Search Images Maps Play YouTube News Gmail Drive More »
Sign in
Screen reader users: click this link for accessible mode. Accessible mode has the same essential features but works better with your reader.

Patents

  1. Advanced Patent Search
Publication numberUS6456611 B1
Publication typeGrant
Application numberUS 09/205,801
Publication dateSep 24, 2002
Filing dateDec 4, 1998
Priority dateDec 4, 1998
Fee statusPaid
Publication number09205801, 205801, US 6456611 B1, US 6456611B1, US-B1-6456611, US6456611 B1, US6456611B1
InventorsLan Hu, Wendy Cheung
Original AssigneeNortel Networks Limited
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
CDMA modem using common block architecture
US 6456611 B1
Abstract
A CDMA modem for use in a CDMA base station for communicating with a plurality of mobile stations each of which may communicate according to any of a plurality of air interface standards is hard-wired only to the extent necessary for functions common to all of the air interface standards. Remaining functions are software-configurable so as to be adaptable for any of the air interface standards.
Images(24)
Previous page
Next page
Claims(34)
Having described the invention, what is claimed as new and secured by Letters Patent is:
1. In a two-way radio system comprising a base station and a plurality of mobile stations wherein the mobile stations may operate under any IS-95-CDMA, UMTS UTRA, or cdma2000 CDMA air interface standards,
a method of communicating between the base station and the plurality of mobile stations, the method comprising the steps of:
providing a modem comprising transmitter components and receiver components;
configuring the transmitter components and the receiver components that are functional within all of the IS-95, UMTS UTRA, and cdma2000 interface standards as a first set of components that are hard-wired components; and
configuring the transmitter components and the receiver components that are functional within particular ones of the IS-95, UMTS UTRA, and cdma2000 air interface standards as a second set of components being software-configurable.
2. A modem for use with IS-95, UMTS UTRA, and cdma2000 radio systems comprising:
a first set of components being hard-wired transmitter components and receiver components for functions common to IS-95, UMTS UTRA, and cdma2000 air interface standards; and
a second of components being software-configurable transmitter components and receiver components configurable to function according to any of IS-95, UMTS UTRA, and cdma2000 air interface standards.
3. A modem according to claim 2, wherein the transmitter components comprise: input means for accepting a data stream to be transmitted via an air interface;
a bit inserter for adding cyclic redundancy check (CRC) bits and tail bits to the data stream according to any of the predetermined air interface standards;
a convolutional encoder for convolutionally encoding the data stream according to any of the predetermined air interface standards;
a symbol handler for performing symbol repetition and symbol puncture in the data stream according to any of the predetermined air interface standards;
an interleaver for interleaving the data stream in accordance with any of the predetermined plurality of air interface standards;
a Long-Code generator for generating Long Codes in accordance with any of the predetermined plurality of air interface standards;
a Long-Code scrambler operatively connected to the Long-Code generator for Long-Code scrambling the data stream in accordance with any of the predetermined plurality of air interface standards;
a quadrature modulator for modulating the data stream according to any of the predetermined air interface standards;
a Walsh-Code generator for generating Walsh Codes in accordance with any of the predetermined plurality of air interface standards;
a Walsh-Code spreader operatively connected to the Walsh-Code generator for Walsh-Code spreading the data stream in accordance with any of the predetermined plurality of air interface standards;
pseudo-noise (PN) code generators for generating PN codes according to any of the predetermined plurality of air interface standards; and
a PN scrambler operatively connected to the PN code generators for PN-scrambling the data stream in accordance with any of the predetermined plurality of air interface standards.
4. The modem according to claim 3, wherein the transmitter components further comprise a Reed-Solomon encoder for encoding the data stream in accordance with the cdma2000 and UMTS UTRA air interface standards, and which is not functional when the modem is used in conjunction with the IS-95 CDMA air interface standard.
5. The modem according to claim 3, wherein the transmitter components further comprise a Turbo code encoder for encoding the data stream in accordance with the cdma2000 and UMTS UTRA air interface standards, and which is not functional when the modem is used in conjunction with the IS-95 CDMA air interface standard.
6. The modem according to claim 3. wherein the PN scrambler has no effect when the modem is used in conjunction with the UMTS UTRA air interface standard.
7. The modem according to claim 2, wherein the transmitter components comprise:
input means for accepting a data stream to be transmitted via the air interface.
8. The modem according to claim 7, wherein the transmitter components comprise a bit inserter for adding cyclic redundancy check (CRC) bits and tail bits to the data stream according to any of the predetermined air interface standards.
9. The modem according to claim 7, wherein the transmitter components comprise a convolutional encoder for convolutionally encoding the data stream according to any of the predetermined air interface standards.
10. The modem according to claim 7, wherein the transmitter components comprise a symbol handler for performing symbol repetition and symbol puncture in the data stream according to any of the predetermined air interface standards.
11. The modem according to claim 7, wherein the transmitter components comprise an interleaver for interleaving the data stream in accordance with any of the predetermined plurality of air interface standards.
12. The modem according to claim 7, wherein the transmitter components comprise:
a Long-Code generator for generating Long Codes in accordance with any of the predetermined plurality of air interface standards; and
a Long-Code scrambler operatively connected to the Long-Code generator for Long-Code scrambling the data stream in accordance with any of the predetermined plurality of air interface standards.
13. The modem according to claim 7, wherein the transmitter components comprise a quadrature modulator for modulating the data stream according to any of the predetermined air interface standards.
14. The modem according to claim 7, wherein the transmitter components comprise:
a Walsh-Code generator for generating Walsh Codes in accordance with any of the predetermined plurality of air interface standards; and
a Walsh-Code spreader operatively connected to the Walsh-Code generator for Walsh-code spreading the data stream in accordance with any of the predetermined plurality of air interface standards.
15. The modem according to claim 7, wherein the transmitter components comprise:
pseudo-noise (PN) code generators for generating PN codes according to any of the predetermined plurality of air interface standards; and
a PN scrambler operatively connected to the PN code generators for PN-scrambling the data stream in accordance with any of the predetermined plurality of air interface standards.
16. The modem according to claim 15, wherein the PN scrambler has no effect when the modem is used in conjunction with the UMTS UTRA air interface standard.
