4 wherein R3′ and R4′ of said N-heterocyclic carbene are the same, and each is a hydrogen atom.
55. A process according to claim 5 wherein R3′ and R4′ of said N-heterocyclic carbene are the same, and each is a hydrogen atom.
56. A process according to claim 51 wherein R3 and R4 of said protonated salt are the same, and each is a hydrogen atom.
57. A process according to claim 52 wherein said strong base is a potassium salt and wherein said metal compound is a palladium compound.
58. A process according to claim 57 wherein said potassium salt is potassium tert-butoxide, and wherein said palladium compound is palladium acetate.
59. A process according to claim 52 wherein the molar ratio of metal atoms of the metal compound to aryl halide or aryl pseudohalide molecules is in the range of from about 0.01:1 to about 0.05:1.
60. A process according to claim 52 wherein said protonated salt of the bis(imidazoline-2-ylidene) is either
61. A process according to claim 4 wherein the bridge formed by R5 has at least four atoms.
62. A process according to claim 61 wherein the bridge formed by R5 has four to eight atoms.
63. A process according to claim 5 wherein the bridge formed by R5 has four to eight atoms.
64. A process according to claim 4 wherein R5 is a substituted benzo moiety.
65. A process according to claim 5 wherein R5 is a substituted benzo moiety.
66. A process according to claim 1 wherein the molar ratio of aryl halide or aryl pseudohalide to amine is in the range of from about 1:1 to about 1:3.
67. A process according to claim 1 wherein the molar ratio of aryl halide or aryl pseudohalide to strong base is in the range of from about 1:1 to about 1:5.
68. A process according to claim 1 wherein the molar ratio of metal atoms of the metal compound to aryl halide or aryl pseudohalide molecules is in the range of from about 0.01:1 to about 0.05:1.
69. A process according to claim 1 wherein the molar ratio of metal atoms of the metal compound to N-heterocyclic carbene is in the range of from about 1:0.5 to about 1:5.
70. A process according to claim 1 wherein the temperature is in the range of from about 20° C. to about 150° C.
71. A process according to claim 1 wherein the temperature is in the range of from about 20° C. to about 120° C.
72. A process according to claim 1 wherein said aryl halide or aryl pseudohalide is selected from the group consisting of an aryl chloride, an aryl tosylate, or an aryl triflate, and wherein the temperature is in the range of from about 40° C. to about 150° C.
73. A process according to claim 1 wherein said aryl halide or aryl pseudohalide is either an aryl bromide or an aryl iodide, and wherein the temperature is in the range of from about 20° C. to about 70° C.
Description
REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS

This Application claims the priority date of U.S. Provisional Application No. 60/154,260 filed Sep. 22, 1999. U.S. Provisional Application No. 60/154,260 incorporates by reference U.S. Provisional Application No. 60/099,722, filed Sep. 10, 1998, and U.S. Provisional Application No. 60/121,056, filed Feb. 22, 1999.

Copending Application Ser. No. 09/507,959, filed Feb. 22, 2000, by us; copending Application Ser. No. 09/511,122, filed Feb. 22, 2000, by us; copending Application Ser. No. 09/507,958, filed Feb. 22, 2000, by us; and copending Application Ser. No. 09/511,654, filed Feb. 22,2000, by us; may also be considered related to the present application.

This invention was made with Government support by the National Institute on Drug Abuse/National Science Foundation under Contract No. RO1 DA11528/9631611. The Government has certain rights in this invention.

TECHNICAL FIELD

This invention relates to amination reactions, which can be used for chemical synthesis in the polymer and the fine chemical industry.

BACKGROUND

Metal catalyzed coupling reactions of aryl bromides, aryl iodides, and aryl pseudohalides (e.g., triflates) with various substrates is a general method employed for the formation of C—C and C—N bonds. Prior art methods generally cannot employ aryl chlorides as feedstock for these chemical transformations, and require the use of more expensive aryl bromides and aryl iodides. The use of aryl chlorides as chemical feedstock in coupling chemistry has proven difficult but would economically benefit a number of industrial processes. The few prior art methods that can employ aryl chlorides use expensive, air-sensitive phosphine ligands. In addition, phosphine ligands are often difficult to remove from the process product.

