|Publication number||US6454442 B1|
|Application number||US 09/586,622|
|Publication date||Sep 24, 2002|
|Filing date||Jun 2, 2000|
|Priority date||Jul 9, 1999|
|Also published as||CA2378752A1, CN1360672A, DE60004859D1, DE60004859T2, EP1200773A1, EP1200773B1, WO2001004538A1|
|Publication number||09586622, 586622, US 6454442 B1, US 6454442B1, US-B1-6454442, US6454442 B1, US6454442B1|
|Inventors||David G. Changaris|
|Original Assignee||David G. Changaris|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (30), Referenced by (20), Classifications (22), Legal Events (4)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
Applicant claims the benefit of the filing date of U.S. Provisional Patent Application No. 60/143,029 filed Jul. 9, 1999, entitled “Device for Soft Irradiation”.
1. Field of the Invention
The present invention relates to a device to produce gradient soft irradiation through the use of off-axis placement of a radiation source within a spiral reflector which completely encloses the source. The present invention also relates to the use of optical coatings in conjunction with the device in order to enable the device to emit selective narrow bandwidths of radiation.
2. Description of the Prior Art
A. Currently Used Collimators
Currently used collimators, such as lensing and parabolic reflectors, emit collimated, spatially coherent electromagnetic energy. At the aperture of these collimators, all electromagnetic energy is spatially coherent. Spatially coherent light will produce sharp shadows.
B. Reflector Design
Spiral based curves have been used for the collection of energy. For example, U.S. Pat. No. 3,974,824, Solar Heating Device, discloses a solar heating device utilizing a cylindrical reflector with a spirally extending section and a parabolically section for concentrating solar energy on an axially disposed absorber carrying a fluid to be heated. In this device, the incoming energy is concentrated along the axis of the spiral.
Additionally, spiral reflectors have been used to illuminate walls, as per U.S. Pat. No. 4,564,888, Wall Wash Lighting Fixture. The reflector of this device, however, discloses only the use of a light bulb within a reflector which does not fully enclose the bulb.
C. Light Filter Design
Ordinary light filters often absorb 50-90% of the desired wavelengths to eliminate the unwanted portion of the spectrum.
It is an object of this invention to provide a device for soft irradiation having a spiral shaped reflector used with an electromagnetic radiation source positioned such that the source is shielded from direct view and is located off of any focal axis of the reflector, such that output from the source undergoes at least one reflection and has soft or multi-angled dispersion without spatial collimation.
It is a further object of the invention to provide impingement cooling of the radiation source to allow efficient use of a high intensity radiation source.
It is another object of the invention to allow output in selective bandwidths through the use of optical reflectance coatings on the surface of the reflector or transmission filters.
It is also an object of the invention to combine multiple reflectors in conjunction with one another to evenly illuminate complex or large surfaces.
More particularly, the present invention is directed to off-axis localization of linear and point sources of electromagnetic irradiation within spiral curve reflectors to produce gradient soft irradiation with approximately linear power degradation with respect to distance. The joining of multiple spirals can be adjusted to uniformly irradiate complex surfaces. In contrast to currently used collimators, such as lensing and parabolic reflectors, the radiation emanating from the source of this invention is dispersed spatially at the aperture without parallel rays, producing a soft pattern of irradiation. Additionally, the present invention is directed to the application of optical reflectance coatings to the inner surface of the spiral reflector to produce emission of selective narrow bandwidths of radiation from a broader bandwidth source. The invention apparatus will have application to the fields of phototherapy (both adjuvant and endogenous reactions), tanning, photography, lithography, electromagnetic activated chemical reactions, and heat transference. With both pulsed and continuous light sources there will be specific utilities to this design.
Examples of arrangements within the scope of the present invention are illustrated in the accompanying drawings and described hereinafter, but it will be understood that neither the drawings nor the descriptions thereof are presented by way of limitation and that other arrangements also within the scope of the present invention will occur to those skilled in the art upon reading the disclosure set forth herein.
FIG. 1 is a perspective view of a device of the present invention.
FIG. 2 is a side view of the device of FIG. 1.
