|Publication number||US6502576 B1|
|Application number||US 09/642,251|
|Publication date||Jan 7, 2003|
|Filing date||Aug 17, 2000|
|Priority date||Jul 8, 1997|
|Also published as||US6012457, US6305378, US6955173, US7044135, US20030065307, US20030111085|
|Publication number||09642251, 642251, US 6502576 B1, US 6502576B1, US-B1-6502576, US6502576 B1, US6502576B1|
|Inventors||Michael D. Lesh|
|Original Assignee||The Regents Of The University Of California|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (184), Non-Patent Citations (15), Referenced by (219), Classifications (45), Legal Events (5)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
This application is a continuation of application Ser. No. 09/384,727 filed on Aug. 27, 1999, now U.S. Pat. No. 6,305,378, which is a continuation of application Ser. No. 08/889,835 filed on Jul. 8, 1997, now U.S. Pat. No. 6,012,457.
The present invention is a surgical method. More specifically, it is a method for treating atrial fibrillation by creating a circumferential conduction block in a pulmonary vein wall. Still more specifically, it is a method for ablating a selected circumferential region of tissue along a pulmonary vein wall which transects the electrical conductivity of the pulmonary vein relative to its longitudinal axis.
Cardiac arrhythmias, and atrial fibrillation in particular, persist as common and dangerous medical ailments, especially in the aging population. In patients with normal sinus rhythm, the heart, which is comprised of atrial, ventricular, and excitatory conduction tissue, is electrically excited to beat in a synchronous, patterned fashion. In patients with cardiac arrhythmia, abnormal regions of cardiac tissue do not follow the synchronous beating cycle associated with normally conductive tissue in patients with sinus rhythm. Instead, the abnormal regions of cardiac tissue aberrantly conduct to adjacent tissue, thereby disrupting the cardiac cycle into an asynchronous cardiac rhythm. Such abnormal conduction has been generally known to occur at various regions of the heart, and particularly in the region of the sino-atrial (SA) node, along the conduction pathways of the atrioventricular (AV) node and the Bundle of His, or in the cardiac muscle tissue forming the walls of the ventricular and atrial cardiac chambers.
Cardiac arrhythtnias, including atrial arrhythmia, may be of a multiwavelet reentrant type, characterized by multiple asynchronous loops of electrical impulses that are scattered about the atrial chamber and are often self propagating. In the alternative or in addition to the multiwavelet reentrant type, cardiac arrhythmias may also have a focal origin, such as when an isolated region of tissue in an atrium fires autonomously in a rapid, repetitive fashion. Cardiac arrhythmias, including atria fibrillation, may be generally detected using the global technique of an electrocardiogram (EKG). More sensitive procedures of mapping the specific conduction along the cardiac chambers have also been disclosed, such as for example in U.S. Pat. No. 4,641,649 to Walinsky et al. and U.S. Pat. No. WO 96/32897 to Desai.
A host of clinical conditions may result from the irregular cardiac function and resulting hemodynamic abnormalities associated with atrial fibrillation, including stroke, heart failure, and other thromboembolic events. In fact, atrial fibrillation is believed to be a significant cause of cerebral stroke, wherein the abnormal hemodynamics in the left atrium caused by the fibrillatory wall motion precipitate the formation of thrombus within the atrial chamber. A thromboembolism is ultimately dislodged into the left ventricle, which thereafter pumps the embolism into the cerebral circulation where a stroke results. Accordingly, numerous procedures for treating atrial arrhythmias have been developed, including pharrnacological, surgical, and catheter ablation procedures.
Conventional Atrial Arrhythmia Treatments
Several pharmacological approaches intended to remedy or otherwise treat atrial arrhythmias have been disclosed, such as, for example, in U.S. Pat. No. 4,673,563 to Berne et al.; U.S. Pat. No. 4,5 69,801 to Molloy et al.; and also by Hindricks, et al. in “Current Management of Arrhythmias” (1991). However, such pharmacological solutions are not generally believed to be entirely effective in many cases, and may in some cases result in proarrhythmia and long term inefficacy.
Several surgical approaches have also been developed with the intention of treating atrial fibrillation. One particular example is known as the “maze procedure,” as is disclosed by Cox, J L et al. in “The surgical treatment of atrial fibrillation. I. Summary” Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery 101(3), pp. 402-405 (1991); and also by Cox, J L in “The surgical treatment of atrial fibrillation. IV. Surgical Technique”, Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery 101(4), pp. 584-592 (1991). In general, the “maze” procedure is designed to relieve atrial arrhythmia by restoring effective atrial systole and sinus node control through a prescribed pattern of incisions about the tissue wall. In the early clinical experiences reported, the “maze” procedure included surgical incisions in both the right and the left atrial chambers. However, more recent reports predict that the surgical “maze” procedure may be substantially efficacious when performed only in the left atrium, such as is disclosed in Sueda et al., “Simple Left Atrial Procedure for Chronic Atrial Fibrillation Associated With Mitral Valve Disease” (1996).
The “maze procedure” as performed in the left atrium generally includes forming vertical incisions from the two superior pulmonary veins and terminating in the region of the mitral valve annulus, traversing the inferior pulmonary veins en route. An additional horizontal line also connects the superior ends of the two vertical incisions. Thus, the atrial wall region bordered by the pulmonary vein ostia is isolated from the other atrial tissue. In this process, the mechanical sectioning of atrial tissue eliminates the precipitating conduction to the atrial arrhythmia by creating conduction blocks within the aberrant electrical conduction pathways.
While the “maze” procedure as reported by Cox and others, and also other surgical procedures, have met some success in treating patients with atrial arrhythmia, its highly invasive methodology is believed to be prohibitive in most cases. However, these procedures have provided a guiding principle that mechanically isolating faulty cardiac tissue may successfully prevent atrial arrhythmia, and particularly atrial fibrillation caused by perpetually wandering reentrant wavelets or focal regions of arrhythlnogenic conduction.
Modern Catheter Treatments
Success with surgical interventions through atrial segmentation, particularly with regard to the surgical “maze” procedure just described, has inspired the development of less invasive catheter-based approaches to treat atrial fibrillation through cardiac tissue ablation. Examples of such catheter-based devices and treatment methods have generally targeted atrial segmentation with ablation catheter devices and methods adapted to form linear or curvilinear lesions in the wall tissue which defines the atrial chambers, such as are disclosed in the following U.S. Patents: U.S. Pat. No. 5,617,854 to Munsif; U.S. Pat. No. 4,898,591 to Jang et al.; U.S. Pat. No. 5,487,385 to Avitall, and U.S. Pat. No. 5,582,609 to Swanson. The disclosures of these patents are herein incorporated in their entirety by reference thereto.
Additional examples of catheter-based tissue ablation in performing less-invasive cardiac chamber segmentation procedures are also disclosed in the following articles: “Physics and Engineering of Transcatheter Tissue Ablation”, Avitall et al., Journal of American College of Cardiology, Volume 22, No. 3:921-932 (1993); and “Right and Left Atrial Radiofrequency Catheter Therapy of Paroxysmal Atrial Fibrillation,” Haissaguerre, et al., Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology 7(12), pp. 1132-1144 (1996). These articles are herein incorporated in their entirety by reference thereto.
Furthermore, the use of particular guiding sheath designs for use in ablation procedures in both the right and/or left atrial chambers are disclosed in U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,427,119; 5,497,119; 5,564,440; 5,575,766 to Swartz et al. In addition, various energy delivery modalities have been disclosed for forming such atrial wall lesions, and include use of microwave, laser, and more commonly, radiofrequency energies to create conduction blocks along the cardiac tissue wall, as disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. WO 93/20767 to Stern et al.; U.S. Pat. No. 5,104,393 to Isner et al.; and U.S. Pat. No. 5,575,766 to Swartz et al, respectively. The disclosures of these references are herein incorporated in their entirety by reference thereto.
In addition to attempting atrial wall segmentation with long linear lesions for treating atrial arrhythmia, ablation catheter devices and methods have also been disclosed which are intended to ablate arrhythmogenic tissue of the left-sided accessory pathways, such as those associated with the Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome, through the wall of an adjacent region along the coronary sinus.
For example, Fram et al., in “Feasibility of RF Powered Thermal Balloon Ablation of Atrioventricular Bypass Tracts via the Coronary Sinus: In vivo Canine Studies,” PACE, Vol. 18, p 1518-1530 (1995), disclose attempted thermal ablation of left-sided accessory pathways in dogs using a balloon which is heated with bipolar radiofrequency electrodes positioned within the balloon. A 10 French guiding catheter and a 0.035″ wire were provided in an assembly adapted to advance the ablation catheter into the coronary sinus from the jugular vein. Thermal ablation procedures were performed in the posterospetal coronary sinus and in the left free-wall coronary sinus with thermal inflations at either 70 deg, 80 deg, or 90 deg for either 30 or 60 seconds. In all cases balloon occlusion was confirmed using distal dye injection. A compliant silicone balloon was used which had a diameter range of 5-20 mm and a length range of 8-23 mm over a final inflation pressure range of 0.4 to 1.5 atms. Fram et al. discloses that the lesion depth of some population groups may be sufficient to treat patients with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome.
Additional examples of cardiac tissue ablation from the region of the coronary sinus for the purpose of treating particular types of cardiac arrhythmias are disclosed in: “Long-term effects of percutaneous laser balloon ablation from the canine coronary sinus”, Schuger C D et al., Circulation (1992) 86:947-954; and “Percutaneous laser balloon coagulation of accessory. pathways”, McMath LP et al., Diagn Ther Cardibvasc Interven 1991; 1425:165-171.
Focal Arrhythmias Originating from Pulmonary Veins
Atrial fibrillation may be focal in nature, caused by the rapid and repetitive firing of an isolated center within the atrial cardiac muscle tissue. These foci, defined by regions exhibiting a consistent and centrifugal pattern of electrical activation, may act as either a trigger of atrial fibrillatory paroxysmal or may even sustain the fibrillation. Recent studies have suggested that focal arrhythmia often originates from a tissue region along the pulmonary veins of the left atrium, and even more particularly in the superior pulmonary veins.
Less-invasive percutaneous catheter ablation techniques have been disclosed which use end-electrode catheter designs with the intention of ablating and thereby treating focal arrhythmias in the pulmonary veins. These ablation procedures are typically characterized by the incremental application of electrical energy to the tissue to form focal lesions designed to interrupt the inappropriate conduction pathways.
One example of a focal ablation method intended to destroy and thereby treat focal arrhythmia originating from a pulmonary vein is disclosed by Haissaguerre, et al. in “Right and Left Atrial Radiofrequency Catheter Therapy of Paroxysmal Atrial Fibrillation” in Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology 7(12), pp. 1132-1144 (1996). Haissaguerre, et al. disclose radiofrequency catheter ablation of drug-refractory paroxysmal atrial fibrillation using linear atrial lesions complemented by focal ablation targeted at arrhythmogenic foci in a screened patient population. The site of the arrhythmogenic foci were generally located just inside the superior pulmonary vein,.and were ablated using a standard 4 mm tip single ablation electrode
In another focal ablation example, Jais et al. in “A focal source of atrial fibrillation treated by discrete radiofrequency ablation” Circulation 95:572-576 (1997) applies an ablative technique to patients with paroxysmal arrhythmias originating from a focal source. At the site of arrhythmogenic tissue, in both right and left atria, several pulses of a discrete source of radiofrequency energy were applied in order to eliminate the fibrillatory process.
None of the cited references discloses a method for treating left atrial fibrillation by transecting the electrical conductivity of a pulmonary vein to thereby block arrhythmogenic conduction along the longitudinal axis of the vein and into the left atrial wall.
Nor do the cited references disclose creating a circumferential conduction block along a circumferential path of tissue along the pulmonary vein wall which circumscribes the pulmonary vein lumen.
Nor do the cited references disclose forming such a circumferential conduction block with a circumferential ablation device assembly in a percutaneous translumenal procedure wherein an ablation element on an elongate catheter body is introduced into a pulmonary vein and is actuated to ablate a circumferential lesion in the pulmonary vein wall in order to form the circumferential conduction block.
Nor do the cited references disclose creating a circumferential conduction block along a circumferential path of tissue in a pulmonary vein wall which circumscribes the pulmonary vein lumen and which intersects with one or more long linear lesions which include at least in part a region of the pulmonary vein ostium.
The present invention is a method for treating atrial arrhythmias by forming a circumferential conduction block along a circumferential path of tissue in a pulmonary vein wall which circumscribes the pulmonary vein lumen and transects the electrical conductivity of the pulmonary vein relative to its longitudinal axis. One aspect of the method includes diagnosing a patient with atrial arrhythmia originating from at least one left pulmonary vein and then treating the arrhythmia by forming a circumferential conduction block along the pulmonary vein wall that either includes the focal origin or is located between the focus and the left atrial wall. Another aspect of the method includes diagnosing a patient with multiple wavelet type arrhythmias and then treating the arrhythmia by forming the circumferential conduction block such that it intersects with two linear lesions each formed between the pulmonary vein and two other, adjacent pulmonary veins in a less-invasive “maze” type of procedure.