Nucleophilic N-heterocyclic carbenes, the imidazoline-2-ylidenes (sometimes commonly called imidazol-2-ylidenes) or so-called “phosphine mimics”, have attracted considerable attention as possible alternatives for the widely used phosphine ligands in homogeneous catalysts. A primary advantage of these ligands is that an excess of the ligand is not required. It appears that these ligands do not dissociate from the metal center, thus preventing aggregation of the catalyst to yield the bulk metal.

THE INVENTION

This invention provides a process for conducting amination reactions. This process uses a catalyst system comprising nickel, palladium, or platinum and imidazoline-2-ylidene or imidazolidine-2-ylidene, and permits the use of aryl chlorides as substrates in amination reactions while eliminating the need for phosphine ligands. Furthermore, both electron-donating and electron-withdrawing substituents on the aryl halide or pseudohalide, the amine, or both, in the amination reaction are tolerated by the catalyst system used in the present invention, and provide the corresponding amination products in good yields.

An embodiment of this invention provides a process which comprises mixing, in a liquid medium, i) at least one strong base; ii) at least one aryl halide or aryl pseudohalide in which all substituents are other than amino groups, wherein the aryl halide has, directly bonded to the aromatic ring(s), at least one halogen atom selected from the group consisting of a chlorine atom, a bromine atom, and an iodine atom; iii) at least one primary amine and/or at least one secondary amine; iv) at least one metal compound comprising at least one metal atom selected from nickel, palladium, and platinum, wherein the formal oxidation state of the metal is zero or two; and v) at least one N-heterocyclic carbene. The N-heterocyclic carbene is selected from the group consisting of an imidazoline-2-ylidene wherein the 1 and 3 positions are each, independently, substituted by a secondary or tertiary group which has at least three atoms, or a protonated salt thereof; an imidazolidine-2-ylidene wherein the 1 and 3 positions are each, independently, substituted by a secondary or tertiary group which has at least three atoms, or a protonated salt thereof; a bis(imidazoline-2-ylidene) wherein a bridging moiety is bound to one nitrogen atom of each ring, and wherein the remaining two nitrogen atoms are each, independently, substituted by a secondary or tertiary group which has at least three atoms, or a protonated salt thereof; and a bis(imidazolidine-2-ylidene) wherein a bridging moiety is bound to one nitrogen atom of each ring, and wherein the remaining two nitrogen atoms are each, independently, substituted by a secondary or tertiary group which has at least three atoms, or a protonated salt thereof, or mixtures of two or more of the foregoing.

Further embodiments and features of this invention will be apparent from the ensuing description and appended claims.

The liquid medium for the processes of this invention can include any of a wide range of solvents, and mixtures of solvents are also usable. The exclusion of water is not necessary, but is preferred. Types of solvents that can be used include hydrocarbons, ethers, amides, ketones, and alcohols. Polar solvents are preferred; ethers are a preferred solvent type. Ethers that may be used include, for example, diethyl ether, di-n-propyl ether, diisopropyl ether, tert-butyl ethyl ether, diheptyl ether, 1,3-dioxolane, 1,4-dioxane, tetrahydrofuiran, methyl tetrahydrofuran, glyme (the dimethyl ether of ethylene glycol), diglyme (the dimethyl ether of diethylene glycol), and the like. Cyclic ethers and polyethers are preferred; a highly preferred ether is 1,4-dioxane.

A large variety of strong bases are suitable for use in the processes of this invention. Generally, these are inorganic bases. Alkali metal salts are a preferred group of inorganic bases. Examples of suitable alkali metal salts include, but are not limited to, lithium carbonate, lithium tert-butoxide, sodium acetate, sodium bicarbonate, sodium tert-butoxide, sodium oxide, sodium tetrafluoroborate, potassium acetate, potassium carbonate, potassium tert-butoxide, potassium nitrite, potassium phosphate, potassium sulfite, potassium hexafluorophosphate, cesium acetate, cesium bicarbonate, cesium carbonate, cesium fluoride, cesium nitrate, and cesium sulfate. Alkali metal salts of carboxylic acid anions (e.g., acetate, trifluoroacetate, citrate, formate, oxalate, propionate, tartrate, etc.) are also suitable for use as the inorganic base in this invention. More preferred are salts of potassium and cesium; most preferred are potassium salts. The most highly preferred inorganic base is potassium tert-butoxide. Choice(s) of inorganic base will vary with the particular system of aryl halide or pseudohalide and amine involved.