17. The modem according to claim 7, wherein the transmitter components further comprise a Reed-Solomon encoder for encoding the data stream in accordance with the cdma2000 and UMTS UTRA air interface standards, and which is not functional when the modem is used in conjunction with the IS-95 air interface standard.
18. The modem according to claim 7, wherein the transmitter components further comprise a Turbo code encoder for encoding the data stream in accordance with the cdma2000 and UMTS UTRA air interface standards, and which is not functional when the modem is used in conjunction with the IS-95 air interface standard.
19. The modem according to claim 2, wherein the receiver components further comprise:
input means for accepting a data stream received over an air interface, converted to baseband, and sampled into digital signals;
a searcher for determining transmission delay of the air interface according to any of the predetermined plurality of air interface standards;
a complex descrambler for descrambling the data stream according to pseudo-noise (PN) codes and Long Codes according to any of the predetermined plurality of air interface standards;
code generators operatively connected to the descrambler for generating PN codes and Long Codes according to any of the predetermined plurality of air interface standards;
a Walsh despreader for Walsh-Code despreading of the data stream according to any of the predetermined plurality of air interface standards;
a Walsh-Code generator operatively connected to the Walsh despreader for generating Walsh Codes according to any of the predetermined plurality of air interface standards;
a Hadamard transformer for selecting elements of a despread data stream from the outputs of the Walsh despreader in accordance with the IS-95 standard, and not functional when the modem is used with the cdma2000 or UMTS UTRA standards;
a bit detector for power control according to the cdma2000 or UMTS UTRA air interfaces;
a symbol derepeater for performing symbol derepetition on the data stream according to any of the predetermined plurality of air interface standards;
a sequence derepeater for performing sequence derepetition on the data stream according to any of the predetermined plurality of air interface standards;
a deinterleaver for deinterleaving the data stream in accordance with any of the predetermined plurality of air interface standards;
at least one Viterbi decoder for decoding the data stream in accordance with parameters predetermined according to any of the predetermined plurality of air interface standards;
at least one cyclic redundancy detector for checking the data stream in accordance with parameters predetermined according to any of the predetermined plurality of air interface standards;
a Reed-Solomon decoder for decoding the data stream in accordance with the cdma2000 or UMTS UTRA air interface standards, and having no effect on the data stream in conjunction with the IS-95 air interface standard;
a turbo code decoder for decoding the data stream in accordance with the cdma2000 or UMTS UTRA air interface standards, and having no effect on the data stream in conjunction with the IS-95 air interface standard;
an error rate detector for determining bit error rate and frame error rate of the data stream according to parameters predetermined according to any of the predetermined plurality of air interface standards; and
a power controller responsive to at least the bit error rate and frame error rate for controlling power level over the air interface.
20. The modem according to claim 2, wherein the receiver components further comprise input means for accepting a data stream received over an air interface, converted to baseband, and sampled into digital signals.
21. The modem according to claim 20, wherein the receiver components further comprise:
a complex descrambler for descrambling the data stream according to pseudo-noise (PN) codes and Long Codes according to any of the predetermined plurality of air interface standards;
code generators operatively connected to the complex descrambler for generating PN codes and Long Codes according to any of the predetermined plurality of air interface standards.
22. The modem according to claim 20, wherein the receiver components further comprise:
a Walsh despreader for Walsh-Code despreading of the data stream according to any of the predetermined plurality of air interface standards;
a Walsh-Code generator operatively connected to the Walsh despreader for generating Walsh Codes according to any of the predetermined plurality of air interface standards.
23. The modem according to claim 20, wherein the receiver components further comprise a Hadamard transformer for selecting elements of a despread data stream from the outputs of the Walsh despreader in accordance with the IS-95 standard, the Hadamard transformer having no effect when used with the cdma2000 or UMTS UTRA air interface standards.
24. The modem according to claim 20, wherein the receiver components further comprise a bit detector for power control according to the cdma2000 or UMTS UTRA air interfaces.
25. The modem according to claim 20, wherein the receiver components further comprise a symbol derepeater for performing symbol derepetition on the data stream according to any of the predetermined plurality of air interface standards.
26. The modem according to claim 20, wherein the receiver components further comprise a sequence derepeater for performing sequence derepetition on the data stream according to any of the predetermined plurality of air interface standards.
27. The modem according to claim 20, wherein the receiver components further comprise a deinterleaver for deinterleaving the data stream in accordance with any of the predetermined plurality of air interface standards.
28. The modem according to claim 20, wherein the receiver components further comprise at least one Viterbi decoder for decoding the data stream in accordance with parameters predetermined according to any of the predetermined plurality of air interface standards.
29. The modem according to claim 20, wherein the receiver components further comprise at least one cyclic redundancy detector for cyclic-redundancy checking the data stream in accordance with parameters predetermined according to any of the predetermined plurality of air interface standards.
30. The modem according to claim 20, wherein the receiver components further comprise a Reed-Solomon decoder for decoding the data stream in accordance with the cdma2000 or UMTS UTRA air interface standards, and having no effect on the data stream in conjunction with the IS-95 air interface standard.
31. The modem according to claim 20, wherein the receiver components further comprise a Turbo code decoder for decoding the data stream in accordance with the cdma2000 or UMTS UTRA air interface standards, and having no effect on the data stream in conjunction with the IS-95 air interface standard.
32. The modem according to claim 20, wherein the receiver components further comprise an error rate detector for determining bit error rate and frame error rate of the data stream according to parameters predetermined according to any of the predetermined plurality of air interface standards.
33. The modem according to claim 32, wherein the receiver components further comprise a power controller responsive to at least the bit error rate and frame error rate for controlling power level over the air interface.
34. The modem according to claim 20 wherein the receiver components further comprise a searcher for determining a transmission delay of the system.
Description
FIELD OF THE INVENTION