A further variation of the inventive method includes forming the circumferential conduction block with a circumferential ablation device assembly that includes a circumferential ablation element located on the distal end portion of an elongate catheter body. The method according to this variation includes: positioning the circumferential ablation element within the pulmonary vein at a circumferential ablation region along the longitudinal axis of the pulmonary vein wall where the circumferential conduction block is to be desirably formed; and actuating the circumferential ablation element with an ablation actuator to form a circumferential lesion by ablating a circumferential path of tissue along a circumference of the pulmonary vein wall that circumscribes the pulmonary vein lumen. In a further aspect of this variation, the circumferential ablation element includes an expandable member with a working length which is adjusted from a radially collapsed position to a radially expanded position in order to engage the ablation element with the inner lining of the pulmonary vein. In yet another aspect of this variation, the circumferential ablation element is used to form the circumferential lesion such that the lesion length relative to the longitudinal axis of the pulmonary vein is shorter than the lesion circumference which circumscribes the pulmonary vein lumen.
A further variation of the invention includes monitoring the electrical conduction signals along the pulmonary vein wall with a signal monitoring circuit, and then identifying an origin of left atrial arrhythmia in the pulmonary vein based upon the monitored electrical conduction signals.
Another further variation of the invention includes providing a test stimulus on one side of the circumferential conduction block after it has been formed and then monitoring the electrical conduction on the other side of the conduction block.
Another variation of the invention includes forming a circumferential conduction block at an ablation region along a circumference of a pulmonary vein wall which circumscribes the pulmonary vein lumen and which intersects with at least two linear lesions in a less-invasive “maze”-type method for forming a “boxed” conduction block around a region of the left atrial wall defined in part by the pulmonary vein ostia.
FIG. 1 diagrammatically shows sequential, general steps for treating atrial arrhythmia according to the method of the present invention.
FIGS. 2A-E show schematic, perspective views of various circumferential conduction blocks formed in pulmonary vein wall tissue according to the method of FIG. 1.
FIG. 3 shows a flow diagram of sequential steps for performing the method of the present invention according to an illustrative percutaneous translumenal catheter embodiment which uses a circumferential ablation device assembly.
FIG. 4 shows a perspective view of a circumferential ablation device assembly during use in a left atrium subsequent to performing transeptal access and guidewire positioning steps according to the method of FIG. 3.
FIG. 5 shows a similar perspective view of the circumferential ablation device assembly shown in FIG. 4, and further shows a circumferential ablation catheter during use in ablating a circumferential region of tissue along a pulmonary vein wall to form a circumferential conduction block in the pulmonary vein according to the method of FIG. 3.
FIG. 6A shows a similar perspective view as shown in FIG. 5, although showing a further circumferential ablation catheter variation which is adapted to allow for blood perfusion from the pulmonary vein and into the atrium while performing the circumferential ablation method shown diagrammatically in FIG. 3.
FIG. 6B is an enlarged partial view of the circumferential ablation catheter shown in FIG. 6A, with a perfusion lumen shown in phantom.
FIG. 7 shows a similar perspective view of the left atrium as that shown in FIGS. 4-6, although showing a cross-sectional view of a circumferential lesion after being formed by circumferential catheter ablation according to the method of FIG. 3.
FIGS. 8A-B show perspective views of another circumferential ablation catheter variation during use in a left atrium according to the method of FIG. 3, wherein FIG. 8A shows a radially compliant expandable member with a working length adjusted to a radially expanded position while in the left atrium, and FIG. 8B shows the expandable member after advancing it into and engaging a pulmonary vein ostium while in the radially expanded position.
FIG. 8C shows the same perspective view of the left atrium shown in FIGS. 8A-B, although shown after forming a circumferential conduction block according to the circumferential ablation procedure of FIG. 3 and also after removing the circumferential ablation device assembly from the left atrium.
FIG. 9A diagrammatically shows a method for forming a circumferential conduction block according to the method of FIG. 1, although in further combination with a method for forming long linear lesions between pulmonary vein ostia in a less-invasive “maze”-type procedure.
FIG. 9B shows a perspective view of a segmented left atrium after forming several long linear lesions between adjacent pairs of pulmonary vein ostia according to the method of FIG. 9A.
FIG. 9C shows a similar perspective view to that shown in FIG. 9B, although showing a circumferential ablation device during use in forming a circumferential lesion in a pulmonary vein which intersects with two linear lesions that extend into the pulmonary vein, according to the method of FIG. 9A.
FIG. 9D shows a perspective view of another circumferential ablation catheter for use in forming a circumferential lesion which intersects with at least one linear lesion according to the method of FIG. 9A.
FIG. 9E shows a perspective view of another circumferential ablation catheter for use in forming a circumferential lesion which intersects with at least one linear lesion according to the method of FIG. 9A.
FIG. 10 diagrammatically shows a further method for forming a circumferential conduction block according to the present invention, wherein signal monitoring and “post-ablation” test methods are performed along a pulmonary vein wall in order to locate an arrhythmogenic origin along the wall and to test the efficacy of a circumferential conduction block in the wall, respectively.
FIGS. 11A-B show perspective views of one particular circumferential ablation member which is adapted for use in performing the method of the present invention, wherein a circumferential ablation electrode is shown to have a secondary shape which is a modified step shape and is shown to form a continuous circumferential electrode band that circumscribes an outer surface of an expandable member wherein in a radially collapsed position and also in a radially expanded position, respectively.
FIGS 11C-D show perspective views of serpentine and sawtooth shaped circumferential electrode patterns, respectively, each shown to form a continuous equatorial or otherwise circumferentially placed electrode band which circumscribes the working length of an expandable member while it is adjusted to a radially expanded position.
FIGS. 12A-B show perspective views of another circumferential ablation element which includes a plurality of individual ablation electrodes that are spaced circumferentially to form an equatorial or otherwise circumferential band which circumscribes the working length of an expandable member and which is adapted to form a continuous circumferential lesion while the working length is in a radially expanded position.
FIG. 13 shows a cross-sectional view of another circumferential ablation member for use in the method of FIG. 3, wherein the circumferential ablation element circumscribes an outer surface of an expandable member substantially along its working length and is insulated at both the proximal and the distal ends of the working length to thereby form an uninsulated equatorial or otherwise circumferential band in a region of the working length which is adapted to ablate tissue.
FIG. 14 shows a perspective view of another circumferential ablation member which is adapted for use in the method of the present invention, wherein the expandable member is shown to be a cage of coordinating wires which are adapted to be adjusted from a radially collapsed position to a radially expanded position in order to engage electrode elements on the wires in a circumferential pattern about a pulmonary vein wall.
FIG. 15 shows a cross-sectional view of another circumferential ablation member which is adapted for use in the method of the current invention. A superelastic, looped electrode element is shown at the distal end of a pusher and is adapted to circumferentially engage pulmonary vein wall tissue to form a circumferential lesion as a conduction block that circumscribes the pulmonary vein lumen.
As diagrammatically illustrated in the flow diagram of FIG. 1, the present invention is a method for treating patients diagnosed with atrial arrhythmia by forming a circumferential conduction block in a pulmonary vein which blocks electrical conduction along the longitudinal axis of the pulmonary vein wall and into the left atrium.
The terms “circumference” or “circumferential”, including derivatives thereof, are herein intended to mean a continuous path or line which forms an outer border or perimeter that surrounds and thereby defines an enclosed region of space. Such a continuous path starts at one location along the outer border or perimeter, and translates along the outer border or perimeter until it is completed at the original starting location to enclose the defined region of space. The related term “circumscribe,” including derivatives thereof, is herein intended to mean to enclose, surround, or encompass a defined region of space. Therefore, according to these defined terms, a continuous line which is traced around a region of space and which starts and ends at the same location “circumscribes” the region of space and has a “circumference” which is defined by the distance the line travels as it translates along the path circumscribing the space.
Still farther, a circumferential path or element may include one or more of several shapes, and may be for example circular, oblong, ovular, elliptical, or otherwise planar enclosures. A circumferential path may also be three dimensional, such as for example two opposite-facing semi-circular paths in two different parallel or off-axis planes which are connected at their ends by line segments bridging between the planes.
For purpose of further illustration, FIGS. 2A-D therefore show various circumferential paths A, B, C, and D, respectively, each translating along a portion of a pulmonary vein wall and circumscribing a defined region of space, shown at a, b, c, and d also respectively, each circumscribed region of space being a portion of a pulmonary vein lumen. For still further illustration of the three-dimensional circumferential case shown in FIG. 2D, FIG. 2E shows an exploded perspective view of circumferential path D as it circumscribes multiplanar portions of the pulmonary vein lumen shown at d′, d″, and d′″, which together make up region d as shown in FIG. 1D.
The term “transect”, including derivatives thereof, is also herein intended to mean to divide or separate a region of space into isolated regions. Thus, each of the regions circumscribed by the circumferential paths shown in FIGS. 2A-D transects the respective pulmonary vein, including its lumen and its wall, to the extent that the respective pulmonary vein is divided into a first longitudinal region located on one side of the transecting region, shown for example at region “A” in FIG. 2A, and a second longitudinal region on the other side of the transecting plane, shown for example at region “Y” also in FIG. 2A.
Therefore, a “circumferential conduction block” according to the present invention is formed along a region of tissue which follows a circumferential path along the pulmonary vein wall, circumscribing the pulmonary vein lumen and transecting the pulmonary vein relative to electrical conduction along its longitudinal axis. The transecting circumferential conduction block therefore isolates electrical conduction between opposite longitudinal portions of the pulmonary wall relative to the conduction block and along the longitudinal axis, The terms “ablate” or “ablation,” including derivatives thereof, are hereafter intended to mean the substantial altering of the mechanical, electrical, chemical, or other structural nature of tissue. In the context of intracardiac ablation applications shown and described with reference to the variations of the illustrative embodiment below, “ablation” is intended to mean sufficient altering of tissue properties to substantially block conduction of electrical signals from or through the ablated cardiac tissue.
The term “element” within the context of “ablation element” is herein intended to mean a discrete element, such as an electrode, or a plurality of discrete elements, such as a plurality of spaced electrodes, which are positioned so as to collectively ablate a region of tissue.
Therefore, an “ablation element” according to the defined terms may include a variety of specific structures adapted to ablate a defined region of tissue. For example, one suitable ablation element for use in the present invention may be formed, according to the teachings of the embodiments below, from an “energy emitting” type which is adapted to emit energy sufficient to ablate tissue when coupled to and energized by an energy source. Suitable “energy emitting” ablation elements for use in the present invention may therefore include, for example: an electrode element adapted to couple to a direct current (“DC”) or alternating current (“AC”) current source, such as-a radiofrequency (“RF”) current source; an antenna element which is energized by a microwave energy source; a heating element, such as a metallic element or other thermal conductor which is energized to emit heat such as by convective or conductive heat transfer, by resistive heating due to current flow, or by optical heating with light; a light emitting element, such as a fiber optic element which transmits light sufficient to ablate tissue when coupled to a light source; or an ultrasonic element such as an ultrasound crystal element which is adapted to emit ultrasonic sound waves sufficient to ablate tissue when coupled to a suitable excitation source.
In addition, other elements for altering the nature of tissue may be suitable as “ablation elements” under the present invention when adapted according to the detailed description of the invention below. For example, a cryoblation element adapted to sufficiently cool tissue to substantially alter the structure thereof may be suitable if adapted according to the teachings of the current invention. Furthermore, a fluid delivery element, such as a discrete port or a plurality of ports which are fluidly coupled to a fluid delivery source, may be adapted to infuse an ablating fluid, such as a fluid containing alcohol, into the tissue adjacent to the port or ports to substantially alter the nature of that tissue.
The term “diagnose”, including derivatives thereof, is intended to include patients suspected or predicted to have atrial arrhythmia, in addition to those having specific symptoms or mapped electrical conduction indicative of atrial arrhythmia.
Returning to the inventive method as shown in FIG. 1, a patient diagnosed with atrial arrhythmia according to diagnosing step (1) is treated with a circumferential conduction block according to treatment step (2). In one aspect, a patient diagnosed according to diagnosis step (1) with multiple wavelet arrhythmia originating from multiple regions along the atrial wall may also be treated in part by forming the circumferential conduction block according to treatment step (2), although as an adjunct to forming long linear regions of conduction block between adjacent pulmonary vein ostia in a less-invasive “maze”-type catheter ablation procedure. More detail regarding this particular aspect of the inventive method is provided below with reference to a combination circumferential-long linear lesion ablation device which is described below with reference to FIGS. 9A-E.