Directly bonded to the aromatic ring(s) of the aryl halide or pseudohalide (i.e., aryl halide or aryl pseudohalide) is at least one halogen atom selected from a chlorine atom, a bromine atom, and an iodine atom, or at least one pseudohalide group. The term “pseudohalide group” includes such groups as p-toluenesulfonate (tosylate), is trifluoromethanesulfonate (triflate), methanesulfonate (meslyate), nonaflate (ONf), and aryl diazonium salts (ArN2 +X, where X is halide, BF4 , etc.). The aryl halide or pseudohalide can have two or more such halogen atoms with an atomic number greater than nine and/or pseudohalide groups, including combinations of halogen atoms and pseudohalide groups. However, when two or more such groups are present, the halogen atoms with an atomic number greater than nine and/or pseudohalide groups should all be different from each other. For example, when two such substituents are present, they may be a chlorine atom and a bromine atom, or an iodine atom and a tosylate group, or etc. It is preferred that there is only one chlorine atom, bromine atom, iodine atom, or pseudohalide group directly bound to the aryl ring of the aryl halide or pseudohalide. Aryl chlorides are more preferred as the aryl halide reactants. To prevent self-reaction, it is preferred that amino groups are not present on the aryl halide or pseudohalide.

The aryl moiety for the aryl halide or pseudohalide can be homocyclic or heterocyclic. Examples of suitable homocyclic aryl moieties include, but are not limited to, benzene, naphthalene, anthracene, phenanthrene, pyrene, biphenyl, acenaphthalene, fluorene, and indene. Heterocyclic aryl moieties that can be used include, for example, furan, thiophene, oxathiolane, thianthrene, isobenzofuran, phenoxathiin, and the like. Nitrogen-containing heterocycles, that can be used include, for example, pyridine, indole, isoxazole,and the like. Benzene is a preferred aryl moiety for the aryl halide or pseudohalide.

For the aryl halide or pseudohalide, substituents other than a chlorine atom, a bromine atom, an iodine atom, and/or a pseudohalide group that may be present on the aromatic ring(s) include, but are not limited to, hydrogen atoms, fluorine atoms, nitro groups, hydrocarbyl groups, alkoxy groups, perfluorohydrocarbyl groups, silyl groups, amide groups, nitrile groups, ether groups, ketone groups, and ester groups. When hydrocarbyl groups are present, they are preferably C1 to C18 alkyl groups or C6 to C20 aryl or arylalkyl groups. Examples of suitable hydrocarbyl groups are methyl, ethyl, isopropyl, tert-butyl, cyclopentyl, methylcyclohexyl, decyl, phenyl, tolyl, xylyl, benzyl, naphthyl, and tetrahydronaphthyl. Alkoxy group substituents preferably have C1 to C6 alkyl moieties. Some examples of alkoxy groups are methoxy, ethoxy, isopropoxy, methylcyclopentoxy, and cyclohexoxy. Perfluorohydrocarbyl groups include alkyl and aryl perfluorocarbons; suitable perfluorohydrocarbyl groups are, for example, trifluoromethyl, pentafluoroethyl, pentafluorophenyl, and heptafluoronaphthyl. Substituent silyl groups preferably have C1 to C18 alkyl groups or C6 to C20 aryl or aralkyl groups, and examples include trimethylsilyl, triisopropylsilyl, tert-butyl(dimethyl)silyl, tridecylsilyl, and triphenylsilyl. The substituents preferred for the aryl halide or pseudohalide will depend on the product that is desired.

Amines suitable for use in this invention include primary and secondary amines. The group(s) of the amine may be saturated, unsaturated, branched, straight-chain, cyclic, or aromatic. Heteroatoms, such as oxygen, sulfur, and silicon, and/or functional groups including ethers, esters, and ketones can be present in the group(s) of the amine. For secondary amines, the two groups on a particular amine may be the same or different.