This invention pertains to modems, particularly to modems for use in CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access) radio systems, and most particularly to modems able to function in any of several different generations or standards of CDMA radio systems.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

CDMA radio systems are well known. See, generally, CDMA Cellular Mobile Communications and Network Security, Dr. Man Young Rhee, Prentice Hall 1998, ISBN 0-13-598418-1.

Currently,“second generation” CDMA systems, often referred to in the art as “2G” systems, governed by standard TIA/EIA/IS-95, hereinafter“IS-95”, are widely used. The third generation of CDMA systems, such as cdma2000 and UMTS UTRA systems are being introduced as a extensions of IS-95 systems.

Each of those three systems has to date required the use of different terminals or base stations for different air interface standards. This results in great inconvenience to consumers and burdens the service providers with extra operating costs.

There is thus a need to provide CDMA equipment that can function under each of the IS-95, UMTS UTRA, and cdma2000 standards.

It is thus an object of the present invention to provide an efficient soft modem architecture that can accommodate third generation (cdma2000, UMTS UTRA) and one second generation (IS-95) standards.

It is a further object of the present invention to provide a CDMA modem that is configurable over a broad range of uses.

It is a further object of the present invention to provide a CDMA modem definable by software.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

In accordance with the teachings of the present invention, these and other objects may be accomplished by the present systems and methods in a modem configurable to operate in a variety of environments each representing a different air interface standard. An embodiment of the present invention includes a method of CDMA communication comprising configuring the components of a modem which are common to the cdma2000, UMTS UTRA, and IS-95 air interface standards as hard-wired components, and configuring the components unique to each of those air interface standards as software-configurable components. Another embodiment of the present invention comprises a modem with hard-wired circuitry to perform functions common to those three air interface standards and software-configurable elements to perform functions unique to any of those three air interface standards.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

The invention will be more clearly understood by reference to the following detailed description of an exemplary embodiment in conjunction with the accompanying drawings, in which:

FIG. 1 is a function diagram of a prior-art forward link transmitter for use in a third-generation (cdma2000) CDMA system;

FIG. 2 is a function diagram of a prior-art forward link transmitter for use in a wideband (UMTS UTRA) CDMA system;

FIG. 3 is a function diagram of a prior-art forward link transmitter for use in a second-generation (IS-95) CDMA system;

FIG. 4 is a function diagram of a convention reverse link receiver for use in a cdma2000 CDMA system;

FIG. 5 is a function diagram of a prior-art reverse link receiver for use in a UMTS UTRA CDMA system;

FIG. 6 is a function diagram of a prior-art reverse link receiver for use in a IS-95 CDMA system;

FIG. 7 is an architectural block diagram of a transmitter modem portion of the present invention for use in a common modem in cdma2000, UMTS UTRA, and IS-95 systems;

FIGS. 8A and 8B comprise an architectural block diagram of a receiver modem portion of the present invention for use in a common modem in cdma2000, UMTS UTRA, and IS-95 systems;

FIG. 9 depicts detail of the searcher fingers of FIG. 8A;

FIG. 10 depicts detail of the rake receiver fingers of FIG. 8A;

FIG. 11 depicts common clock generation for the modem of the present invention;

FIG. 12 depicts a convolutional encoder for the modem of the present invention;

FIG. 13 depicts a BER/FER detector for use in CDMA systems;

FIG. 14 depicts an interleaver/deinterleaver for use with the present invention;

FIG. 15 depicts the Walsh-Code Generator of the present invention;

FIG. 16 depicts the Long-Code and Gold-Code Generator of the present invention;

FIG. 17 depicts a generator of the present invention for generating Short Gold Code, I and Q pseudo-noise codes, and Kasami Code;

FIG. 18 depicts the power control portion of the present invention;

FIG. 19 depicts channel decoding of the present invention; and

FIG. 20 depicts sequence derepetition of the present invention.

FIG. 21 gives an overview of the concept of the present invention.

FIG. 22 is a block diagram showing the relationship between the modem base station and the mobile stations.

DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

As best seen in FIG. 22, the present invention includes a modem for use in a base station, and which is adaptable to work with a variety of mobile stations, each of which may function according to a different air interface standard. (Each mobile station is typically limited to a single one of the air interface standards.)