In another aspect of the method of FIG. 1, a patient diagnosed with focal arrhythmia originating from an arrhythmogenic origin or focus in a pulmonary vein is treated according to this method when the circumferential conduction block is formed along a circumferential path of wall tissue that either includes the arrhythmogenic origin or is between the origin and the left atrium. In the former case, the arrhythmogenic tissue at the origin is destroyed by the conduction block as it is formed through that focus. In the latter case, the arrhythmogenic focus may still conduct abnormally, although such aberrant conduction is prevented from entering and affecting the atrial wall tissue due to the intervening circumferential conduction block.
In still a further aspect of the method shown in FIG. 1, the circumferential conduction block may be formed in one of several ways according to treatment step (2). In one example not shown, the circumferential conduction block may be formed by a surgical incision or other method to mechanically transect the pulmonary vein, followed by suturing the transected vein back together. As the circumferential injury is naturally repaired, such as through a physiologic scarring response common to the “maze” procedure, electrical conduction will generally not be restored across the injury site. In another example not shown, a circumferential conduction block of one or more pulmonary veins may be performed in an epicardial ablation procedure, wherein an ablation element is either placed around the target pulmonary vein or is translated circumferentially around it while being energized to ablate the adjacent tissue in an “outside-in” approach. This alternative method may be performed during an open chest-type procedure, or may be done using other known epicardial access techniques.
Notwithstanding the alternative methods just described for forming the circumferential conduction block according to treatment step (2) of FIG. 1, FIGS. 3-12 collectively show variations of methods and related device assemblies according to one preferred illustrative embodiment which uses a circumferential ablation device assembly for forming a circumferential conduction block in a percutaneous translumenal circumferential ablation procedure.
FIG. 3 diagrammatically shows the sequential steps of a detailed circumferential ablation method for forming a circumferential conduction block in a pulmonary vein as one variation for performing treatment step (2) of FIG. 1. The circumferential ablation method according to FIG. 3 includes: positioning a circumferential ablation element at an ablation region along the pulmonary vein according to a series of detailed steps shown collectively in FIG. 3 as positioning step (3); and thereafter ablating a continuous circumferential region of tissue in the PV wall at the ablation region according to ablation step (4).
Further to positioning step (3) according to the method of FIG. 3, a distal tip of a guiding catheter is first positioned within the left atrium according to a transeptal access method, which is further described in more detail as follows. The right venous system is first accessed using the “Seldinger” technique, wherein a peripheral vein (such as a femoral vein) is punctured with a needle, the puncture wound is dilated with a dilator to a size sufficient to accommodate an introducer sheath, and an introducer sheath with at least one hemostatic valve is seated within the dilated puncture wound while maintaining relative hemostasis. With the introducer sheath in place, the guiding catheter or sheath is introduced through the hemostatic valve of the introducer sheath and is advanced along the peripheral vein, into the region of the vena cavae, and into the right atrium.
Once in the right atrium, the distal tip of the guiding catheter is positioned against the fossa ovalis in the intraatrial septal wall. A “Brochenbrough” needle or trocar is then advanced distally through the guide catheter until it punctures the fossa ovalis. A separate dilator may also be advanced with the needle through the fossa ovalis to prepare an access port through the septum for seating the guiding catheter. The guiding catheter thereafter replaces the needle across the septum and is seated in the left atrium through the fossa ovalis, thereby providing access for object devices through its own inner lumen and into the left atrium.
It is however further contemplated that other left atrial access methods may be suitable substitutes in the novel arrhythmia treatment method of the present invention. In one alternative variation not shown, a “retrograde” approach may be used, wherein the guiding catheter is advanced into the left atrium from the arterial system. In this variation, the Seldinger technique is employed to gain vascular access into the arterial system, rather than the venous, for example at a femoral artery. The guiding catheter is advanced retrogradedly through the aorta, around the aortic arch, into the ventricle, and then into the left atrium through the mitral valve.
Subsequent to gaining transeptal access to the left atrium as just described, positioning step (3) according to FIG. 3 next includes advancing a guidewire into a pulmonary vein, which is done generally through the guiding catheter seated in the fossa ovalis. In addition to the left atrial access guiding catheter, the guidewire according to this variation may also be advanced into the pulmonary vein by directing it into the vein with a second sub-selective delivery catheter (not shown) which is coaxial within the guiding catheter, such as for example by using one of the directional catheters disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 5,575,766 to Swartz. Or, the guidewire may have sufficient stiffness and maneuverability in the left atrial cavity to unitarily subselect the desired pulmonary vein distally of the guiding catheter seated at the fossa ovalis..
Suitable guidewire designs for use according to the illustrative catheter ablation method may be selected from previously known designs, while generally any suitable choice should include a shaped, radiopaque distal end portion with a relatively stiff, torquable proximal portion adapted to steer the shaped tip under X-ray visualization. Guidewires having an outer diameter ranging from 0.010″ to 0.035″ may be suitable. In cases where the guidewire is used to bridge the atrium from the guiding catheter at the fossa ovalis, and where no other sub-selective guiding catheters are used, guidewires having an outer diameter ranging from 0.018″ to 0.035″ may be required. It is believed that guidewires within this size range may be required to provide sufficient stiffness and maneuverability in order to allow for guidewire control and to prevent undesirable guidewire prolapsing within the relatively open atrial cavity.
Subsequent to gaining pulmonary vein access, positioning step (3) of FIG. 3 next includes tracking the distal end portion of a circumferential ablation device assembly over the guidewire and into the pulmonary vein, followed by positioning an ablation element at an ablation region of the pulmonary vein where the circumferential conduction block is to be desirably formed.
FIGS. 4-5 further show a circumferential ablation device assembly (100) during use in performing positioning step (3) and ablation step (4) just described with reference to FIG. 3. Included in the circumferential ablation device assembly (100) are guiding catheter (101), guidewire (102), and circumferential ablation catheter (103).
More specifically, FIG. 4 shows guiding catheter (101) subsequent to performing a transeptal access method according to FIG. 3, and also shows guidewire (102) subsequent to advancement and positioning within a pulmonary vein, also according to step (3) of FIG. 3. FIG. 4 shows circumferential ablation catheter (103) as it tracks coaxially over guidewire (102) with a distal guidewire tracking member, which is specifically shown only in part at first and second distal guidewire ports (142,144) located on the distal end portion (132) of an elongate catheter body (130). A guidewire lumen (not shown) extends between the first and second distal guidewire ports (142,144) and is adapted to slideably receive and track over the guidewire. In the particular variation of FIG. 4, the second distal guidewire port (144) is located on a distal end portion (132) of the elongate catheter body (130), although proximally of first distal guidewire port (142).
As would be apparent to one of ordinary skill, the distal guidewire tracking member shown in FIG. 4 and just described may be slideably coupled to the guidewire externally of the body in a “backloading” technique after the guidewire is first positioned in the pulmonary vein. Furthermore, there is no need in this variation for a guidewire lumen in the proximal portions of the elongate catheter body (130), which allows for a reduction in the outer diameter of the catheter shaft in that region. Nevertheless, it is further contemplated that a design which places the second distal guidewire port on the proximal end portion of the elongate catheter body would also be acceptable, as is described below for example with reference to the perfusion embodiment of FIGS. 6A-6B.
In addition, the inclusion of a guidewire lumen extending within the elongate body between first and second ports, as provided in FIG. 4, should not limit the scope of acceptable guidewire tracking members according to the present invention. Other guidewire tracking members which form a bore adapted to slideably receive and track over a guidewire are also considered acceptable, such as for example the structure adapted to engage a guidewire as described in U.S. Pat. No. 5,505,702 to Arney, the entirety of which is hereby incorporated by reference herein.
While the assemblies and methods shown variously throughout the Figures include a guidewire coupled to a guidewire tracking member on the circumferential ablation catheter, other detailed variations may also be suitable for positioning the circumferential ablation element at the ablation region in order to form a circumferential conduction block there. For example, an alternative circumferential ablation catheter not shown may include a “fixed-wire”-type of design wherein a guidewire is integrated into the ablation catheter as one unit., In another alternative assembly, the same type of sub-selective sheaths described above with reference to U.S. Pat. No. 5,575,766 to Swartz for advancing a guidewire into a pulmonary vein may also be used for advancing a circumferential ablation catheter device across the atrium and into a pulmonary vein.
The method of ablating a circumferential lesion according to the present invention, such as according to the method of FIG. 3, may further include the expansion of an expandable member in order to circumferentially engage an inner lining of a pulmonary vein wall with a circumferential ablation element. FIG. 4 therefore shows circumferential ablation catheter (103) with a circumferential ablation element (I 60) coupled to an expandable member (170). The expandable member (170) is shown in FIG. 4 in a radially collapsed position adapted for percutaneous translumenal delivery into the pulmonary vein according to positioning step (3) of FIG. 3.
However, expandable member (170) is also adjustable to a radially expanded position when actuated by an expansion actuator (175), as shown in FIG. 5. Expansion actuator (175) may include, but is not limited to, a pressurizeable fluid source. According to the expanded state shown in FIG. 5, expandable member (170) includes a working length L relative to the longitudinal axis of the elongate catheter body which has a larger expanded outer diameter OD than when in the radially collapsed position. Furthermore, the expanded outer diameter OD is sufficient to circumferentially engage the ablation region of the pulmonary vein. Therefore, the terms “working length” are herein intended to mean the length of an expandable member which, when in a radially expanded position, has an expanded outer diameter that is: (a) greater than the outer diameter of the expandable member when in a radially collapsed position; and (b) sufficient to engage a body space wall or adjacent ablation region surrounding the expandable member, at least on two opposing internal sides of the body space wall or adjacent ablation region, with sufficient surface area to anchor the expandable member.
Circumferential ablation element (160) also includes a circumferential band (152) on the outer surface of working length L which is coupled to an ablation actuator (I 90) at a proximal end portion of the elongate catheter body (shown schematically). After expandable member (170) is adjusted to the radially expanded position and at least a portion of working length L circumferentially engages the pulmonary vein wall in the ablation region, circumferential ablation element (160) is actuated by ablation actuator (190) to ablate the surrounding circumferential path of tissue in the pulmonary vein wall, thereby forming a circumferential lesion that circumscribes the pulmonary vein lumen and transects the electrical conductivity of the pulmonary vein to block conduction in a direction parallel to its longitudinal axis, i.e., in an axial direction along the pulmonary vein wall.
FIG. 6A shows another circumferential ablation catheter (203) during use according to a further variation of the method of FIG. 3, wherein a perfusion lumen (260) (shown in phantom in FIG. 6B) is formed within the distal end portion (232) of elongate catheter body (230). The perfusion lumen (260) in this example is formed between a distal perfusion port, which in this example is the first distal guidewire port (242), and proximal perfusion port (244). Proximal perfusion port (244) is formed through the wall of the elongate catheter body (230) and communicates with the guidewire lumen (260) which also forms the perfusion lumen between the distal and proximal perfusion ports. In the particular design shown, after the guidewire has provided for the placement of the ablation element into the pulmonary vein, the guidewire is withdrawn proximally of the proximal perfusion port (244) (shown schematically in shadow) so that the lumen between the ports is clear for antegrade blood flow into the distal perfusion port (242), proximally along the perfusion lumen (260), out the proximal perfusion port (244) and into the atrium (perfusion flow shown schematically with arrows).
Further to the perfusion design and method of use shown in FIG. 6A, guidewire (I 02) is positioned in a guidewire lumen which extends the entire length of the elongate catheter body (230) in an “over-the-wire”-type of design, which facilitates the proximal withdrawal of the guidewire to allow for perfusion while maintaining the ability to subsequently readvance the guidewire distally through the first distal guidewire port (242) for catheter repositioning. It is further contemplated that a “monorail”-type design such as that shown in the previous FIGS. 4-5 may also be acceptable for use in alternative perfusion variations. In one alternative variation not shown, the guidewire is simply withdrawn and disengaged from the second distal guidewire port (244), in which case the circumferential ablation catheter must generally be withdrawn from the body in order to recouple the distal guidewire tracking member with the guidewire. In another alternative perfusion variation, a proximal perfusion port is provided as a separate and distinct port positioned between the second distal guidewire port (244) and the expandable member (270), which allows for proximal withdrawal of the guidewire to clear the guidewire lumen and thereby form a perfusion lumen between the first distal guidewire port and the proximal perfusion port. The guidewire of this alternative variation, however, remains engaged within the guidewire lumen between the second distal guidewire port and the proximal perfusion port.