When an aryl moiety is present in the amine, the aryl moiety can be homocyclic or heterocyclic, as described for the aryl halide or pseudohalide. For the amine, the preferred aryl moieties are benzene and naphthalene. Substituents on the aryl ring, again as described for the aryl halide or pseudohalide, can be hydrogen atoms, fluorine atoms, nitro groups, hydrocarbyl groups, alkoxy groups, perfluorohydrocarbyl groups, silyl groups, ether groups, ketone groups, and ester groups. To prevent self-reaction, it is also preferred that chlorine atoms, bromine atoms, iodine atoms, and/or pseudohalide groups are not present on aromatic ring(s) in the amine. In other words, the aromatic rings in the amine are preferably devoid of halogen atoms with an atomic number greater than nine, and are preferably also devoid of pseudohalide groups. However, one or more fluorine atoms can be present on the aromatic ring(s).

Examples of primary amines include, but are not limited to, methylamine, cyclopropylamine, n-butylamine, tert-butylamine, cyclobutylamine, 2-pentylamine, hexylamine, heptylamine, octylamine, 4-methylcyclooctylamine, decylamine, phenylamine (aniline), 2,4,6-trimethylphenylamine (2,4,6-trimethylaniline), and benzylamine. Suitable secondary amines include dimethylamine, ethylmethylamine, diisopropylamine, di-n-butylamine, di-sec-butylamine, dicyclopentylamine, dihexylamine, di(methylcyclohexyl)amine, piperidine, morpholine, (ethyl)(octyl)amine, (nonyl)(n-propyl)amine, didodecylamine, N-methylphenylamine (N-methylaniline), (methyl)phenylamine, and the like. Primary or secondary amines may be preferred, depending on the product desired; similarly, preferred groups for the amine also depend on the desired product.

The metal compound comprises at least one metal atom selected from nickel, palladium, and platinum having a formal oxidation state of zero or two, and is sometimes referred to hereinafter as the metal compound. Inorganic salts of nickel, palladium, or platinum that can be used include the bromides, chlorides, fluorides, iodides, cyanides, nitrates, sulfides, sulfites, and sulfates. Organic nickel, palladium, or platinum compounds that may be used include complexes and salts such as the carboxylates, e.g., the acetates or propionates, etc. Suitable nickel compounds include bis(1,5-cyclooctadiene)nickel, nickel acetate, nickel oxalate, nickel phosphate, nickel stearate, nickel acetylacetonate, nickel tetrafluoroborate, nickel thiocyanate, nickel carbonate, and nickel sulfamate. Examples of palladium compounds include Pd(OAc)2, palladium(II) chloride, Pd(CH3CN)4(BF4)2, PdCl2(CH3CN)2, PdCl2(PhCN)2, PdCl2(PPh3)2, tris(dibenzylideneacetone)dipalladium(0) [which is also referred to herein as dipalladium tris(dibenzylideneacetone)], and palladium trifluoroacetate. Platinum compounds that can be used include platinum acetylacetonate and platinum chloride. Nickel and palladium compounds are preferred; more preferred are compounds of palladium. Palladium compounds such as palladium acetate and tris(dibenzylideneacetone)dipalladium(0) are most preferred.

Preferred types of N-heterocyclic carbenes are imidazoline-2-ylidenes of the formula

or protonated salts thereof, wherein R1 and R2 are each, independently, alkyl or aryl groups having at least 3 carbon atoms, R3 and R4 are each, independently, a hydrogen atom, a halogen atom, or a hydrocarbyl group;

imidazolidine-2-ylidenes of the formula

or protonated salts thereof, wherein R1, R2, R3, and R4 are as defined for the imidazoline-2-ylidenes;

bis(imidazoline-2-ylidene)s of the formula

or protonated salts thereof, wherein R1, R2, R3, and R4 are as defined for the imidazoline-2-ylidenes, wherein R3′ and R4′ are as defined for R3 and R4 for the imidazoline-2-ylidenes, and wherein R5 is a bridging group that links the two imidazoline rings;

bis(imidazolidine-2-ylidene)s of the formula

or protonated salts thereof, wherein R1, R2, R3, and R4 are as defined for the imidazoline-2-ylidenes, wherein R3′ and R4′ are as defined for R3 and R4 for the imidazoline-2-ylidenes, and wherein R5 is a bridging group that links the two imidazolidine rings.