The basic operating principle of the invention is that a common modem (i.e., a modem usable for any of a variety of standards can be created by (1) determining which functions are common to all standards, and which are not; (2) providing hardware elements that execute the “common” functions; and (3) providing software configurable modules that execute the “custom” functions particular to each standard. FIG. 21 illustrates this principle.

In one practice of the invention, the “common” functions for forward link transmission include:

Adding CRC and tail bits;

Convolutional encoding;

Symbol repetition and puncture;

Block interleaving;

Long-code scrambling;

Walsh-code spreading; and

I & Q filtering,

while the “custom” forward-link functions include:

Reed-Solomon coding;

Turbo coding;

Addition of reserved bits;

Channel gain;

Power-control bit puncture;

I & Q scrambling; and

Splatter control.

The reverse-link “common” functions include:

Front-end interface;

Searchers;

Rake receiver fingers;

Rake receiver combiner;

De-interleaving;

Viterbi decoding;

CRC check; and

BER measurement.

while the reverse-link “custom” functions include:

Reed-Solomon decoding;

Turbo decoding;

Finger and tracking control;

PN code polynomial control; and

Power control decision.

Functions common to both forward link and reverse link include timing generation and generation of codes (such as Long Code, Gold Code, Kasami Code, PN Codes, etc.).

FIGS. 1, 2, and 3 are function diagrams of prior-art modems for use in forward link (base station to mobile) transmitters for cdma2000, UMTS UTRA, and IS-95 systems respectively. These figures depict the functions performed by prior-art modems, and thus are not architectural diagrams or circuit schematic diagrams. Although the configurations are different for each of the modes of operation, those skilled in the art will appreciate that based on the cdma2000, UMTS UTRA, and IS-95 standards, many functions are common.

FIGS. 4, 5, and 6 are function diagrams (again, not architectural or circuit schematic diagrams) of prior-art modems for use in reverse link (mobile to base station) receivers for cdma2000, UMTS UTRA, and IS-95 systems respectively. Again, many functions are common among the three system standards. The channel types that are substantially the same among the three interface standards include:

Synchronization channel for the three standards;

Paging channel for the three standards;

Pilot channel for the three standards;

Access channel for the three standards;

cdma2000 fundamental channel and IS-95 traffic channel;

cdma2000 supplemental channel and UMTS UTRA dedicated data channel; and

cdma2000 control channel and UMTS UTRA dedicated control channel.

The present invention provides a modem that can serve as a “common” modem, functional under all three standards. This is done by determining commonality, implementing common portions in hardware, and implementing the remaining unique-to-standard portions in software so that they may be configured when the modem is put into service for a particular standard, and reconfigured when it is put into service for another standard.

The common elements are determined to maximize hardware implementation, and the unique-to-standard elements are determined to minimize software features and to maximize reconfigurability.

The invention further includes a common baseband clock generator for the different standards, and the ability to reconfigure the paging, access, synchronization, and/or control channels, when they are not being used for their respective functions, for use as a traffic channel.

The high-level architecture of the forward-link transmitter portion of such a common modem is shown in FIG. 7, and the reverse-link receiver portion in FIGS. 8A and 8B.

The Common Modem in General

A typical cdma2000 forward link for traffic consists of the fundamental channel, supplemental channel, and control channel. A typical IS-95 forward link for traffic consists of the fundamental channel. A typical UMTS UTRA forward link for traffic consists of the dedicated data channel and the dedicated control channel.

It is economic to implement the data path and functional blocks in hardware, since they are reused for the following channel types among the three standards for air interfaces:

cdma2000 fundamental channel and IS-95 fundamental channel;

cdma2000 supplemental channel and UMTS UTRA dedicated data channel;

cdma2000 control channel and UMTS UTRA dedicated control channel; and

baseband modulator for cdma2000, UMTS UTRA, and IS-95.

The common modem may operate at any of the user data rates occurring in the three standards. An embodiment of the baseband clock generation for different chip rates and data rates is shown in FIG. 11. The many clock rates required are obtained by successive division performed on a small number of clock rates.

The common modem, depending on the air interface standard, chip rate, and user data rate, has a number of configurable parameters for the modem function blocks. These parameters may be hardwired and selectable in the modem, or programmable by modifying modem registers, at the option of the designer.

The Baseband Forward-link Transmitter (FIG. 7)

The elements of FIG. 7 that are common to all or most interface standards and which lend themselves to hardware implementation are

Turbo Code Encloder 107

Reed-Solomon Encoder 100 (bypassed for IS-95 standard);

Data Interface 702;

Add CRC & Tail Bits 104;

Convolutional Encoder 106;

Symbol Repetition and Puncture 108;

BPSK/QPSK modulator 114;

Walsh-Code Spreading 122; and

I & Q PN scrambler 122.

It may be desirable to have polynomials 704 and 708 provided to registers under control of software.

One in the art can design the channel encoders (Reed-Solomon encoder 100, convolutional encoders 106) to operate at different selectable clock rates depending on the air interface standard, the channel type, and user data rate, to employ configurable code polynomials, number of parities, and code rate. A block diagram of such a channel encoder is shown in FIG. 12.

The remaining elements of FIG. 7 are more efficiently implemented in software which permits variations required among the different standards to be easily effected.

An embodiment of Interleaver 110 is given in FIG. 14, implemented as a lookup table, software-controlled address generator, and buffer. Depending on the air interface standard, channel type, and user data rate, it provides:

an interleaving memory used for any of the three standards;

configurable read/write address generator;

configurable values of sequence and symbol repetition (108); and

configurable values for puncture matrix (108).