FIG. 3 is a top view of the device of FIG. 1.
FIG. 4 is a sectional view taken along the line 4—4 of FIG. 3. Airflow patterns are shown by the arrows.
FIG. 5 is a front view of a cabinet and reflector arrangement of the present invention. Airflow patterns are shown by the arrows.
FIG. 6 is a sectional view taken along line 6—6 of FIG. 5. Airflow patterns with respect to the left reflector are shown by the arrows (omitted with respect to the right reflector).
FIG. 7 is a typical reflectance curve for a device of the present invention utilizing an optical reflectance coating.
FIG. 8 is a side sectional view similar to FIG. 4 showing a pair of transmission filters offset across the interior opening of the reflector. Airflow patterns are shown by the arrows.
FIG. 9 is also a side sectional view similar to FIG. 4 showing a single transmission filter across the interior opening of the reflector.
FIG. 10 is a perspective view of an alternative embodiment of a device of the present invention. Airflow patterns are shown by the arrows.
FIG. 11 is a perspective view of yet another embodiment of a device of the present invention. Airflow patterns are shown by the arrows.
FIG. 12 is a perspective view of a further embodiment of a device of the present invention.
As shown in FIG. 1, a preferred device of the present invention comprises a spiral reflector 10 and an electromagnetic radiation source 12. The device produces gradient soft irradiation through the off-axis placement of the radiation source 12 completely enclosed within the spiral reflector 10 such that the device emanates only reflected radiation. In other words, the spiral reflector 10 completely encloses the radiation source 12 such that the radiation source 12 is not directly visible from the exterior of the reflector 10. Thus, all radiation emitted from the device is reflected at least once, producing a more linear degradation of the intensity of the emitted radiation.
It should be understood that a light source, such as a light bulb or tube, is a type of electromagnetic radiation source emitting radiation with wavelengths in at least a portion of the visible spectrum. Because the device of the present invention is usable at wavelengths outside the visible spectrum, the source will be referred to herein as an electromagnetic radiation source.
A spiral is the locus in a plane of a point moving around a fixed center at a monotonically increasing or decreasing distance from the center. An Archimedes spiral, having a general polar equation of r=aθ and beginning at the origin of a coordinate axis system, is the basis for the spiral design of the preferred embodiment.
A focal axis of an optical system is the locus of points forming an axis of symmetry to which parallel incident rays converge or from which they appear to diverge.
An placement of the radiation source 12 off of the coordinate or any focal axis (“off-axis”) within the spiral reflector 10 described above will produce gradient soft illumination. FIG. 2 shows the typical off-axis placement of the radiation source for the preferred embodiment.
Additionally, use of nautilus spiral and involute of the circle spiral reflectors in conjunction with the off-axis placement of the radiation source 12 as described above will produce gradient soft irradiation output.
Also shown in FIGS. 1 and 4, venting of the spiral reflector near the radiation source 12, typically a tubular bulb, in order to provide impingement air cooling of the source 12, is provided in part through cooling vent 14, and cooling openings 16 in side closure members 18. The off-axis placement of the source 12 allows for this method of cooling to be used.
It should be understood that references herein to air cooling are equivalent to cooling by any fluid substance, and fluid cooling is interchangeable with air cooling.
As shown in FIGS. 5 and 6, impingement air cooling in the preferred embodiment is facilitated by cabinet 22 having intake holes 28, outlet hole 30, and being sealed with a substantially transparent window 26, in conjunction with blower 24. Blower 24 serves to pull out of the cabinet 22 through outlet hole 30, creating an area of lower pressure between the radiation exit aperture of the reflectors 10 and the transparent window 26. Thus, air is pulled into the cabinet through intake holes 28, into the reflector through cooling vent 14 and cooling openings 16, over and around radiation source 12, and out through the radiation exit aperture of the reflector 10. The spiral shape of the reflector 10 and off-axis placement of the radiation source 12 contribute to the cooling efficiency of the design as the airflow described above creates a turbulence around the radiation source 12. This design permits the use of high intensity radiation sources to be used within the completely enclosing reflector 10.