Passive perfusion during expansion of the expandable member is believed to minimize stasis and allow the target pulmonary vein to continue in its atrial filling function during the atrial arrhythmia treatment procedure. Without this perfusion feature, the method steps of expanding the expandable member to engage the vessel wall and thereafter ablating the circumferential lesion around the circumferential ablation element may result in undesirably thrombogenic flow stasis in the pulmonary vein distally to the expandable member. In addition, in cases where the ablation element chosen provides for heat generation at the ablation region, as described in more detail later, perfusion may also provide a cooling function. Moreover, in addition to the specific perfusion structure and related method of the FIG. 4 embodiment, it is to be further understood that other structural variants which allow for perfusion flow during expansion of the expandable element may function as suitable substitutes without departing from the scope of the present invention.
FIG. 7 shows pulmonary vein (52) after removing the circumferential ablation device assembly subsequent to forming a circumferential lesion (70) around the ablation region of the pulmonary vein wall (53) according to the method shown diagrammatically in FIG. 3 and also in stepwise fashion in FIGS. 4-5. Circumferential lesion (70) is shown located along the pulmonary vein adjacent to the pulmonary vein ostium (54), and is shown to also be “transmural,” which is herein intended to mean extending completely through the wall, from one side to the other. Also, the circumferential lesion (70) is shown in FIG. 7 to form a “continuous” circumferential band, which is herein intended to mean without gaps around the pulmonary vein wall circumference, thereby circumscribing the pulmonary vein Lumen.
It is believed, however, that circumferential catheter ablation may leave some tissue, either transmurally or along the circumference of the lesion, which is not actually ablated, but which is not substantial enough to allow for the passage of conductive signals. Therefore, the terms “transmural” and “continuous” as just defined are intended to have “functional” limitations, wherein some tissue in the ablation region may be unablated but there are no functional gaps which allow for symptomatically arrhythmogenic signals to conduct through the conduction block and into the atrium from the pulmonary vein.
Moreover, it is believed that the functionally transmural and continuous lesion qualities just described are characteristic of a completed circumferential conduction block in the pulmonary vein according to the present invention. Such a circumferential conduction block thereby transects the vein, isolating conduction between the portion of the vein on one longitudinal side of the lesion and the portion on the other side. Therefore, any foci of originating arrhythmogenic conduction which is opposite the conduction block from the atrium is prevented by the conduction block from conducting down into the atrium and atrial arrhythmic affects are therefore nullified.
FIGS. 8A-B show a further variation of the present invention, wherein a circumferential ablation member (350) includes a radially compliant expandable member (370) which is adapted to conform to a pulmonary vein ostium (54) at least in part by adjusting it to a radially expanded position while in the left atrium and then advancing it into the ostium. FIG. 8A shows expandable member (370) after being adjusted to a radially expanded position while located in the left atrium (50). FIG. 8B further shows expandable member (370) after being advanced into the pulmonary vein (52) until at least a portion of the expanded working length L of circumferential ablation member (350), which includes a circumferentail ablation element in the form of a circumferential band (352) around expandable member (370), engages the pulmonary vein ostium (54). FIG. 8C shows a portion of a circumferential lesion (72) which forms a circumferential conduction block in the region of the pulmonary vein ostium (54) subsequent to actuating the circumferential ablation element to form the circumferential lesion according to the ablation step shown figuratively in FIG. 8B.
FIGS. 9A-D show a method of using a circumferential ablation device assembly according to the method of FIG. 3 and adjunctively to the formation of long linear lesions in a less-invasive “maze”-type procedure, as introduced above for the treatment of multiwavelet reentrant type fibrillation along the left atrial wall.
More specifically, FIG. 9A diagrammatically shows a summary of steps for performing the “maze” procedure by forming circumferential conduction blocks that intersect with long linear conduction blocks formed between the pulmonary veins. As disclosed in copending patent application (Application Number not yet assigned) entitled “Tissue Ablation Device and Method of Use” filed by Michael Lesh, M. D. on May 9, 1997, which is herein incorporated in its entirety by reference thereto, a box-like conduction block surrounding an arrhythmogenic atrial wall region bounded by the pulmonary veins may be created by forming long linear lesions between anchors in all pairs of adjacent pulmonary vein ostia, such as is shown in part in steps (5) and (6) of FIG. 9A. However, it is fiber believed that, in some particular applications, such linear lesions may be made sufficiently narrow with respect to the surface area of the pulmonary vein ostia that they may not intersect, thereby leaving gaps between them which may present proarrhythnic pathways for abnormal conduction into and from the box, such as is shown between linear lesions (57,58) in FIG. 9B. Therefore, by forming the circumferential conduction block according to step (7) of FIG. 9A, and as shown by use of circumferential ablation member (450) in FIG. 9C, the linear lesions are thereby bridged and the gaps are closed.
In a further variation to the specific embodiments shown in FIGS. 9B-C, FIG. 9D shows another circumferential ablation device assembly which includes both circumferential and linear ablation elements (452,461), respectively. Circumferential ablation member (450) is shown to include an expandable member (470) which is adjusted to a radially expanded position that is asymmetric to the underlying catheter shaft. Linear ablation member (460) extends along the elongate body proximally from the circumferential ablation member (450). When expanded sufficiently to engage the pulmonary vein wall, expandable member (470) provides at least a portion of an anchor for a first end (462) of linear ablation member (460).
A shaped stylet (466) is shown in shadow in FIG. 9D within the elongate catheter body in the region of the second end (464) of the linear ablation member (460). Shaped stylet (466) is adapted to push the second end (464) into an adjacent pulmonary vein ostium such that the linear ablation member (460) is adapted to substantially contact the left atrial wall between the adjacent vein ostia to form the linear ablation according to the method of FIG. 9A. In addition to the use of shaped stylet (466), it is further contemplated that a second anchor may be used adjacent to second end (464), such as for example an intermediate guidewire tracking member adapted to track over a guidewire engaged to the pulmonary vein.
In a yet a further variation to the specific embodiment shown in FIG. 9D, FIG. 9E shows a circumferential ablation device assembly which includes both circumferential and linear ablation elements (452,460), respectively. Circumferential ablation member (450) is shown to include an expandable member (470) which is adjusted to a radially expanded position that is asymmetric to the underlying catheter shaft. Linear ablation member (460) extends along the elongate body proximally from the circumferential ablation member (450). When expanded sufficiently to engage the pulmonary vein wall, expandable member (470) provides at least a portion of an anchor for a first end (462) of linear ablation member (460).
A shaped stylet (466) is shown in shadow in FIG. 9E within the elongate catheter body in the region of the second end,(464) of the linear ablation member (460). Shaped stylet (466) includes a port or opening (465) though which guidewire (469) passes in order to anchor the second end (464) into an adjacent pulmonary vein ostium such that the linear ablation member (460) is adapted to substantially contact the left atrial wall between the adjacent vein ostia to form the linear ablation according to the method of FIG. 9A. Alternatively to the use of shaped stylet (466) and guidewire (469), it is further contemplated that a second anchor may effected with, for example, an intermediate guidewire tracking member adapted to track over a guidewire (469) engaged to the pulmonary vein.
FIG. 10 diagrammatically shows a further variation of the method of the present invention which includes, in one aspect, methods for monitoring the electrical signals along the pulmonary vein before and after ablation according to steps (8) and (10), respectively. Signals within the pulmonary vein are monitored prior to forming a conduction block, as indicated in step (8) in FIG. 10, in order to confirm that the pulmonary vein chosen contains an arrhythmogenic origin for atrial arrhythmia. Failure to confirm an arrhythmogenic origin in the pulmonary vein, particularly in the case of a patient diagnosed with focal arrhythmia, may dictate the need to monitor signals in another pulmonary vein in order to direct treatment to the proper location in the heart. In addition, monitoring the pre-ablation signals may be used to indicate the location of the arrhythmogenic origin of the atrial arrhythmia, which information helps determine the best location to form the conduction block. As such, the conduction block may be positioned to include and therefore ablate the actual focal origin of the arrhythmia, or may be positioned between the focus and the atrium in order to block aberrant conduction from the focal origin and into the atrial wall.
In addition or in the alternative to monitoring electrical conduction signals in the pulmonary vein prior to ablation, electrical signals along the pulmonary vein wall may also be monitored subsequent to circumferential ablation, according to step (10) of the method of FIG. 10. This monitoring method aids in testing the efficacy of the ablation in forming a complete conduction block against arrhythmogenic conduction. Arrhythmogenic firing from the identified focus will not be observed during signal monitoring along the pulmonary vein wall when taken below a continuous circumferential and transmural lesion formation, and thus would characterize a successful circumferential conduction block. In contrast, observation of such arrhythmogenic signals between the lesion and the atrial wall characterizes a functionally incomplete or discontinuous circumference (gaps) or depth (transmurality) which would potentially identify the need for a subsequent follow-up procedure, such as a second circumferential lesioning procedure in the ablation region.
A test electrode may also be used in a “post ablation” signal monitoring method according to step (10) of FIG. 10. A test stimulus is fired from the test electrode when placed distally or “upstream” of the circumferential lesion in an attempt to simulate a focal arrhythmia. This testing method generally challenges the robustness of the circumferential lesion in preventing atrial arrhythmia from any such future physiologically generated aberrant activity along the suspect vein.
Further to the signal monitoring and test stimulus methods just described, such methods may be performed with a separate electrode or electrode pair located on the catheter distal end portion adjacent to the region of the circumferential ablation element, or may be performed using one or more electrodes which form the circumferential ablation element itself.
Circumferential Ablation Member
The expandable members and ablation elements for the various circumferential ablation device assembly embodiments have been previously described generically for the purpose of illustrating in overview fashion how the broad features of the ablation apparatus are adapted for use in performing the methods of the present invention. Examples of more specific embodiments are also contemplated as being suitable for use in the present invention as follows.
Notwithstanding their somewhat schematic detail, the circumferential ablation members shown in the previous figures do illustrate a particular embodiment wherein an RF electrode element circumscribes an outer surface of an expandable member. The expandable member of this embodiment may take one of several different forms, although the various Figures show the expandable member as an inflatable balloon which is coupled to an expansion actuator (175) which is a pressurizeable fluid source. The balloon is preferably made of a polymeric material and forms a fluid chamber which communicates with a fluid passageway (not shown in the figures) that extends proximally along the elongate catheter body and terminates proximally in a proximal fluid port that is adapted to couple to the pressurizeable fluid source.
In one expandable balloon variation, the balloon is constructed of a relatively inelastic polymer such as a polyethylene (“PE”; preferably linear low density or high density or blends thereof), polyolefin copolymer (“POC”), polyethylene terepthalate (“PET”), polyimide, or a nylon material. In this construction, the balloon has a low radial yield or compliance over a working range of pressures and may be folded into a predetermined configuration when deflated in order to facilitate introduction of the balloon into the desired ablation location via known percutaneous catheterization techniques. In this variation, one balloon size may not suitably engage all pulmonary vein walls for performing the circumferential ablation methods of the present invention on all needy patients. Therefore, it is further contemplated that a kit of multiple ablation catheters with ablation members having varied predetermined expanded diameters may be provided from which a treating physician may chose a particular device to meet a particular patient's pulmonary vein anatomy.
Further in this regard, a kit may be provided to include a plurality of circumferential ablation device assemblies, where the working length of each expandable member of each circumferential ablation device assembly in the kit has a different expanded outer diameter vis-à-vis all others. A treating physician would measure a diameter of the pulmonary vein lumen at the ablation region where the circumferential conduction block is to be desirably formed, and, based upon the results of the measurement, selecting an appropriate circumferential ablation device from the kit of circumferential ablation devices.
Diameter measurement can be accomplished by injecting contrast material into a body space, e.g. the pulmonary vein, and forming an X-ray image of the body space as the contrast material flows therethrough. A measurement can then be directly made or correlated from the resultant X-ray image of the body space. An alternative measurement technique involves inserting an ultrasound imaging probe into the esophagus of the patient in a region adjacent to the body space to be measured, e.g., the pulmonary vein. A transesophageal ultrasonic image of the pulmonary vein is then performed, and diameter measurement can be accomplished from the ultrasonic image just as described with regard to the X-ray image.
In an alternative expandable balloon variation, the balloon is constructed of a relatively compliant, elastomeric material, such as, for example (but not limited to), a silicone, latex, or mylar elastomer. In this construction, the balloon takes the form of a tubular member in the deflated, non-expanded state. When the elastic tubular balloon is pressurized with fluid such as in the previous, relatively non-compliant example, the material forming the wall of the tubular member elastically deforms and stretches radially to a predetermined diameter for a given inflation pressure. It is further contemplated that the compliant balloon may be constructed as a composite, such as for example a latex or silicone balloon skin which includes fibers, such as metal, Kevlar, or nylon fibers, which are embedded into the skin. Such fibers, when provided in a predetermined pattern such as a mesh or braid, may provide a controlled compliance along a preferred axis, preferably limiting longitudinal compliance of the expandable member while allowing for radial compliance.