R1 and R2 are preferably sterically bulky groups. Suitable groups include, but are not limited to, isopropyl, sec-butyl, tert-butyl, 2,2-dimethylpropyl (neopentyl), cyclohexyl, norbornyl, adamantyl, tolyl, 3,5-dimethylphenyl, 2,4,6-trimethylphenyl, 2,6-diisopropylphenyl, and triphenylmethyl. Preferred groups are tert-butyl, 2,4,6-trimethylphenyl, 2,6-diisopropylphenyl, 2,4,6-triisopropylphenyl, 2,4,6-triisopropylphenylmethyl, and triphenylmethyl. Most preferred for both R1 and R2 are the 2,4,6-trimethylphenyl 2,6-diisopropylphenyl, and 2,4,6-triisopropylphenyl, groups.

Examples of suitable R3, R4, R3′, and R4′ groups include chlorine atoms, bromine atoms, hydrogen atoms, hydrocarbyl groups, and the like. When hydrocarbyl groups are present, they are preferably C1 to C18 alkyl groups or C6 to C20 aryl or aralkyl groups. Examples of suitable hydrocarbyl groups are methyl, ethyl, isopropyl, tert-butyl, cyclopentyl, methylcyclohexyl, decyl, phenyl, tolyl, xylyl, benzyl, naphthyl, and tetrahydronaphthyl. Chlorine atoms and hydrogen atoms are preferred groups. Most preferred for all substituents R3, R4, R3′, and R4′ are hydrogen atoms.

R5 in both the formula for the bis(imidazoline-2-ylidene)s and the bis(imidazolidine-2-ylidene)s of this invention can be selected from a large variety of moieties, including alkylene groups, arylene groups, and silylene groups. Atoms that can form the bridge include, but are not limited to, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, silicon, and sulfur. Examples of suitable bridging moieties include methylene (—CH2—), substituted methylene, ethylene (—CH2CH2—), substituted ethylene, silylene (>SiR2), benzo (C6H4<), substituted benzo, biphenylene, substituted biphenylene, binaphthylene, and substituted binaphthylene. Heterocyclic aromatic moieties such as, for example, pyridine, pyrimidine, pyrazine, pyridazine, furan, thiophene, oxathiolane, thianthrene, isobenzofuran, phenoxathiin, isothiazole, phenoxazine, and the like, can also form the bridge. Preferred R5 moieties include biphenylene, binaphthylene, and substituted benzo, with substituted benzo being more preferred. Highly preferred is benzo substituted with methyl groups. The bridge has at least one atom, and more preferably has from four to eight atoms. While better results have been observed with longer bridges, it is possible that judicious choices for R1, R2, R3, R4, R3′, and R4′ may improve results for short bridges.

Without being bound by theory, it appears from thermochemical studies that the electron-donating ability of many of the imidazoline-2-ylidene carbene ligands is better than that of tri(cyclohexyl)phosphine and the steric demand of these carbene ligands is greater than that of tri(cyclohexyl)phosphine. This suggests that the N-heterocyclic carbene should possess steric bulk sufficient to stabilize both the free carbene and to stabilize reaction intermediates. However, imidazoline-2-ylidene carbenes and imidazolidine-2-ylidene carbenes are considerably less stable to air and moisture than their corresponding protonated imidazolinium and imidazolidinium salts. Thus, a highly preferred embodiment of this invention involves generation of the imidazoline-2-ylidene in situ from the corresponding imidazolinium salt (similarly so for the imidazolidine-2-ylidene and the corresponding imidazolidinium salt); this removes the need to handle the N-heterocyclic carbene ligands in an inert atmosphere. Protonated salts of the imidazoline-2-ylidene carbenes and imidazolidine-2-ylidene carbenes are monoprotonated, while the protonated salts of the bis(imidazoline-2-ylidene)s and the bis(imidazolidine-2-ylidene)s are diprotonated. Suitable counterions for the protonated salts are virtually limitless, but halides are preferred counterions. The most preferred counterions are chloride and bromide. The imidazolinium salts are straightforward to synthesize and are air-stable. While the absence of oxygen is not necessary when using a protonated salt of an imidazoline-2-ylidene carbene or an imidazolidine-2-ylidene carbene, it is preferred. When using a neutral carbene, the absence of oxygen is necessary. In any instance where oxygen is excluded, the presence of an inert gas such as nitrogen, helium, or argon is preferred.