It should also be understood that the blower 24 shown in the Figures hereto is intended to be a generic representation of a mechanical device causing the movement of a fluid, such as air. Devices of this type are well known in the art and the exact type of device is not critical to scope of this invention.
FIG. 6 also shows the preferred placement of two spiral reflectors—utilizing the opposing gradient illumination patterns of each reflector to produce a uniform illumination of a surface. Additionally, the preferred embodiment allows for the stacking of multiple pairs of reflectors to provide illumination of surfaces of virtually any size or shape.
Also shown in FIG. 4, the inner surface of the spiral reflector 10 of the preferred embodiment has an optical reflectance coating 20 which efficiently reflects only select wavelengths. Since much of the radiation emitted from the device is reflected multiple times before exiting, the device will emit bands of radiation with sharp delineation. Optical reflectance coatings are often 95-99% reflective over the desired bandwidth and less than 10% reflective elsewhere. Thus, multiple reflections will effectively eliminate the undesired bandwidth while preserving the desired bandwidth. FIG. 7 shows a typical reflectance curve for the preferred embodiment.
Further aiding the selective wavelength emission from the device, substantially transparent window 26 may by design have filtering characteristics with respect to certain wavelength radiation.
Alternative embodiments of the invention utilizing select transmission filters 32 are shown in FIGS. 8 through 11.
FIG. 8 shows a pair of transmission filters staggered across the interior opening of the reflector 10 such that radiation from the source 12 will be filtered while cooling air may continue to flow around the source.
FIG. 9 shows an alternate version of the filter design of FIG. 8 wherein a single transmission filter 32 is utilized across the interior opening of the reflector 10. This design allows use of a reduced size transmission filter 32.
FIGS. 10 and 11 show yet another embodiment of the invention wherein transparent window 26 is placed directly across the radiation exit aperture of the reflector 10. Again, substantially transparent window 26 may by design have filtering characteristics with respect to certain wavelength radiation.
The embodiment shown in FIG. 10 utilizes a blower 24 to push air into cooling openings 16 in side closure members 18. Notably, cooling vent 14 is removed from this embodiment, forcing air through entering through cooling openings 16 to exit through aperture 34 cut along the outer edge of the reflector 10.
FIG. 11 shows the embodiment of FIG. 10 with the addition of a second blower 25 located at aperture 34 to pull cooling air out of the reflector 10. Thus, higher efficiency cooling is achieved by both pushing and pulling (push-pull) cooling air through the reflector 10.
An additional efficiency of the device is that almost all light emitted by the radiation source 12 is collected from beneath, behind and around the source 12 and reflected in a forward direction rather than back into the source 12. Thus, a lower initial amount of radiation is necessary to achieve desired output levels, reducing energy consumption and undesired heat.
The device may utilize both pulsed and continuous radiation sources. Pulsed electromagnetic irradiance from this device will have specific advantages over continuous light in the irradiation of biological tissues and in initiating photochemical reactions. These include the following:
Pulsed irradiance allows for the activation of endogenous and exogenous photochemical reactions important to the treatment of skin diseases such as psoriasis, generation of vitamin D, and other light driven reactions.
Pulsed irradiance allows for deeper penetration of high intensity electromagnetic energy. When there is a threshold dependent photochemical reaction this will permit the reaction to take place deeper within the surface. The energy is delivered in picosecond to millisecond intervals.
Pulsed irradiance may be regulated within fractions of a second.
Higher peak powers will allow for photochemical reactions heretofore unknown.
Pulsed energy which is translated to heat can be dissipated between the pulses.
In conditions where the targeted absorption of electromagnetic irradiation is greater than surrounding tissue, pulsing will enhance the relative heating of the region. For example, dark hair follicles will be selectively heated during pulsing, resulting in destruction of unwanted hair with less discomfort to the surrounding tissue.
The preferred embodiment of the device utilizes a pulsed Xenon flash tube as the radiation source 12. Xenon tubes are rated to last for many years of continuous use, and provide stable output over the years. The pulsed Xenon embodiment of the device provides extremely reliable dosimetry.