It is believed that, among other features, the relatively compliant variation may provide a wide range of working diameters, which may allow for a wide variety of patients, or of vessels within a single patient, to be treated with just one or a few devices. Furthermore, this range of diameters is achievable over a relatively low range of pressures, which is believed to diminish a potentially traumatic vessel response that may otherwise be presented concomitant with higher pressure inflations, particularly when the inflated balloon is oversized to the vessel. In addition, the low-pressure inflation feature of this variation is suitable for the present invention because the functional requirement of the expandable balloon is merely to engage the ablation element against a circumferential path along the inner lining of the pulmonary vein wall.
Moreover, a circumferential ablation member is adapted to conform to the geometry of the pulmonary vein ostium, at least in part by providing substantial compliance to the expandable member, as was shown and described previously by reference to FIGS. 8A-B. Further to this conformability to pulmonary vein ostium as provided in the specific design of FIGS. 8A-B, the, working length L of expandable member (370) is also shown to include a taper which has a distally reducing outer diameter from a proximal end (372) to a distal end (374). In either a compliant or the non-compliant balloon, such a distally reducing tapered geometry adapts the circumferential ablation element to conform to the funneling geometry of the pulmonary veins in the region of their ostia in order to facilitate the formation of a circumferential conduction block there.
Further to the RF electrode element as shown variously throughout the previous illustrative Figures, the RF electrode element is coupled to an ablation actuator (190). Ablation actuator (190) generally includes an RF current source (not shown) that is coupled to both the RF electrode element and also a ground patch (195) which is in skin contact with the patient to complete the RF circuit. In addition, ablation actuator (190) preferably includes a monitoring circuit (not shown) and a control circuit (not shown) which together use either the electrical parameters of the RF circuit or tissue parameters such as heat in a feedback control loop during ablation. Also, where a plurality of ablation elements or electrodes in one ablation element are used, a switching means may be used to multiplex the RF current source between the various elements or electrodes. Exemplary frequency and power values for an RF application according to the present invention are around 500 KHz and 50-100 W, respectively.
FIGS. 11A-D show various patterns of electrically conductive electrode bands as RF ablation elements which circumscribe an outer surface of the working length of an expandable member. FIGS. 11A-B show circumferential ablation member (550) to include circumferential ablation element (552) which comprises a continuous circumferential electrode band that circumscribes an outer surface of an expandable member (570). FIG. 11B more specifically shows expandable member (570) as a balloon which is fluidly coupled to a pressurizeable fluid source (175), and further shows electrode band (circumferential ablation element) (552) electrically coupled via electrically conductive lead (554) to ablation actuator (190). In addition, a plurality of apertures (572) are shown m the balloon skin wall of expandable member (570) adjacent to electrode band (552). The purpose of these apertures (572) is to provide a positive flow of fluid such as saline or ringers lactate fluid into the tissue surrounding the electrode band (552). Such fluid flow is believed to reduce the temperature rise in the tissue surrounding the electrode element during RF ablation.
The shapes shown collectively in FIGS. 11A-D allow for a continuous electrode band to circumscribe an expandable member's working length over a range of expanded diameters, a feature which is believed to be particularly useful with a relatively compliant balloon as the expandable member. In the particular embodiments of FIGS. 11A-D, this feature is provided primarily by a secondary shape given to the electrode band relative to the longitudinal axis of the working length of the expandable member. Electrode band (552) is thus shown in FIGS. 11A-B to take the specific secondary shape of a modified step curve. Other shapes than a modified step curve are also suitable, such as the serpentine or sawtooth shapes shown respectively in FIGS. 11C-D. Other shapes in addition to those shown in FIGS. 11A-D and which meet the defined functional requirements are further contemplated within the scope of the present invention.
In another aspect of the narrow equatorial band variation for the circumferential ablation element, the circumferential lesion formed may also be relatively narrow when compared to its own circumference, and may be less than two-thirds or even one-half its own circumference on the expandable element when expanded. In one arrangement which is believed to be suitable for ablating circumferential lesions in the pulmonary veins as conduction blocks, the band width w is less than 1 cm, with a circumference on the working length when expanded that is greater than 1.5 cm.
FIGS. 12A-B show a further variation of a circumferential ablation element which is adapted to maintain a continuous circumferential lesion pattern over a range of expanded diameters and which includes electrode elements that form a relatively narrow equatorial band around the working length of an expandable balloon member. In this variation, a plurality of individual electrode elements (562) are included in the circumferential ablation element and are positioned in spaced arrangement along an equatorial band which circumscribes an outer surface of the expandable member's working length L.
The size and spacing between these individual electrode elements (562), when the balloon is expanded, is adapted to form a substantially continuous circumferential lesion in pulmonary vein wall tissue when in intimal contact adjacent thereto, and is further adapted to form such a lesion over a range of band diameters as the working length is adjusted between a variety of radially expanded positions. Each individual electrode element (562) has two opposite ends (563,564), respectively, along a long axis LA and also has a short axis SA, and is positioned such that the long axis LA is at an acute angle relative to the longitudinal axis La of the elongate catheter body and expandable member (560). At least one of the ends (563,564) along the long axis LA overlaps with an end of another adjacent individual electrode element, such that there is a region of overlap along their circumferential aspect, i.e., there is a region of overlap along the circumferential coordinates. The terms “region of overlap along their circumferential coordinates” are herein intended to mean that the two adjacent ends each are positioned along the working length with a circumferential and also a longitudinal coordinate, wherein they, share a common circumferential coordinate. In this arrangement, the circumferential compliance along the working length which accompanies radial expansion of the expandable member also moves the individual electrode elements apart along the circumferential axis. However, the spaced, overlapping arrangement described allows the individual electrode elements to maintain a certain degree of their circumferential overlap, or at least remain close enough together, such that a continuous lesion may be formed without gaps between the elements.
In addition, the electrode band provided by the circumferential ablation elements shown in FIGS. 11C-D, 12A-B and also shown schematically in FIGS. 4-6B has a band width w relative to the longitudinal axis of the working length which is only required to be sufficiently wide to form a complete conduction block against conduction along the walls of the pulmonary vein in directions parallel to the longitudinal axis. The width of the circumferential ablation element is adapted to ablate a functional width of tissue that will effectively block conduction along the vessel wall in directions parallel to the longitudinal aspect of the vessel in which the ablation element is actuated. In contrast, the working length L of the respective expandable element is adapted to securely anchor the distal end portion in place such that the ablation element is firmly positioned at a selected region of the pulmonary vein for ablation. Accordingly, the width w is relatively narrow compared to the working length L of the expandable element, and Me electrode band may thus form a relatively narrow equatorial band which is less than two-thirds or even one-half of the working length of the expandable element. Note that the width is measured by the maximum point to point distance on the circumferential ablation element in a direction parallel to the longitudinal axis of the expandable element, or the ablation catheter, depending on the embodiment. Additionally, it is to be noted here and elsewhere throughout the specification, that a narrow band may be placed at locations other than the equator of the expandable element, preferably as long as the band is bordered on both sides by a portion of the working length L.
The construction for suitable circumferential electrode elements in the RF variation of the present invention, such as the various electrode embodiments described with reference to FIGS. 11A-12B, may comprise a metallic material deposited on the outer surface of the working length using conventional techniques, such as by plasma depositing, sputter coating, chemical vapor deposition, other known techniques which are equivalent for this purpose, or otherwise affixing a metallic shaped member onto the outer surface of the expandable member such as through known adhesive bonding techniques. Other RF electrode arrangements are also considered within the scope of the present invention, so long as they form a circumferential conduction block as previously described. For example, a balloon skin may itself be metallized, such as by mixing conductive metal, including but not limited to gold, platinum, or silver, with a polymer to form a conductive matrix as the balloon skin.
Still further to the broad RF electrode embodiments, another circumferential ablation member variation (not shown) may also include an expandable member, such as an inflatable balloon, that includes a porous skin that is adapted to allow fluid, such as hypertonic saline solution, to pass from an internal chamber defined by the skin and outwardly into surrounding tissues. Such a porous skin may be constructed according to several different methods, such as by forming holes in an otherwise contiguous polymeric material, including mechanically drilling or using laser energy, or the porous skin may simply be an inherently porous membrane. In any case, by electrically coupling the fluid within the porous balloon skin to an RF current source preferably monopolar), the porous region of the expandable member serves as an RF electrode wherein RF current flows outwardly through the pores via the conductive fluid. In addition, it is further contemplated that a porous outer skin may be provided externally of another, separate expandable member, such as a separate expandable balloon, wherein the conductive fluid is contained in a region between the porous outer skin and the expandable member contained therein.
In the alternative, or in addition to the RF electrode variations just described, the circumferential ablation element may also include other ablative energy sources or sinks, and particularly may include a thermal conductor that circumscribes the outer circumference of the working length of an expandable member. Examples of suitable thermal conductor arrangements include a metallic element which may for example be constructed as previously described for the more detailed RF embodiments. However, in the thermal conductor embodiment, such a metallic element would be generally either resistively heated in a closed loop circuit internal to the catheter, or conductively heated by a heat source coupled to the thermal conductor. In the latter case of conductive heating of the thermal conductor with a heat source, the expandable member may be for example a polymeric balloon skin which is inflated with a fluid that is heated either by a resistive coil or by bipolar RF current. In any case, it is believed that a thermal conductor on the outer surface of the expandable member is suitable when it is adapted to heat tissue adjacent thereto to a temperature between 40 deg and 80 deg Celsius.
Further to the thermal conduction variation for the circumferential ablation element, the perfusion balloon embodiment as shown in FIGS. 6A-6B may be particularly useful in such a design. It is believed that ablation through increased temperatures, as provided by example above, may also increase the risk of coagulation of blood in the pulmonary vein adjacent to the expandable member. The use of the perfusion balloon embodiment would reduce the coagulation risk by maintaining blood flow in the area where ablation is performed, thereby preventing a concentration of heat in a stagnant pool of blood.
One further circumferential ablation element design which is believed to be highly useful in performing the methods according to the present invention is shown in FIG. 13 to include a circumferential ablation member (600) with two insulators (602,604) that encapsulate the proximal and distal ends, respectively, of the working length L of an expandable member (610). In the particular embodiment shown, the insulators (602,604) are thermal insulators, such as a thermal insulator comprising a Teflon material. Expandable member (610) is an inflatable balloon which has a balloon skin (612) that is thermally conductive to surrounding tissue when inflated with a heated fluid such as radiopaque agent or other contrast material, saline fluid, ringers lactate, combinations thereof, other known biocompatible fluids having acceptable heat transfer properties for these purposes, further to the thermal conductor embodiments previously described. By providing these spaced insulators, a circumferential ablation element is formed as an equatorial band (603) of uninsulated balloon skin is located between the opposite insulators. In this configuration, the circumferential ablation member is able to conduct heat externally of the balloon skin much more efficiently at the uninsulated equatorial band /circumferential ablation element (603) than at the insulated portions, and thereby is adapted to ablate only a circumferential region of tissue in a pulmonary vein wall which is adjacent to the equatorial band. It is further noted that this embodiment is not limited to an “equatorial” placement of the ablation element. Rather, a circumferential band may be formed anywhere along the working length of the expandable member and circumscribing the longitudinal axis of the expandable member as previously described.
FIG. 13 further shows use of a radiopaque marker (620) to identify the location of the equatorial band (603) in order to facilitate placement of that band at a selected ablation region of a pulmonary vein via X-ray visualization. Radiopaque marker (620) is opaque under X-ray, and may be constructed for example of a radiopaque metal such as gold, platinum, or tungsten, or may comprise a radiopaque polymer such as a metal loaded polymer. FIG. 13 shows radiopaque marker (620) positioned coaxially over an inner tubular member (621) which is included in a coaxial catheter design as would be apparent to one of ordinary skill. The present invention contemplates the combination of such a radiopaque marker additionally in the other embodiments herein shown and described. To note, when the circumferential ablation member which forms an equatorial or circumferential band includes a metallic electrode element, such electrode may itself be radiopaque and may not require the use of a separate marker as just described.
The thermal insulator embodiment just described by reference to FIG. 13 is illustrative of a broader embodiment, wherein a circumferential ablation member has an ablating surface along the entire working length of an expandable member, but is shielded from releasing ablative energy into surrounding tissues except for an unshielded or uninsulated equatorial band. As such, the insulator embodiment contemplates other ablation elements, such as the RF embodiments previously described above, which are provided along the entire working length of an expandable member and which are insulated at their ends to selectively ablate tissue only about an uninsulated equatorial band.
In a further example using the insulator embodiment in combination with a circumferential RF electrode embodiment, a metallized balloon which includes a conductive balloon skin may have an electrical insulator, such as a polymeric coating, at each end of the working length and thereby selectively ablate tissue with electricity flowing through the uninsulated equatorial band. In this and other insulator embodiments, it is further contemplated that the insulators described may be only partial and still provide the equatorial band result. For instance, in the conductive RF electrode balloon case, a partial electrical insulator will allow a substantial component of current to flow through the uninsulated portion due to a “shorting” response to the lower resistance in that region.