The Long Code generator (also used for Gold Code) is given in FIG. 16. The hardware depicted in FIG. 16 is ideally software-controlled. Clock rate can be selectable depending on the air interface and chip rate. Software can provide a configurable initial state and mask and a configurable polynomial.

PN code generation is shown in FIG. 17. The hardware depicted is ideally software controlled.

A DS (direct spread) and MC (multi-carrier) demultiplexer 720 is used to accommodate both direct spread and multi-carrier systems, with Walsh BPSK/QPSK modulation, Walsh spreading, and I/Q PN scrambling provided for each carrier.

Software can specify baseband symbol mapping configured for either BPSK and QPSK modulation for block 114.

The Baseband Reverse-link Receiver (FIGS. 8A, 8B)

Data Interface 402 of conventional modems is implemented in hardware in the present invention. Searcher 406 of conventional modems is replaced in the present invention by Searcher Fingers 802, depicted in FIG. 9. It is economic to provide such functions as buffering, delaying, descrambling, and despreading largely in hardware, but remaining functions such as control, providing of codes, and interpretation of results are amenable to software solution.

Rake Fingers 404 of conventional modems are replaced in the present invention by Rake Fingers 803, depicted in FIG. 10. Some of Rake Fingers 803's functions, such as Complex Despreading, Walsh despreading, PN code multiplication, and Phase Correction are amenable to hardware solution while PN Code determination is amenable to software solution. It is a design choice whether to perform the Fast Hadamard Transform in hardware or software.

Finger Data Fetch function 801, for setting up the Searcher Fingers and the Rake Fingers, is best performed in software. SIR Measure 804, Finger Control 806, Tracking Control 808, and Combiner 408 lend themselves to software solution. Multicarrier Multiplexer 828, provided for multicarrier applications, is best done in hardware.

Power Control Bit Detection 422 is given in FIG. 18 and is amenable to software solution.

A hardware solution for Sequence and Symbol Derepetiton 410 is given in FIG. 20.

Deinterleaver 412 can be implemented by the table lookup and software-controlled address generator of FIG. 14, similarly to the Interleaver 110.

Provision of polynomials to CRC detectors 810 and 812 and to Reed-Solomon decoder 416 may be accomplished in software, regardless of whether those units are in software or hardware.

BER and FER determination is given in FIG. 13; the parameters input to it from block 820 are best provided by software. CC Coders 814 and 816 re-encode the received signal as necessary for BER and FER determination, and provide it BER 426 through multiplexer 818.

Power Control 424 is given in FIG. 18.

As with the receiver of FIG. 7, timing signals for the different standards may be obtained from the common clock generator of FIG. 11, and codes may obtained from the code generator depicted in FIG. 16.

It will thus be seen that the invention efficiently attains the objects set forth above, among those made apparent from the preceding description. In particular, the invention provides a modem whose transmitter and receiver components are selectable and configurable to operate in conjunction with a plurality of air interface standards. Those skilled in the art will appreciate that the configurations depicted in FIGS. 7, 8A, and 8B provide a modem architecture with receiver and transmitter components configurable to work with IS-95, UMTS UTRA, and cdma2000 CDMA systems.

It will be understood that changes may be made in the above construction and in the foregoing sequences of operation without departing from the scope of the invention. It is accordingly intended that all matter contained in the above description or shown in the accompanying drawings be interpreted as illustrative rather than in a limiting sense.

It is also to be understood that the following claims are intended to cover all of the generic and specific features of the invention as described herein, and all statements of the scope of the invention which, as a matter of language, might be said to fall therebetween.

Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US5511067 *Jun 17, 1994Apr 23, 1996Qualcomm IncorporatedLayered channel element in a base station modem for a CDMA cellular communication system
US5623485 *Feb 21, 1995Apr 22, 1997Lucent Technologies Inc.Dual mode code division multiple access communication system and method
US5659569 *Feb 14, 1994Aug 19, 1997Qualcomm IncorporatedData burst randomizer
US5999815 *Jul 8, 1998Dec 7, 1999Motorola, Inc.Method and apparatus for implementing diversity for a dual-mode communication unit
US6088347 *Mar 10, 1999Jul 11, 2000Massachusetts Institute Of TechnologyVariable chip rate code-division multiple access
US6173006 *Sep 11, 1998Jan 9, 2001Lg Information & Communications, Ltd.Direct sequence CDMA device and method for using the same
US6175588 *Dec 30, 1997Jan 16, 2001Motorola, Inc.Communication device and method for interference suppression using adaptive equalization in a spread spectrum communication system
Non-Patent Citations
Reference
1 *Carr, A., Development and trials for W-CDmA infrastructure Nov. 1998, Telecom MODUS Ltd, (1998 The Institution of Electrical Engineers. Printed and published by the IEE, Savoy Place, London WC2R OBL, UK.).
2 *Knisely et al., Evolution of wireless Dant Services: IS-95 to cdma2000 Oct. 1998, Lucent Technologies, (IEEE Communications Magazine pp. 140-149).*
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US6618431 *Dec 31, 1998Sep 9, 2003Texas Instruments IncorporatedProcessor-based method for the acquisition and despreading of spread-spectrum/CDMA signals
US6697994 *Nov 29, 2002Feb 24, 2004Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd.Operation processing apparatus and operation processing method
US6782497 *Sep 20, 2001Aug 24, 2004Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V.Frame error rate estimation in a receiver
US6925067 *Apr 23, 1999Aug 2, 2005Qualcomm, IncorporatedConfiguration of overhead channels in a mixed bandwidth system
US7095710 *Dec 21, 2001Aug 22, 2006QualcommDecoding using walsh space information
US7254165 *Aug 7, 2003Aug 7, 2007Intel CorporationRe-configurable decoding in modem receivers
US7257757 *Mar 31, 2004Aug 14, 2007Intel CorporationFlexible accelerators for physical layer processing
US7269783 *Apr 30, 2003Sep 11, 2007Lucent Technologies Inc.Method and apparatus for dedicated hardware and software split implementation of rate matching and de-matching
US7447189Jun 28, 2004Nov 4, 2008Qualcomm, IncorporatedConfiguration of overhead channels in a mixed bandwidth system
US7483474 *Nov 26, 2004Jan 27, 2009Nxp B.V.Station comprising a rake receiver
US7486653Jun 28, 2004Feb 3, 2009Qualcomm, IncorporatedConfiguration of overhead channels in a mixed bandwidth system
US7508790Jun 28, 2004Mar 24, 2009Qualcomm IncorporatedConfiguration of overhead channels in a mixed bandwidth system
US7515564 *Apr 16, 2002Apr 7, 2009Interdigital Technology CorporationPhysical layer processing for a wireless communication system using code division multiple access
US7697487Apr 13, 2010Interdigital Technology CorporationPhysical layer processing for a wireless communication system using code division multiple access
US7720450 *Jan 23, 2009May 18, 2010St-Ericsson SaStation comprising a rake receiver
US7739581 *Apr 27, 2007Jun 15, 2010Lg Electronics, Inc.DTV transmitting system and method of processing broadcast data
US7787885 *Aug 10, 2006Aug 31, 2010Nextel Communications Inc.Walsh code expansion in wireless communications systems
US7822134Jul 6, 2007Oct 26, 2010Lg Electronics, Inc.Digital broadcasting system and method of processing data
US7831885Jul 7, 2008Nov 9, 2010Lg Electronics Inc.Digital broadcast receiver and method of processing data in digital broadcast receiver
US7873104Oct 11, 2007Jan 18, 2011Lg Electronics Inc.Digital television transmitting system and receiving system and method of processing broadcasting data
US7876835Jan 25, 2011Lg Electronics Inc.Channel equalizer and method of processing broadcast signal in DTV receiving system
US7881408Feb 1, 2011Lg Electronics Inc.Digital broadcasting system and method of processing data
US7899016Apr 12, 2010Mar 1, 2011Interdigital Technology CorporationPhysical layer processing for a wireless communication system using code division multiple access
US7940855Jul 6, 2007May 10, 2011Lg Electronics Inc.DTV receiving system and method of processing DTV signal
US8023047Dec 10, 2010Sep 20, 2011Lg Electronics Inc.Digital broadcasting system and method of processing data
US8042019Oct 18, 2011Lg Electronics Inc.Broadcast transmitting/receiving system and method of processing broadcast data in a broadcast transmitting/receiving system
US8054891Dec 6, 2010Nov 8, 2011Lg Electronics Inc.Channel equalizer and method of processing broadcast signal in DTV receiving system
US8068561Nov 29, 2011Lg Electronics Inc.DTV receiving system and method of processing DTV signal
US8095142Nov 5, 2008Jan 10, 2012Qualcomm IncorporatedConfiguration of overhead channels in a mixed bandwidth system
US8099654Jan 17, 2012Lg Electronics Inc.Digital broadcasting system and method of processing data in the digital broadcasting system
US8107890 *Jan 31, 2012Broadcom CorporationMultiple frequency band multiple standard device with reduced blocker
US8201050Aug 26, 2011Jun 12, 2012Lg Electronics Inc.Broadcast transmitting system and method of processing broadcast data in the broadcast transmitting system
US8204137Sep 22, 2011Jun 19, 2012Lg Electronics Inc.Channel equalizer and method of processing broadcast signal in DTV receiving system