The aryl halide or pseudohalide and the amine may be employed in an ideal molar ratio of about 1:1 when using an aryl halide or pseudohalide that has only one halogen atom (other than a fluorine atom) or pseudohalide group; or either reagent may be used in excess. It is preferred to use the amine in an excess such that the molar ratio of aryl halide or pseudohalide to amine is in the range of from about 1:1 to about 1:3 when using an aryl halide or pseudohalide that has only one halogen atom (other than a fluorine atom) or pseudohalide group. When the aryl halide or pseudohalide has more than one halogen atom (other than fluorine) and/or pseudohalide group, reactions may be carried out in sequence. An amine will react first at the site of the more reactive substituent, e.g., at iodine before bromine. Reaction at only the site of the more reactive substituent(s) can be performed. In reactions carried out in sequence where the amines are different, each should be added separately. It is preferred to allow one reaction to finish before the addition of the next amine. When different amines are used, it is preferred to use close to the ideal molar ratio of aryl halide or pseudohalide to amine to minimize undesirable side products.

A suitable molar ratio of aryl halide or pseudohalide to strong base is in the range of from about 1:1 to about 1:5. A more preferred molar ratio of aryl halide or pseudohalide to strong base is in the range of from about 1:1 to about 1:3.

Normally, the molar ratio of metal atoms of the metal compound to aryl halide or pseudohalide molecules is in the range of from about 0.01:1 to about 0.05: 1; a preferred molar ratio of metal atoms of metal compound to aryl halide or pseudohalide molecules is in the range of from about 0.01:1 to about 0.03:1. For the metal compound and the carbene ligands, the molar ratio of metal atoms of the metal compound to carbene molecules is in the range of from about 1:0.5 to about 1:5, and more preferably in the range of from about 1:1 to about 1:3.

The order of addition of the various components to a reaction vessel is not of particular importance. Premixing of the components of the catalyst system is not necessary; however, it is preferred that the catalyst system is premixed. To premix the components of the catalyst system, the metal compound and the N-heterocyclic carbene (salt or neutral compound) are mixed together after being added in no particular order to a reaction vessel. The mixing time (activation period) for these components on the laboratory scale may be very short, e.g., five minutes or less, but a preferred mixing time is in the range of from about fifteen minutes to about sixty minutes.

If a premixed catalyst system is used, the aryl halide or pseudohalide, the amine, and the strong base may be added to the same reaction vessel, or the premixed catalyst system can be transferred to a different vessel in which the reaction is to take place. Use of the same vessel for premixing the catalyst system and conducting the reaction is preferred.

When the components of the catalyst system are not premixed, the strong base, aryl halide or pseudohalide, the amine, the metal compound, the liquid medium, and the N-heterocyclic carbene (salt or neutral compound) are added in any order to the reaction vessel.

Once all of the components are present in the same reaction vessel, the mixture may be heated, provided that the temperature does not exceed the thermal decomposition temperature of the catalyst system or the products of the reaction. Preferred temperatures are in the range of from about 20° C. to about 150° C.; more preferred temperatures are in the range of from about 20° C. to about 120° C. When the aryl halide or pseudohalide is an aryl chloride, an aryl triflate, an aryl tosylate, aryl mesylate, aryl trifluoromethanesulfone, aryl nonaflate, or aryl diazonium salt, heat is usually necessary to drive the reaction. Preferred temperatures when the aryl halide or pseudohalide is an aryl chloride, an aryl triflate, or an aryl tosylate are in the range of from about 40° C. to about 150° C. When the aryl halide or pseudohalide is an aryl bromide or an aryl iodide, the reaction(s) proceeds easily at room temperature, although heat may speed the reaction. For aryl bromides and aryl iodides, preferred temperatures are in the range of from about 20° C. to about 70° C.

While not necessary when using protonated salts of N-heterocyclic carbenes, the absence of oxygen and water is preferred when conducting the processes of this invention. Conversely, the exclusion of oxygen and water is generally necessary when neutral carbenes are used. The presence of an inert gas such as argon or nitrogen is preferred when oxygen and/or water are excluded. The reaction mixture is normally agitated. A preferred contact time for the components of the reaction is in the range of from about one hour to about seventy-two hours. More preferably, the contact time is from about one hour to about forty-eight hours.

The following examples are presented for purposes of illustration, and are not intended to impose limitations on the scope of this invention.

EXAMPLES Genaral Procedures

Reagents. All aryl halides (Aldrich Chemical Company), amines (Aldrich), 1,4-dioxane (anhydrous, Aldrich), KOtBu (Aldrich), and Pd2(dibenzylideneacetone)3 (Strem Chemical Company) were used as received. Flash chromatography was performed on silica gel 60 (230-400 mesh; Natland International Corporation).