It is further contemplated that the expandable member of the broad invention may also take forms other than a balloon. For example, FIG. 14 shows an embodiment having an expandable cage (650). Cage (650) comprises coordinating wires (651) and is expandable to engage a desired ablation region in a pulmonary vein.
The radial expansion of cage (650) is accomplished as follows. Sheath (652) is secured around the wires proximally of cage (650). However, core (653), which may be a metallic mandrel such as stainless steel, extends through sheath (652) and distally within cage (650) wherein it terminates in a distal tip (656). Wires (651) are secured to distal tip (656), for example by soldering, welding, adhesive bonding, heat shrinking a polymeric member over the wires, or any combination of these methods. Core (653) is slideable within sheath (652), and may for example be housed within a tubular lumen (not shown) within sheath (652), the wires being housed between a coaxial space between the tubular lumen and sheath (652). By moving the sheath (652) relative to core (653) and distal tip (656)(shown by arrows in FIG. 14), the cage (650) is collapsible along its longitudinal axis in order to force an outward radial bias (also shown with arrows in FIG. 14) to wires (651) in an organized fashion to formed a working length of cage (650) which is expanded (not shown). Alternatively, but not shown, an expandable cage may be formed of superelastic wires which, upon being pushed from a sheath, expand to an enlarged diameter.
Further to the particular expandable cage embodiment shown in FIG. 14, a plurality of ablation electrodes (655) is shown, each being positioned on one of wires (651) and being similarly located along the longitudinal axis of the cage (650). The radial bias given to wires (651) during expansion, together with the location of the ablation electrodes (655), serves to position the plurality of ablation electrodes (655) along a circumferential, equatorial band along the expanded working length of cage (650). The wires forming a cage according to this embodiment may also have another predetermined shape when in the radially expanded position. For example, a taper similar to that shown for expandable member (370) in FIGS. 8A-B may be formed by expanding cage (650), wherein the ablation element formed by ablation electrodes (655) maybe positioned between the proximal end and the distal end of the taper.
Further to the construction of the embodiment shown in FIG. 14, wires (651) are preferably metal, and may comprise stainless steel or a superelastic metal alloy, such as an alloy of nickel and titanium, or a combination of both. Regarding the case of nickel and titanium construction for wires (651), a separate electrical conductor may be required in order to actuate ablation electrodes (655) to efficiently emit ablative current into surrounding tissues. In the case where wires (651) are constructed of stainless steel, they may also serve as electrical conductors for ablation electrodes (655). Further to the stainless steel design, the wires (651) may be coated with an electrical insulator to isolate the electrical flow into surrounding tissues at the site of the ablation electrodes (655). Moreover, the ablation electrodes (655) in the stainless steel wire variation may be formed simply by removing electrical insulation in an isolated region to allow for current to flow into tissue only from that exposed region.
In a further cage embodiment (not shown) to that shown in FIG. 14, a circumferential strip of electrodes may also be secured to the cage (650) such &hat the strip circumscribes the cage at a predetermined location along the cage's longitudinal axis. By expanding cage (650) as previously described, the strip of electrodes are adapted to-take a circumferential shape according to the shape of the expanded cage (650). Such an electrode strip is preferably flexible, such that it may be easily reconfigured when the cage is adjusted between the radially collapsed and expanded positions and such that the strip may be easily advanced and withdrawn with the cage within the delivery sheath. Furthermore, the electrode strip may be a continuous circumferential electrode such as a conductive spring coil, or may be a flexible strip which includes several separate electrodes along its circumferential length. In the latter case, the flexible strip may electrically couple all of the electrodes to a conductive lead that interfaces with a drive circuit, or each electrode may be separately coupled to one or more such conductive leads.
Another circumferential ablation element for use in forming a circumferential conduction block according to the present invention is shown in FIG. 15, wherein circumferential ablation member (700) includes a looped member (710) attached, preferably by heat shrinking, to a distal end of a pusher (730). Looped member (710) and pusher (730) are slideably engaged within delivery sheath (750) such that looped member (710) is in a first collapsed position when positioned and radially confined within delivery sheath (750), and expands to a second expanded position when advanced distally from delivery sheath (750).
Looped member (710) is shown in more detail in FIG. 15 to include a core (712) which is constructed of a superelastic metal alloy such as a nickel-titanium alloy and which has a looped portion with shape memory in the looped configuration. This looped configuration is shown in FIG. 15 to be in a plane which is off-axis, preferably perpendicular, to the longitudinal axis of the pusher (730). This off-axis orientation of the loop is adapted to engage a circumferential path of tissue along a pulmonary vein wall which circumscribes the pulmonary vein lumen when the looped member (710) is delivered from the delivery sheath (750) when the delivery sheath is positioned within the vein lumen parallel to its longitudinal axis. An ablation electrode (714) is also shown in FIG. 15 as a metallic coil which is wrapped around core (712) in its looped portion.
Pusher (730) is further shown in FIG. 15 to include a tubular pusher member (732) which is heat shrunk over two ends (712′) of core (712) which extend proximally of looped member (710) through pusher (730) in the particular variation shown. While in this embodiment core (712) extends through the pusher in order to provide stiffness to the composite design for the pusher, it is further contemplated that the superelastic metal of the core may be replaced or augmented in the pusher region with another different mandrel or pusher core (not shown), such as a stiffer stainless steel mandrel. Also shown within pusher (730) is an electrically conductive lead (735) which is coupled to the ablation electrode (714) and which is also adapted in a proximal region of the pusher (not shown) to couple to an ablation actuator (190) such as an RF current source (shown schematically).
While particular detailed description has been herein provided for particular embodiments and variations according to the present invention, it is firer understood that various modifications, combinations and improvements may be made by one of ordinary skill according to this disclosure and without departing from the broad scope of the invention.
|Cited Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US4033031||Apr 22, 1976||Jul 5, 1977||Augat, Inc.||Method and machine for inserting electrical contacts into electrical interconnection boards|
|US4117836||Jun 23, 1976||Oct 3, 1978||Siemens-Elema Ab||Catheter for selective coronary arteriography of the left coronary artery|
|US4316472||Aug 9, 1979||Feb 23, 1982||Mieczyslaw Mirowski||Cardioverting device with stored energy selecting means and discharge initiating means, and related method|
|US4411266||Sep 24, 1980||Oct 25, 1983||Cosman Eric R||Thermocouple radio frequency lesion electrode|
|US4449528||Jul 20, 1981||May 22, 1984||University Of Washington||Fast pulse thermal cautery probe and method|
|US4522205||Sep 3, 1981||Jun 11, 1985||The University Court Of The University Of Edinburgh||Therapeutic device and method of inducing thrombosis in a blood vessel|
|US4569801||Oct 15, 1984||Feb 11, 1986||Eli Lilly And Company||Alkylsulfonamidophenylalkylamines|
|US4641649||Oct 30, 1985||Feb 10, 1987||Rca Corporation||Method and apparatus for high frequency catheter ablation|
|US4660571||Jul 18, 1985||Apr 28, 1987||Cordis Corporation||Percutaneous lead having radially adjustable electrode|
|US4662368||Jun 28, 1985||May 5, 1987||Trimedyne Laser Systems, Inc.||Localized heat applying medical device|
|US4672962||Oct 7, 1985||Jun 16, 1987||Cordis Corporation||Plaque softening method|
|US4673563||Apr 8, 1985||Jun 16, 1987||The University Of Virginia Alumni Patents Foundation||Adenosine in the treatment of supraventricular tachycardia|
|US4676258||Jun 5, 1986||Jun 30, 1987||Kureha Kagaku Kogyo Kabushiki Kaisha||Device for hyperthermia|
|US4699147||Sep 25, 1985||Oct 13, 1987||Cordis Corporation||Intraventricular multielectrode cardial mapping probe and method for using same|
|US4762129||Nov 15, 1985||Aug 9, 1988||Tassilo Bonzel||Dilatation catheter|
|US4790311||Jan 20, 1987||Dec 13, 1988||Ruiz Oscar F||Radio frequency angioplasty catheter system|
|US4807620||May 22, 1987||Feb 28, 1989||Advanced Interventional Systems, Inc.||Apparatus for thermal angioplasty|
|US4841977||May 26, 1987||Jun 27, 1989||Inter Therapy, Inc.||Ultra-thin acoustic transducer and balloon catheter using same in imaging array subassembly|
|US4882777||Apr 17, 1987||Nov 21, 1989||Narula Onkar S||Catheter|
|US4898591||Aug 9, 1988||Feb 6, 1990||Mallinckrodt, Inc.||Nylon-PEBA copolymer catheter|
|US4924863||May 4, 1988||May 15, 1990||Mmtc, Inc.||Angioplastic method for removing plaque from a vas|
|US4932413||Mar 13, 1989||Jun 12, 1990||Schneider (Usa), Inc.||Guidewire exchange catheter|
|US4940064||Jun 30, 1987||Jul 10, 1990||Desai Jawahar M||Catheter for mapping and ablation and method therefor|
|US4945912||Nov 25, 1988||Aug 7, 1990||Sensor Electronics, Inc.||Catheter with radiofrequency heating applicator|
|US4976711||Apr 13, 1989||Dec 11, 1990||Everest Medical Corporation||Ablation catheter with selectively deployable electrodes|
|US4998933||Jun 10, 1988||Mar 12, 1991||Advanced Angioplasty Products, Inc.||Thermal angioplasty catheter and method|
|US5000185||Dec 23, 1988||Mar 19, 1991||Cardiovascular Imaging Systems, Inc.||Method for intravascular two-dimensional ultrasonography and recanalization|
|US5035694||May 15, 1989||Jul 30, 1991||Advanced Cardiovascular Systems, Inc.||Dilatation catheter assembly with heated balloon|
|US5078717||Sep 10, 1990||Jan 7, 1992||Everest Medical Corporation||Ablation catheter with selectively deployable electrodes|
|US5078736||May 4, 1990||Jan 7, 1992||Interventional Thermodynamics, Inc.||Method and apparatus for maintaining patency in the body passages|
|US5090958||Oct 5, 1990||Feb 25, 1992||Harvinder Sahota||Balloon catheters|
|US5104393||Nov 2, 1990||Apr 14, 1992||Angelase, Inc.||Catheter|
|US5147355||Sep 23, 1988||Sep 15, 1992||Brigham And Womens Hospital||Cryoablation catheter and method of performing cryoablation|
|US5178618||Jan 16, 1991||Jan 12, 1993||Brigham And Womens Hospital||Method and device for recanalization of a body passageway|
|US5190540||Sep 25, 1991||Mar 2, 1993||Cardiovascular & Interventional Research Consultants, Inc.||Thermal balloon angioplasty|
|US5226430||May 24, 1991||Jul 13, 1993||The Beth Israel Hospital||Method for angioplasty|
|US5228442||Dec 3, 1992||Jul 20, 1993||Cardiac Pathways Corporation||Method for mapping, ablation, and stimulation using an endocardial catheter|
|US5231995||Sep 30, 1992||Aug 3, 1993||Desai Jawahar M||Method for catheter mapping and ablation|