US8213544Jul 3, 2012Lg Electronics Inc.Digital broadcasting system and method of processing data
US8218675Jul 10, 2012Lg Electronics Inc.Digital broadcasting system and method of processing
US8223884Jul 17, 2012Lg Electronics Inc.DTV transmitting system and method of processing DTV signal
US8351497Jan 8, 2013Lg Electronics Inc.Digital television transmitting system and receiving system and method of processing broadcast data
US8355451Jan 15, 2013Lg Electronics Inc.Channel equalizer and method of processing broadcast signal in DTV receiving system
US8369309Feb 5, 2013Sharp Kabushiki KaishaWireless communication system
US8370707Feb 5, 2013Lg Electronics Inc.Digital broadcasting system and method of processing data in the digital broadcasting system
US8370728Jul 28, 2008Feb 5, 2013Lg Electronics Inc.Digital broadcasting system and method of processing data in digital broadcasting system
US8429504Apr 23, 2013Lg Electronics Inc.DTV transmitting system and method of processing broadcast data
US8433973Apr 30, 2013Lg Electronics Inc.Digital broadcasting system and method of processing data
US8472410 *Mar 5, 2010Jun 25, 2013Broadcom CorporationRake receiver architecture within a WCDMA terminal
US8488717Mar 12, 2012Jul 16, 2013Lg Electronics Inc.Digital broadcasting system and method of processing data
US8526508Dec 18, 2012Sep 3, 2013Lg Electronics Inc.Channel equalizer and method of processing broadcast signal in DTV receiving system
US8532222Apr 9, 2012Sep 10, 2013Lg Electronics Inc.Digital broadcasting system and method of processing data
US8533574May 20, 2008Sep 10, 2013Alcatel LucentMethod and apparatus for dedicated hardware and software split implementation of rate matching and de-matching
US8611731Dec 7, 2010Dec 17, 2013Lg Electronics Inc.Digital television transmitting system and receiving system and method of processing broadcast data
US8689086Mar 25, 2013Apr 1, 2014Lg Electronics Inc.DTV transmitting system and method of processing broadcast data
US8731100Jun 6, 2012May 20, 2014Lg Electronics Inc.DTV receiving system and method of processing DTV signal
US8804817Dec 19, 2012Aug 12, 2014Lg Electronics Inc.Digital television transmitting system and receiving system and method of processing broadcast data
US8904265 *Jan 25, 2008Dec 2, 2014Broadcom CorporationOptimal period rate matching for turbo coding
US8923421 *Jan 23, 2012Dec 30, 2014Qualcomm IncorporatedRepetition coding for a wireless system
US8954829Apr 23, 2014Feb 10, 2015Lg Electronics Inc.Digital broadcasting system and method of processing data
US8984381Feb 14, 2014Mar 17, 2015LG Electronics Inc. LLPDTV transmitting system and method of processing broadcast data
US9083502Sep 9, 2013Jul 14, 2015Alcatel LucentApparatus for dedicated hardware and software split implementation of rate matching and de-matching
US9094159Jun 1, 2012Jul 28, 2015Lg Electronics Inc.Broadcasting transmitting system and method of processing broadcast data in the broadcast transmitting system
US9178536Jan 28, 2015Nov 3, 2015Lg Electronics Inc.DTV transmitting system and method of processing broadcast data
US9178732Oct 26, 2007Nov 3, 2015Qualcomm IncorporatedBeacon coding in wireless communications systems
US9184770Jan 7, 2015Nov 10, 2015Lg Electronics Inc.Broadcast transmitter and method of processing broadcast service data for transmission
US9185413Jul 10, 2013Nov 10, 2015Lg Electronics Inc.Channel equalizer and method of processing broadcast signal in DTV receiving system
US9197374Dec 16, 2014Nov 24, 2015Qualcomm IncorporatedRepetition coding for a wireless system
US9198005Jul 8, 2013Nov 24, 2015Lg Electronics Inc.Digital broadcasting system and method of processing data
US9203443 *Oct 23, 2014Dec 1, 2015Broadcom CorporationOptimal period rate matching for turbo coding
US9392281Nov 6, 2013Jul 12, 2016Lg Electronics Inc.Digital television transmitting system and receiving system and method of processing broadcasting data
US20020138804 *Jan 25, 2001Sep 26, 2002Sangha Onkar S.Computation of checksums and other functions with the aid of software instructions
US20030056158 *Sep 20, 2001Mar 20, 2003Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V.Frame error rate estimation in a receiver
US20030072331 *Apr 23, 1999Apr 17, 2003Yu-Cheun JouConfiguration of overhead channels in a mixed bandwidth system
US20030084399 *Nov 29, 2002May 1, 2003Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd.Operation processing apparatus and operation processing method
US20030099217 *Apr 16, 2002May 29, 2003Interdigital Technology CorporationPhysical layer processing for a wireless communication system using code division multiple access
US20030117941 *Dec 21, 2001Jun 26, 2003Lundby Stein A.Decoding using walsh space information
US20040221222 *Apr 30, 2003Nov 4, 2004Barry Mark P.Method and apparatus for dedicated hardware and software split implementation of rate matching and de-matching
US20040233890 *Jun 28, 2004Nov 25, 2004Yu-Cheun JouConfiguration of overhead channels in a mixed bandwidth system
US20050007977 *Jun 28, 2004Jan 13, 2005Yu-Cheun JouConfiguration of overhead channels in a mixed bandwidth system
US20050031025 *Aug 7, 2003Feb 10, 2005Intel CorporationRe-configurable decoding in modem receivers
US20050223304 *Mar 31, 2004Oct 6, 2005Intel CorporationFlexible accelerators for physical layer processing
US20060211017 *Jan 31, 2006Sep 21, 2006Chinnaiyan Arul MExpression profile of prostate cancer
US20060239182 *Jun 21, 2006Oct 26, 2006Lundby Stein ADecoding using walsh space information
US20070127434 *Nov 26, 2004Jun 7, 2007Koninklijke Philips Electonics N.V.Station comprising a rake receiver