An additional embodiment of the invention utilizing a plurality of radiation sources 36 is shown in FIG. 12. This embodiment allows for different wavelength sources 36 to be utilized, ie. single color lights for mixing of hue and temperature of the light at the radiation exit aperture of the reflector 10.
It will be understood that the forgoing examples are not by way of limitation of the present invention and that other arrangements also within the scope of the present invention will occur to those skilled in the art upon reading the disclosure set forth herein.
|Cited Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US1445306||May 12, 1922||Feb 13, 1923||Monroe E Epstein||Nonglare headlamp reflector|
|US1835745||Oct 7, 1929||Dec 8, 1931||Charles A Barbian||Illuminating device|
|US1948680||Aug 4, 1932||Feb 27, 1934||Charles E Rose||Headlight reflector|
|US2032622||Nov 15, 1933||Mar 3, 1936||Applic Guilux Soc D||Reflector|
|US2652480||Jun 17, 1948||Sep 15, 1953||Duval Philippe Charles||Combined illuminator and reflector|
|US3588492||Oct 1, 1968||Jun 28, 1971||Gen Motors Corp||Rectangular vehicle headlamp with collimating discs|
|US3776637||Dec 14, 1972||Dec 4, 1973||United Aircraft Corp||Circular involute reflector for providing a variable pathlength|
|US4150422||Oct 27, 1977||Apr 17, 1979||Peralta Enrique B||Armored light projector|
|US4350412||Apr 7, 1980||Sep 21, 1982||Georgia Tech Research Institute||Fresnel spiral reflector and method for making same|
|US4517631||May 14, 1984||May 14, 1985||J. W. Lighting Inc.||Indirect light reflector|
|US4610518||Dec 14, 1984||Sep 9, 1986||Clegg John E||Involute beam concentrator|
|US4747033||Oct 15, 1985||May 24, 1988||Ricoh Company, Ltd.||Illuminating device|
|US4748543||Jun 29, 1987||May 31, 1988||Swarens Ralph W||Hidden source fluorescent light wash fixture|
|US4891739||May 24, 1989||Jan 2, 1990||Ricoh Company, Ltd.||Illuminating device|
|US4947292||Nov 8, 1988||Aug 7, 1990||Vlah John A||Lighting system|
|US4953062 *||Jun 28, 1989||Aug 28, 1990||Tomar Electronics, Inc.||Strobe flash lamp with focussed front beam and collimated lateral beams|
|US4956759||Dec 30, 1988||Sep 11, 1990||North American Philips Corporation||Illumination system for non-imaging reflective collector|
|US5025356||Jul 31, 1989||Jun 18, 1991||Get Sylvania Canada Ltd||Small profile high wattage horitcultural luminaire|
|US5075827||Oct 31, 1990||Dec 24, 1991||Smith David H||Indirect light fixture amplification reflector system|
|US5124891||Jan 24, 1991||Jun 23, 1992||Valeo Vision||Motor vehicle headlight including an improved light source|
|US5142459||Jul 29, 1991||Aug 25, 1992||Swarens Ralph W||Hidden source fluorescent light wash fixture|
|US5169230||Jun 20, 1991||Dec 8, 1992||The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Air Force||Lamp for producing light intensity uniformity|
|US5414600||Jul 30, 1993||May 9, 1995||Cogent Light Technologies, Inc.||Condensing and collecting optical system using an ellipsoidal reflector|
|US5471371||Jan 8, 1993||Nov 28, 1995||Ford Motor Company||High efficiency illuminator|
|US5618102||Jun 7, 1995||Apr 8, 1997||Adac Plastics, Inc.||Plasma discharge lamp|
|US5923471||Nov 26, 1996||Jul 13, 1999||Deposition Sciences, Inc.||Optical interference coating capable of withstanding severe temperature environments|