1,3-Bis(substituted)imidazoline-2-ylidenes and 1,3-bis(substituted)imidazolinium chlorides were prepared according to reported procedures in U.S. Pat. No. 5,077,414, and/or Arduengo, A. J. III., Dias, H. V. R.; Harlow, R. L. and Kline, M. J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1992, 114, 5530-5534. The synthesis of 1,3-bis(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)imidazolinium chloride was carried out in a similar fashion, except that it was done in two steps (rather than in one pot).

Analyses. All reactions were monitored by thin layer chromatography (TLC). 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra were recorded on a 300 MHz NMR spectrometer (Varian, Incorporated) or 400 MHz NMR spectrometer (Varian) at ambient temperature in CDCl3 (Cambridge Isotope Laboratories, Incorporated). All of the products had 1H NMR spectra identical with literature data.

Conditions. All reactions were carried out under an atmosphere of argon in oven-dried glassware with magnetic stirring, unless otherwise indicated.

Example 1

For each run, a Schlenk tube was charged with Pd2(dibenzylideneacetone)3 (10 mg, 0.01 mmol), 1,3-bis(substituted)imidazolinium chloride (0.04 mmol), and a magnetic stirring bar. After a 30 minute catalyst activation period, 1,4-dioxane (3 mL), KOtBu (168 mg, 1.5 mmol), 4-chlorotoluene (1.0 mmol), and N-methylaniline (1.2 mmol) were added in turn to the Schlenk tube. The Schlenk tube was placed in a 100° C. oil bath and the mixture was stirred for 3 hours. The mixture was then allowed to cool to room temperature. The mixture was washed with diethyl ether. The organic layer and the diethyl ether extracts were combined, washed with saturated saline solution, and then dried over MgSO4. The solvent was removed under vacuum and the residue was purified by flash chromatography using hexane or a mixture of hexane and ethyl acetate.

The 1,3-bis(substituted)imidazolinium chloride used in each run are listed in Table 1. All of the yields reported in Table 1 are of the heterocoupling product, and are the average of two runs.

TABLE 1
Run 1,3-Bis(substituted)imidazolinium chloride Isolated yield
a None 0
b 1,3-Bis(p-tolyl)imidazolinium chloride <5%
c 1,3-Bis(2,6-dimethylphenyl)imidazolinium 11%
chloride
d 1,3-Bis(2,4,6-trimethylphenyl)imidazolinium 22%
chloride
e 1,3-Bis(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)imidazolinium 98%
chloride

Example 2

Reagents, analyses, and procedures were as described in Example 1, except as follows. The 1,3-bis(substituted)imidazolinium chloride used in all runs was 1,3-Bis(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)imidazolinium chloride. Several different aryl chlorides (1.0 mmol each) and amines (1.2 mmol each) were used. Reactions were complete in three to thirty hours, but reaction times have not been optimized.

The aryl chlorides and amines used in each run are listed in Table 2;. All of the yields reported in Table 2 are of the heterocoupling product, and are the average of two runs.

TABLE 2
Isolated
Run Aryl chloride Amine yield
a 4-Chlorotoluene N-Methylaniline 99%
b 4-Chlorotoluene Piperidine 96%
c 4-Chlorotoluene Morpholine 82%
d 4-Chlorotoluene Di-n-butylamine 95%
e 4-Chlorotoluene Hexylamine 86%a
f 4-Chlorotoluene Aniline 96%
g 4-Chlorotoluene 2,4,6-Trimethylaniline 59%
h 1-Methoxy-4-chlorobenzene Methylaniline 91%
i 1-Methoxy-4-chlorobenzene Aniline 91%
j 1-Methoxy-4-chlorobenzene Morpholine 80%
k 1-Methoxy-4-chlorobenzene Di-n-butylamine 98%
l 1,4-Dimethyl-2-chlorobenzene N-Methylaniline 94%
aA 5% yield of dihexylaniline was also obtained.

Example 3

Reagents, analyses, and procedures were as described in Example 1, except as follows. The 1,3-bis(substituted)imidazolinium chloride used in all runs was 1,3-Bis(2,6-diisopropylphenyl) imidazolinium chloride. Several different aryl halides (1.0 mmol each) and amines (1.2 mmol each) were used. Reactions were complete in three to thirty hours, but reaction times have not been optimized.