US20070230580 *Feb 12, 2007Oct 4, 2007Lg Electronics Inc.Channel equalizer and method of processing broadcast signal in dtv receiving system
US20070266302 *Jul 19, 2007Nov 15, 2007Barry Mark PMethod and apparatus for dedicated hardware and software split implementation of rate matching and de-matching
US20070274401 *May 23, 2007Nov 29, 2007Lg Electronics Inc.Digital television transmitting system and receiving system and method of processing broadcast data
US20080089407 *Oct 11, 2007Apr 17, 2008Lg Electronics Inc.Digital television transmitting system and receiving system and method of processing broadcasting data
US20080134007 *Apr 27, 2007Jun 5, 2008Lg Electronics Inc.Dtv transmitting system and method of processing broadcast data
US20080222741 *Oct 25, 2007Sep 11, 2008The Regents Of The University Of MichiganExpression Profile Of Prostate Cancer
US20080239161 *Jul 6, 2007Oct 2, 2008Lg Electronics Inc.Dtv receiving system and method of processing dtv signal
US20080240293 *Jul 6, 2007Oct 2, 2008Lg Electronics Inc.Digital broadcasting system and method of processing data
US20080276153 *Jan 25, 2008Nov 6, 2008Broadcom CorporationOptimal period rate matching for turbo coding
US20090024680 *May 20, 2008Jan 22, 2009Barry Mark PMethod and apparatus for dedicated hardware and software split implementation of rate matching and de-matching
US20090037792 *Jul 7, 2008Feb 5, 2009Lg Electronics Inc.Digital broadcasting system and method of processing data
US20090059893 *Nov 5, 2008Mar 5, 2009Qualcomm IncorporatedConfiguration of overhead channels in a mixed bandwidth system
US20090122764 *Jan 15, 2009May 14, 2009Interdigital Technology CorporationPhysical layer processing for a wireless communication system using code division multiple access
US20090141777 *Jan 23, 2009Jun 4, 2009Nxp B.V.Station comprising a rake receiver
US20100050047 *Aug 25, 2008Feb 25, 2010Lg Electronics Inc.Digital broadcasting system and method of processing data in the digital broadcasting system
US20100142365 *Oct 26, 2007Jun 10, 2010Qualcomm IncorporatedBeacon coding in wireless communications systems
US20100142508 *Dec 4, 2008Jun 10, 2010Broadcom CorporationMultiple frequency band multiple standard device with reduced blocker
US20100157951 *Mar 5, 2010Jun 24, 2010Broadcom CorporationRake receiver architecture within a WCDMA terminal
US20100195625 *Apr 12, 2010Aug 5, 2010Interdigital Technology CorporationPhysical layer processing for a wireless communication system using code division multiple access
US20100269013 *Feb 2, 2010Oct 21, 2010In Hwan ChoiDigital broadcasting system and method of processing data
US20110007223 *Jan 13, 2011Byoung Gill KimDigital broadcasting system and method of processing data
US20110075766 *Mar 31, 2011Jong Moon KimDigital broadcasting system and method of processing data
US20110078539 *Dec 7, 2010Mar 31, 2011Jin Woo KimDigital television transmitting system and receiving system and method of processing broadcast data
US20110083056 *Apr 7, 2011In Hwan ChoiDigital broadcasting system and method of processing data
US20110170015 *Jul 14, 2011Jong Moon KimDtv receiving system and method of processing dtv signal
US20120099607 *Jun 8, 2010Apr 26, 2012France TelecomMethod and devices for transmitting and receiving multi-carrier symbols
US20120121046 *May 17, 2012Qualcomm Atheros, Inc.Repetition Coding For A Wireless System
US20150046778 *Oct 23, 2014Feb 12, 2015Broadcom CorporationOptimal period rate matching for turbo coding
Classifications
U.S. Classification370/342, 370/209, 370/328, 370/335
International ClassificationH04B7/26, H04B7/216
Cooperative ClassificationH04B1/707, H04W88/06
European ClassificationH04B1/707
Legal Events
DateCodeEventDescription
Dec 4, 1998ASAssignment
Owner name: NORTHERN TELECOM LIMITED, CANADA
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:HU, LAN;CHEUNG, WENDY;REEL/FRAME:009651/0497
Effective date: 19981203
Nov 8, 1999ASAssignment
Owner name: NORTEL NETWORKS CORPORATION, CANADA
Free format text: CHANGE OF NAME;ASSIGNOR:NORTHERN TELECOM LIMITED;REEL/FRAME:010385/0665
Effective date: 19990517
Dec 23, 1999ASAssignment
Owner name: NORTEL NETWORKS CORPORATION, CANADA
Free format text: CHANGE OF NAME;ASSIGNOR:NORTHERN TELECOM LIMITED;REEL/FRAME:010567/0001
Effective date: 19990429
Aug 30, 2000ASAssignment
Owner name: NORTEL NETWORKS LIMITED, CANADA
Free format text: CHANGE OF NAME;ASSIGNOR:NORTEL NETWORKS CORPORATION;REEL/FRAME:011195/0706
Effective date: 20000830
Owner name: NORTEL NETWORKS LIMITED,CANADA
Free format text: CHANGE OF NAME;ASSIGNOR:NORTEL NETWORKS CORPORATION;REEL/FRAME:011195/0706
Effective date: 20000830
Feb 28, 2006FPAYFee payment
Year of fee payment: 4
Feb 19, 2010FPAYFee payment
Year of fee payment: 8
Oct 28, 2011ASAssignment
Owner name: ROCKSTAR BIDCO, LP, NEW YORK
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:NORTEL NETWORKS LIMITED;REEL/FRAME:027164/0356
Effective date: 20110729
Apr 10, 2012ASAssignment
Owner name: RESEARCH IN MOTION LIMITED, CANADA
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:2256355 ONTARIO LIMITED;REEL/FRAME:028020/0474
Effective date: 20120302
Owner name: 2256355 ONTARIO LIMITED, ONTARIO
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:ROCKSTAR BIDCO, LP;REEL/FRAME:028018/0848
Effective date: 20120229
Feb 26, 2014FPAYFee payment
Year of fee payment: 12
Oct 14, 2014ASAssignment
Owner name: BLACKBERRY LIMITED, ONTARIO
Free format text: CHANGE OF NAME;ASSIGNOR:RESEARCH IN MOTION LIMITED;REEL/FRAME:033987/0576
Effective date: 20130709