|US5971571||Sep 8, 1997||Oct 26, 1999||Winona Lighting Studio, Inc.||Concave light reflector device|
|US6220731 *||Nov 10, 1998||Apr 24, 2001||Altman Stage Lighting Co., Inc.||Cyclorama light|
|DE2720063A1||May 5, 1977||Nov 16, 1978||Original Hanau Quarzlampen||UV and IR radiator reflector - is spiral shaped reflector reproducing logarithmic or other geometric spiral|
|EP0067892A1||Jun 19, 1981||Dec 29, 1982||Friedrich Wolff||Device for the emission of light and other radiations|
|Citing Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US7229192||Oct 21, 2004||Jun 12, 2007||Acuity Brands, Inc.||Light fixture and lens assembly for same|
|US7261435||Oct 21, 2004||Aug 28, 2007||Acuity Brands, Inc.||Light fixture and lens assembly for same|
|US8153894||Apr 1, 2009||Apr 10, 2012||Abl Ip Holding Llc||Mounting system|
|US8220957||Apr 1, 2009||Jul 17, 2012||Abl Ip Holding Llc||Retrofit light assembly|
|US8905590 *||May 20, 2011||Dec 9, 2014||Edward Bryant Stoneham||Linear wash lamp|
|US9115867 *||Oct 19, 2010||Aug 25, 2015||Macdonald, Dettwiler And Associates Inc.||Dual reflector system for linear lamp illuminators|
|US9383122 *||Nov 14, 2013||Jul 5, 2016||Eduardo Saucedo||Spiral concentrating collector with moving receiver|
|US9635712 *||Oct 15, 2013||Apr 25, 2017||Hyundai Motor Company||Near-infrared condensing heating unit, near-infrared condensing heater using the same, and method for forming panel using the same|
|US20050219845 *||Feb 9, 2005||Oct 6, 2005||Gregory Cutler||Illumination system with improved optical efficiency|
|US20050281023 *||Oct 21, 2004||Dec 22, 2005||Gould Carl T||Light fixture and lens assembly for same|
|US20050281024 *||Oct 21, 2004||Dec 22, 2005||Mayfield John T Iii||Light fixture and lens assembly for same|
|US20120092859 *||Oct 19, 2010||Apr 19, 2012||Dennis Gregoris||Dual reflector system for linear lamp illuminators|
|US20120273812 *||Sep 30, 2011||Nov 1, 2012||Kenji Takahashi||Light source for illumination|
|US20130135872 *||May 20, 2011||May 30, 2013||Edward Bryant Stoneham||Linear wash lamp|
|US20140294369 *||Oct 15, 2013||Oct 2, 2014||Korea Advanced Institute Of Science And Technology||Near-infrared condensing heating unit, near-infrared condensing heater using the same, and method for forming panel using the same|
|US20150128929 *||Nov 14, 2013||May 14, 2015||Eduardo Saucedo||Spiral Concentrating Collector with Moving Receiver|
|USD612534||Apr 24, 2008||Mar 23, 2010||Abl Ip Holding Llc||Bracket|
|USD632006 *||Aug 2, 2010||Feb 1, 2011||Orion Energy Systems, Inc.||Reflector for a lighting fixture|
|USD640825||Apr 24, 2008||Jun 28, 2011||Abl Ip Holding Llc||Louver|
|WO2005078764A1 *||Feb 10, 2005||Aug 25, 2005||Diversified Industries Ltd.||Protection device for high intensity radiation sources|
|U.S. Classification||362/297, 362/241, 362/373, 362/263, 362/345|
|International Classification||F21V7/00, F21V29/02, F21V13/08, F21V7/04, A61N5/06|
|Cooperative Classification||F21V29/02, A61N2005/0665, F21V13/08, F21V29/83, A61N5/0614, A61N5/0616, F21V7/0008, F21V7/04|
|European Classification||F21V7/04, F21V7/00A, F21V13/08, F21V29/02|
|Mar 22, 2006||FPAY||Fee payment|
Year of fee payment: 4
|May 3, 2010||REMI||Maintenance fee reminder mailed|
|Sep 24, 2010||LAPS||Lapse for failure to pay maintenance fees|
|Nov 16, 2010||FP||Expired due to failure to pay maintenance fee|
Effective date: 20100924