|US5255679||Jun 2, 1992||Oct 26, 1993||Cardiac Pathways Corporation||Endocardial catheter for mapping and/or ablation with an expandable basket structure having means for providing selective reinforcement and pressure sensing mechanism for use therewith, and method|
|US5263493||Jul 7, 1992||Nov 23, 1993||Boaz Avitall||Deflectable loop electrode array mapping and ablation catheter for cardiac chambers|
|US5281215||Jun 15, 1992||Jan 25, 1994||Implemed, Inc.||Cryogenic catheter|
|US5292321||Mar 1, 1993||Mar 8, 1994||Lee Benjamin I||Thermal balloon angioplasty with thermoplastic stent|
|US5293868||Jun 30, 1992||Mar 15, 1994||American Cardiac Ablation Co., Inc.||Cardiac ablation catheter having resistive mapping electrodes|
|US5293869||Sep 25, 1992||Mar 15, 1994||Ep Technologies, Inc.||Cardiac probe with dynamic support for maintaining constant surface contact during heart systole and diastole|
|US5295484||May 19, 1992||Mar 22, 1994||Arizona Board Of Regents For And On Behalf Of The University Of Arizona||Apparatus and method for intra-cardiac ablation of arrhythmias|
|US5300085||Jan 27, 1993||Apr 5, 1994||Advanced Cardiovascular Systems, Inc.||Angioplasty apparatus facilitating rapid exchanges and method|
|US5313943||Sep 25, 1992||May 24, 1994||Ep Technologies, Inc.||Catheters and methods for performing cardiac diagnosis and treatment|
|US5324255||Jul 10, 1992||Jun 28, 1994||Baxter International Inc.||Angioplasty and ablative devices having onboard ultrasound components and devices and methods for utilizing ultrasound to treat or prevent vasopasm|
|US5324284||Jun 5, 1992||Jun 28, 1994||Cardiac Pathways, Inc.||Endocardial mapping and ablation system utilizing a separately controlled ablation catheter and method|
|US5342292||May 24, 1993||Aug 30, 1994||Baxter International Inc.||Ultrasonic ablation device adapted for guidewire passage|
|US5344435||Nov 5, 1990||Sep 6, 1994||Bsd Medical Corporation||Urethral inserted applicator prostate hyperthermia|
|US5345936||Jun 25, 1993||Sep 13, 1994||Cardiac Pathways Corporation||Apparatus with basket assembly for endocardial mapping|
|US5348554||Dec 1, 1992||Sep 20, 1994||Cardiac Pathways Corporation||Catheter for RF ablation with cooled electrode|
|US5368558||Jun 3, 1993||Nov 29, 1994||Baxter International Inc.||Ultrasonic ablation catheter device having endoscopic component and method of using same|
|US5370678||Dec 7, 1993||Dec 6, 1994||Ep Technologies, Inc.||Steerable microwave antenna systems for cardiac ablation that minimize tissue damage and blood coagulation due to conductive heating patterns|
|US5372138||Dec 9, 1992||Dec 13, 1994||Boston Scientific Corporation||Acousting imaging catheters and the like|
|US5385544||May 14, 1993||Jan 31, 1995||Vidamed, Inc.||BPH ablation method and apparatus|
|US5391197||Jun 25, 1993||Feb 21, 1995||Dornier Medical Systems, Inc.||Ultrasound thermotherapy probe|
|US5411524||Nov 2, 1993||May 2, 1995||Medtronic, Inc.||Method and apparatus for synchronization of atrial defibrillation pulses|
|US5423808||Nov 29, 1993||Jun 13, 1995||Ep Technologies, Inc.||Systems and methods for radiofrequency ablation with phase sensitive power detection|
|US5423811||Mar 16, 1994||Jun 13, 1995||Cardiac Pathways Corporation||Method for RF ablation using cooled electrode|
|US5427119||Nov 3, 1993||Jun 27, 1995||Daig Corporation||Guiding introducer for right atrium|
|US5431649||Aug 27, 1993||Jul 11, 1995||Medtronic, Inc.||Method and apparatus for R-F ablation|
|US5433708||Jun 7, 1993||Jul 18, 1995||Innerdyne, Inc.||Method and device for thermal ablation having improved heat transfer|
|US5437664||Jan 18, 1994||Aug 1, 1995||Endovascular, Inc.||Apparatus and method for venous ligation|
|US5443456||Feb 10, 1994||Aug 22, 1995||Misonix, Inc.||Catheter with collapsible wire guide|
|US5447509||Oct 4, 1993||Sep 5, 1995||Baxter International Inc.||Ultrasound catheter system having modulated output with feedback control|
|US5449380||Sep 17, 1993||Sep 12, 1995||Origin Medsystems, Inc.||Apparatus and method for organ ablation|
|US5456682||Feb 2, 1994||Oct 10, 1995||Ep Technologies, Inc.||Electrode and associated systems using thermally insulated temperature sensing elements|
|US5474530||Jun 8, 1994||Dec 12, 1995||Baxter International Inc.||Angioplasty and ablative devices having onboard ultrasound components and devices and methods for utilizing ultrasound to treat or prevent vasospasm|
|US5482037||Jan 13, 1994||Jan 9, 1996||X-Trode S.R.L.||Electrode catheter for mapping and operating on cardiac cavities|
|US5484400||Mar 23, 1994||Jan 16, 1996||Vidamed, Inc.||Dual channel RF delivery system|
|US5487385||Dec 3, 1993||Jan 30, 1996||Avitall; Boaz||Atrial mapping and ablation catheter system|
|US5496312||Oct 7, 1993||Mar 5, 1996||Valleylab Inc.||Impedance and temperature generator control|
|US5496346||May 25, 1993||Mar 5, 1996||Advanced Cardiovascular Systems, Inc.||Reinforced balloon dilatation catheter with slitted exchange sleeve and method|
|US5497119||Jun 1, 1994||Mar 5, 1996||Intel Corporation||High precision voltage regulation circuit for programming multilevel flash memory|
|US5497774||Nov 3, 1993||Mar 12, 1996||Daig Corporation||Guiding introducer for left atrium|
|US5501227||Sep 17, 1993||Mar 26, 1996||Yock; Paul G.||Angioplasty apparatus facilitating rapid exchange and method|
|US5505702||May 16, 1995||Apr 9, 1996||Scimed Life Systems, Inc.||Balloon catheter for dilatation and perfusion|
|US5505730||Jun 24, 1994||Apr 9, 1996||Stuart D. Edwards||Thin layer ablation apparatus|
|US5509900||Oct 15, 1993||Apr 23, 1996||Kirkman; Thomas R.||Apparatus and method for retaining a catheter in a blood vessel in a fixed position|
|US5522873||Jul 6, 1994||Jun 4, 1996||Webster Laboratories, Inc.||Catheter having electrode with annular recess and method of using same|
|US5540679||Jul 1, 1994||Jul 30, 1996||Boston Scientific Corporation||Device and method for heating tissue in a patient's body|
|US5545161||Oct 7, 1994||Aug 13, 1996||Cardiac Pathways Corporation||Catheter for RF ablation having cooled electrode with electrically insulated sleeve|
|US5545193||Aug 22, 1995||Aug 13, 1996||Ep Technologies, Inc.||Helically wound radio-frequency emitting electrodes for creating lesions in body tissue|
|US5549661||Dec 1, 1995||Aug 27, 1996||Ep Technologies, Inc.||Systems and methods for creating complex lesion patterns in body tissue|
|US5558720||Jan 11, 1996||Sep 24, 1996||Thermacore, Inc.||Rapid response vapor source|
|US5562720||Oct 6, 1994||Oct 8, 1996||Vesta Medical, Inc.||Bipolar/monopolar endometrial ablation device and method|
|US5564440||Nov 3, 1994||Oct 15, 1996||Daig Corporation||Method for mopping and/or ablation of anomalous conduction pathways|
|US5571088||Jun 6, 1995||Nov 5, 1996||Boston Scientific Corporation||Ablation catheters|
|US5571159||Apr 4, 1994||Nov 5, 1996||Alt; Eckhard||Temporary atrial defibrillation catheter and method|
|US5575766||Jul 8, 1994||Nov 19, 1996||Daig Corporation||Process for the nonsurgical mapping and treatment of atrial arrhythmia using catheters guided by shaped guiding introducers|
|US5575772||Feb 15, 1996||Nov 19, 1996||Boston Scientific Corporation||Albation catheters|
|US5575788||Oct 6, 1994||Nov 19, 1996||Stuart D. Edwards||Thin layer ablation apparatus|
|US5575810||Sep 15, 1995||Nov 19, 1996||Ep Technologies, Inc.||Composite structures and methods for ablating tissue to form complex lesion patterns in the treatment of cardiac conditions and the like|
|US5582609||Aug 8, 1994||Dec 10, 1996||Ep Technologies, Inc.||Systems and methods for forming large lesions in body tissue using curvilinear electrode elements|
|US5588432||Jul 10, 1995||Dec 31, 1996||Boston Scientific Corporation||Catheters for imaging, sensing electrical potentials, and ablating tissue|
|US5606974||May 2, 1995||Mar 4, 1997||Heart Rhythm Technologies, Inc.||Catheter having ultrasonic device|
|US5607422||Jun 30, 1994||Mar 4, 1997||Cordis Corporation||Catheter with elongated side electrode|
|US5607462||Jul 7, 1994||Mar 4, 1997||Cardiac Pathways Corporation||Catheter assembly, catheter and multi-catheter introducer for use therewith|
|US5617854||Jun 22, 1994||Apr 8, 1997||Munsif; Anand||Shaped catheter device and method|
|US5620479||Jan 31, 1995||Apr 15, 1997||The Regents Of The University Of California||Method and apparatus for thermal therapy of tumors|
|US5630837||Mar 31, 1995||May 20, 1997||Boston Scientific Corporation||Acoustic ablation|
|US5645082||Jan 27, 1994||Jul 8, 1997||Cardima, Inc.||Intravascular method and system for treating arrhythmia|
|US5652736||Jun 17, 1996||Jul 29, 1997||Lee; Vincent Kuo Wei||Ornamental container detachably attached to wrist watch|
|US5658278||Jan 31, 1995||Aug 19, 1997||Cardiac Pathways, Inc.||Catheter for RF ablation with cooled electrode and method|
|US5673695||Nov 6, 1996||Oct 7, 1997||Ep Technologies, Inc.||Methods for locating and ablating accessory pathways in the heart|
|US5674274||Dec 14, 1995||Oct 7, 1997||Pacesetter, Inc.||Implantable adjustable single-pass A-V lead for use with an implantable stimulation device|
|US5676662||Mar 17, 1995||Oct 14, 1997||Daig Corporation||Ablation catheter|
|US5680860||Oct 31, 1995||Oct 28, 1997||Cardiac Pathways Corporation||Mapping and/or ablation catheter with coilable distal extremity and method for using same|
|US5682885||Apr 19, 1996||Nov 4, 1997||Cardima, Inc.||Intravascular sensing device|
|US5683445||Apr 29, 1996||Nov 4, 1997||Swoyer; John M.||Medical electrical lead|
|US5685322||Jun 7, 1995||Nov 11, 1997||Cardima, Inc.||Intravascular system for treating arrhythmia|
|US5685839||May 11, 1995||Nov 11, 1997||Edwards; Stuart D.||Ultrasound probe with thermal sensing|
|US5687723||Jun 8, 1995||Nov 18, 1997||Avitall; Boaz||Mapping and ablation catheter system|
|US5687729||Jun 20, 1995||Nov 18, 1997||Siemens Aktiengesellschaft||Source of therapeutic acoustic waves introducible into the body of a patient|
|US5688267||May 1, 1995||Nov 18, 1997||Ep Technologies, Inc.||Systems and methods for sensing multiple temperature conditions during tissue ablation|
|US5690611||Nov 14, 1994||Nov 25, 1997||Daig Corporation||Process for the treatment of atrial arrhythima using a catheter guided by shaped giding introducers|
|US5693078||Oct 5, 1994||Dec 2, 1997||Jawahar M. Desai||Device and method for multi-phase radio-frequency ablation|
|US5697925||Jun 9, 1995||Dec 16, 1997||Engineering & Research Associates, Inc.||Apparatus and method for thermal ablation|
|US5697927||Mar 16, 1994||Dec 16, 1997||Cardiac Pathways Corporation||Catheter for RF ablation with cooled electrode and apparatus for use therewith|
|US5702438||Jun 8, 1995||Dec 30, 1997||Avitall; Boaz||Expandable recording and ablation catheter system|
|US5715818||Oct 31, 1995||Feb 10, 1998||Daig Corporation||Method of using a guiding introducer for left atrium|
|US5716389||Nov 13, 1995||Feb 10, 1998||Walinsky; Paul||Cardiac ablation catheter arrangement with movable guidewire|
|US5718231||Jun 14, 1994||Feb 17, 1998||British Technology Group Ltd.||Laser ultrasound probe and ablator|
|US5718241||Jun 7, 1995||Feb 17, 1998||Biosense, Inc.||Apparatus and method for treating cardiac arrhythmias with no discrete target|
|US5718701||Mar 18, 1996||Feb 17, 1998||Electro-Catheter Corporation||Ablation electrode|
|US5720775||Jul 31, 1996||Feb 24, 1998||Cordis Corporation||Percutaneous atrial line ablation catheter|
|US5722401||Nov 13, 1995||Mar 3, 1998||Cardiac Pathways Corporation||Endocardial mapping and/or ablation catheter probe|
|US5722403||Oct 28, 1996||Mar 3, 1998||Ep Technologies, Inc.||Systems and methods using a porous electrode for ablating and visualizing interior tissue regions|
|US5722963||Apr 1, 1996||Mar 3, 1998||Daig Corporation||Coronary sinus catheter|
|US5725512||Feb 8, 1996||Mar 10, 1998||Daig Corporation||Guilding introducer system for use in the left atrium|