The aryl halides and amines used in each run are listed in Table 3. All of the yields reported in Table 3 are of the heterocoupling product, and are the average of two runs.

TABLE 3
Run Aryl halide Amine Isolated yield
a 4-Bromotoluene N-methylaniline 89%
b 4-Bromotoluene Piperidine 83%
c 1-Bromo-4-chlorobenzene Piperidine 94%
d 1-Chloro-4-iodobenzene Piperidine 97%

Example 4

Reagents, analyses, and procedures were as described in Example 1, except as follows. In all runs, the 1,3-bis(substituted)imidazolinium chloride used was 1,3-Bis(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)imidazolinium chloride (0.02 mmol); the metal compound was Pd(dibenzylideneacetone)2 (0.02 mmol); the amine was aniline; and the reaction time was 48 hours. Several different aryl pseudohalides (1.0 mmol each) were used.

The aryl pseudohalides used in each run are listed in Table 4. All yields reported in Table 4 are of the heterocoupling product, and are the average of two runs.

TABLE 4
Run Aryl pseudohalide Isolated yield
a 1-Methyl-4-(triflate)benzene <5%
b 1-Methoxy-4-(triflate)benzene 30%
c Methyl-4-(triflate)benzoate 22%
d 1-Methyl-4-(tosylate)benzene NRa
aNR = no reaction

It is to be understood that the reactants and components referred to by chemical name or formula anywhere in the specification or claims hereof, whether referred to in the singular or plural, are identified as they exist prior to coming into contact with another substance referred to by chemical name or chemical type (e.g., another reactant, a solvent, etc.). It matters not what preliminary chemical changes, transformations and/or reactions, if any, take place in the resulting mixture or solution or reaction medium as such changes, transformations and/or reactions are the natural result of bringing the specified reactants and/or components together under the conditions called for pursuant to this disclosure. Thus the reactants and components are identified as ingredients to be brought together in connection with performing a desired chemical reaction or in forming a mixture to be used in conducting a desired reaction. Accordingly, even though the claims hereinafter may refer to substances, components and/or ingredients in the present tense (“comprises”, “is”, etc.), the reference is to the substance, component or ingredient as it existed at the time just before it was first contacted, blended or mixed with one or more other substances, components and/or ingredients in accordance with the present disclosure. Whatever transformations, if any, that occur in situ as a reaction is conducted is what the claim is intended to cover. Thus the fact that a substance, component or ingredient may have lost its original identity through a chemical reaction or transformation during the course of contacting, blending or mixing operations, if conducted in accordance with this disclosure and with the application of common sense and the ordinary skill of a chemist, is thus wholly immaterial for an accurate understanding and appreciation of the true meaning and substance of this disclosure and the claims thereof.

Each and every patent or other publication referred to in any portion of this specification is incorporated in toto into this disclosure by reference, as if fully set forth herein.

This invention is susceptible to considerable variation in its practice. Therefore the foregoing description is not intended to limit, and should not be construed as limiting, the invention to the particular exemplifications presented hereinabove. Rather, what is intended to be covered is as set forth in the ensuing claims and the equivalents thereof permitted as a matter of law.

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Classifications
U.S. Classification548/103, 548/110
International ClassificationC07B49/00, C07F15/00, C07D295/023, C07B43/04, B01J31/18, C07C209/10, B01J31/22, C07C1/32, C07D295/073, B01J31/16, C07C67/343, C07B37/04, C07C213/08, C07D295/096, C07C41/30
Cooperative ClassificationB01J2531/824, C07C209/10, C07D295/023, C07C67/343, B01J2531/828, B01J31/2273, B01J2531/847, C07F15/0046, C07B37/04, C07B43/04, C07D295/096, B01J31/2265, C07C213/08, C07F15/002, C07D295/073, B01J2231/4283, C07B49/00, C07C1/321
European ClassificationC07C67/343, B01J31/22C2B, C07B49/00, C07C1/32B, B01J31/22C, C07C213/08, C07C209/10, C07C41/30, C07F15/00N2, C07F15/00N4, C07B37/04, C07B43/04, C07D295/096, C07D295/023, C07D295/073
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