|US5730127||Jan 29, 1996||Mar 24, 1998||Avitall; Boaz||Mapping and ablation catheter system|
|US5730704||May 6, 1996||Mar 24, 1998||Avitall; Boaz||Loop electrode array mapping and ablation catheter for cardiac chambers|
|US5733315||Nov 1, 1994||Mar 31, 1998||Burdette; Everette C.||Method of manufacture of a transurethral ultrasound applicator for prostate gland thermal therapy|
|US5735280||Sep 9, 1996||Apr 7, 1998||Heart Rhythm Technologies, Inc.||Ultrasound energy delivery system and method|
|US5735811||Nov 30, 1995||Apr 7, 1998||Pharmasonics, Inc.||Apparatus and methods for ultrasonically enhanced fluid delivery|
|US5735846||May 1, 1995||Apr 7, 1998||Ep Technologies, Inc.||Systems and methods for ablating body tissue using predicted maximum tissue temperature|
|US5741249||Nov 25, 1996||Apr 21, 1998||Fidus Medical Technology Corporation||Anchoring tip assembly for microwave ablation catheter|
|US5741320||May 2, 1995||Apr 21, 1998||Heart Rhythm Technologies, Inc.||Catheter control system having a pulley|
|US5743870||May 6, 1996||Apr 28, 1998||Somnus Medical Technologies, Inc.||Ablation apparatus and system for removal of soft palate tissue|
|US5743903||Aug 12, 1996||Apr 28, 1998||Ep Technologies, Inc.||Cardiac ablation systems and methods using tissue temperature monitoring and control|
|US5755663||Jun 20, 1996||May 26, 1998||Novoste Corporation||Apparatus for procedures related to the electrophysiology of the heart|
|US5755664||Jul 11, 1996||May 26, 1998||Arch Development Corporation||Wavefront direction mapping catheter system|
|US5755715||Jun 3, 1996||May 26, 1998||Ep Technologies, Inc.||Tissue heating and ablation systems and methods using time-variable set point temperature curves for monitoring and control|
|US5755760||Mar 11, 1996||May 26, 1998||Medtronic, Inc.||Deflectable catheter|
|US5769846||Apr 21, 1995||Jun 23, 1998||Stuart D. Edwards||Ablation apparatus for cardiac chambers|
|US5782239||Jun 7, 1995||Jul 21, 1998||Cordis Webster, Inc.||Unique electrode configurations for cardiovascular electrode catheter with built-in deflection method and central puller wire|
|US5782898||Oct 15, 1996||Jul 21, 1998||Angeion Corporation||System for anchoring mid-lead electrode on an endocardial catheter lead|
|US5797842||Oct 31, 1996||Aug 25, 1998||E.P. Technologies, Inc.||Steerable electrophysiology catheter|
|US5797877||May 24, 1996||Aug 25, 1998||Boston Scientific Corporation||Medical device balloons containing thermoplastic elastomers|
|US5797903||Apr 12, 1996||Aug 25, 1998||Ep Technologies, Inc.||Tissue heating and ablation systems and methods using porous electrode structures with electrically conductive surfaces|
|US5797905||Nov 13, 1995||Aug 25, 1998||E. P. Technologies Inc.||Flexible tissue ablation elements for making long lesions|
|US5800378||Mar 20, 1996||Sep 1, 1998||Vidamed, Inc.||Medical probe device and method|
|US5800379||Aug 12, 1996||Sep 1, 1998||Sommus Medical Technologies, Inc.||Method for ablating interior sections of the tongue|
|US5800413||Nov 27, 1996||Sep 1, 1998||Daig||Guiding introducer for use in the treatment of atrial flutter|
|US5800428||May 16, 1996||Sep 1, 1998||Angeion Corporation||Linear catheter ablation system|
|US5800429||Nov 19, 1996||Sep 1, 1998||Somnus Medical Technologies, Inc.||Noninvasive apparatus for ablating turbinates|
|US5800432||May 1, 1995||Sep 1, 1998||Ep Technologies, Inc.||Systems and methods for actively cooling ablation electrodes using diodes|
|US5807249||Feb 13, 1997||Sep 15, 1998||Medtronic, Inc.||Reduced stiffness, bidirectionally deflecting catheter assembly|
|US5807308||May 3, 1996||Sep 15, 1998||Somnus Medical Technologies, Inc.||Method and apparatus for treatment of air way obstructions|
|US5807391||Sep 23, 1996||Sep 15, 1998||Cordis Corporation||Cryo-ablation catheter|
|US5807395||Apr 22, 1997||Sep 15, 1998||Medtronic, Inc.||Method and apparatus for RF ablation and hyperthermia|
|US5840031||Jun 7, 1995||Nov 24, 1998||Boston Scientific Corporation||Catheters for imaging, sensing electrical potentials and ablating tissue|
|US5840076||Apr 12, 1996||Nov 24, 1998||Ep Technologies, Inc.||Tissue heating and ablation systems and methods using electrode structures with distally oriented porous regions|
|US5842984||Nov 12, 1997||Dec 1, 1998||Avitall; Boaz||Mapping and ablation catheter system with locking mechanism|
|US5843154||Sep 26, 1997||Dec 1, 1998||Sulzer Osypka Gmbh||Apparatus for performing diagnostic and/or therapeutical heart interventions with a catheter|
|US5846218||Sep 5, 1996||Dec 8, 1998||Pharmasonics, Inc.||Balloon catheters having ultrasonically driven interface surfaces and methods for their use|
|US5885278||Oct 11, 1994||Mar 23, 1999||E.P. Technologies, Inc.||Structures for deploying movable electrode elements|
|US5938660||Jun 27, 1997||Aug 17, 1999||Daig Corporation||Process and device for the treatment of atrial arrhythmia|
|US5971983||May 9, 1997||Oct 26, 1999||The Regents Of The University Of California||Tissue ablation device and method of use|
|US6012457||Jul 8, 1997||Jan 11, 2000||The Regents Of The University Of California||Device and method for forming a circumferential conduction block in a pulmonary vein|
|US6024740||Jul 8, 1997||Feb 15, 2000||The Regents Of The University Of California||Circumferential ablation device assembly|
|US6064902||Apr 16, 1998||May 16, 2000||C.R. Bard, Inc.||Pulmonary vein ablation catheter|
|US6071279||Dec 19, 1996||Jun 6, 2000||Ep Technologies, Inc.||Branched structures for supporting multiple electrode elements|
|US6071281||May 5, 1998||Jun 6, 2000||Ep Technologies, Inc.||Surgical method and apparatus for positioning a diagnostic or therapeutic element within the body and remote power control unit for use with same|
|US6071282||Dec 3, 1998||Jun 6, 2000||Ep Technologies, Inc.||Structures for deploying electrode elements|
|US6117101||Nov 25, 1998||Sep 12, 2000||The Regents Of The University Of California||Circumferential ablation device assembly|
|US6161543||Oct 15, 1997||Dec 19, 2000||Epicor, Inc.||Methods of epicardial ablation for creating a lesion around the pulmonary veins|
|US6214002||Mar 13, 2000||Apr 10, 2001||Ep Technologies, Inc.||Structures and methods for deploying electrode elements|
|US6237605||Sep 21, 1998||May 29, 2001||Epicor, Inc.||Methods of epicardial ablation|
|USRE35880||Aug 13, 1995||Aug 25, 1998||Cardiac Pathways Corporation||Endocardial electrical mapping catheter and method|
|EP0472368B1||Aug 15, 1991||Jun 28, 1995||Med Institute, Inc.||Ablation catheter|
|EP0711573B1||Nov 10, 1995||Aug 6, 2003||Daig Corporation||Catheter guided by shaped guiding introducers for mapping the atria|
|1||Avitall et al., "Physics and Engineering of Transcatheter Tissue Ablation" (1993) Journal of American College of Cardiology 22(3):921-932.|
|2||Cox, J.L. et al., "The Surgical Treament of Atrial Fibrillation.IV. Surgical Technique" Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery 101(4): 584-592 (1991).|
|3||Cox, J.L. et al., "The Surgical Treatment of Atrial Fibrillation.I. Summary" (1991) Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery 101 (3) 402-405.|
|4||Diederich et al., "Induction of Hyperthermia Using Interacavitary Multielement Ultrasonic Applicator," IEEE-Transactions on Biomedical Engineering 36(4): 432-438 (Apr. 1989).|
|5||Diederich et al., "The Development of Intracavitary Ultrasonic Applicators for Hyperthermia: A design and experimental study," Med. Phys. 17 (4): 626-634 (Jul./Aug. 1990).|
|6||Fram, et al., "Feasibility of RF Powered Thermal Balloon Ablation of Atrioventricular Bypass Track via the Coronary Sinus: In Vivo Canine Studies" PACE 18:1518-1530 (1995).|
|7||Haissaguerre et al., "Right and Left Atrial Radiofrequency Catheter Therapy of Paroxysmal Atrial Fibrillation," Cardiovascular Electryophysiology 7(12): 1132-1144 (1996).|
|8||Hindricks, et al. "IX Nonpharmacologic Management" Current Management of Arrhythmas pp. 373-378 (1991).|
|9||Jais et al., "Bilateral Dimensions Relevant to Catheter Abalation," North American Society of Pacing and Electrophysiology, 17th Annual Scientific Sessions, Abstract Form.|
|10||Jais, et al., "A Focal Source of Atrial Fibrillation Treated by Discrete Radiofrequency Ablation," Ciculation 95: 572-576 (1997).|
|11||Lesh, Micahel D., "Intraventional Electrophysiology-State-of-the-Art 1993," American Heart Journal, 1993; 126: pp. 686-698.|
|12||Lesh, Micahel D., "Intraventional Electrophysiology—State-of-the-Art 1993," American Heart Journal, 1993; 126: pp. 686-698.|
|13||McMath, L.P. et al., "Percutaneous Laser Balloon Coagulation of Accessory Pathways," Diagnosis The Cardioavascular Intervention 1425: 165-171 (1991).|
|14||Schuger, C.D. et al., "Long Term Effects of Percutaneous Laser Balloon Ablation from the Canine Coronary Sinus" Circulation 86:947-954 (1992).|
|15||Sueda, et al., "Simple Left Atrial Procedure for Chronic Atrial Fibrillation Associated with Mitral Valve Disease" Ann Thorac Surg 62: 1796-1800 (1966).|
|Citing Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US6926714||Jan 29, 2003||Aug 9, 2005||Jasbir S. Sra||Method for pulmonary vein isolation and catheter ablation of other structures in the left atrium in atrial fibrillation|
|US6942657||Sep 29, 2003||Sep 13, 2005||Cardiofocus, Inc.||Intralumenal contact sensor|
|US6953457||Jul 22, 2002||Oct 11, 2005||Cardiofocus, Inc.||Phototherapeutic wave guide apparatus|
|US6955173 *||Aug 30, 2002||Oct 18, 2005||The Regents Of The University Of California||Device and method for forming a circumferential conduction block in a pulmonary vein|
|US7044135 *||Aug 30, 2002||May 16, 2006||The Regents Of The University Of California||Device and method for forming a circumferential conduction block in a pulmonary vein|
|US7207984||Aug 4, 2005||Apr 24, 2007||Cardiofocus, Inc.||Methods for projection of energy|
|US7301131 *||Feb 16, 2006||Nov 27, 2007||Afx, Inc.||Microwave ablation instrument with flexible antenna assembly and method|
|US7311705||Aug 12, 2004||Dec 25, 2007||Medtronic, Inc.||Catheter apparatus for treatment of heart arrhythmia|
|US7322973||Mar 31, 2004||Jan 29, 2008||Cryocath Technologies Inc.||Method and apparatus for preventing atrial fibrillation|
|US7357796||Feb 16, 2005||Apr 15, 2008||Cardiofocus Corporation||Phototherapeutic wave guide apparatus|
|US7435248||Sep 26, 2003||Oct 14, 2008||Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc.||Medical probes for creating and diagnosing circumferential lesions within or around the ostium of a vessel|
|US7542807||Jul 20, 2005||Jun 2, 2009||Endoscopic Technologies, Inc.||Conduction block verification probe and method of use|
|US7648497||Oct 6, 2005||Jan 19, 2010||Medtronic Cryocath Lp||Endovascular cryotreatment catheter|
|US7727191||May 13, 2005||Jun 1, 2010||Medtronic Cryocath Lp||Compliant balloon catheter|
|US7727228||Mar 23, 2004||Jun 1, 2010||Medtronic Cryocath Lp||Method and apparatus for inflating and deflating balloon catheters|
|US7736362||Sep 15, 2003||Jun 15, 2010||Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc.||Catheter balloons|
|US7740627||Jan 6, 2006||Jun 22, 2010||Medtronic Cryocath Lp||Surgical method and apparatus for treating atrial fibrillation|
|US7794454||May 4, 2004||Sep 14, 2010||Medtronic Cryocath Lp||Method and device for epicardial ablation|
|US7794455||Apr 29, 2005||Sep 14, 2010||Medtronic Cryocath Lp||Wide area ablation of myocardial tissue|
|US7803142||Jan 31, 2006||Sep 28, 2010||Summit Access Llc||Microtaper needle and method of use|
|US7860555||Oct 25, 2005||Dec 28, 2010||Voyage Medical, Inc.||Tissue visualization and manipulation system|
|US7860556||Nov 16, 2006||Dec 28, 2010||Voyage Medical, Inc.||Tissue imaging and extraction systems|
|US7918787||Mar 16, 2007||Apr 5, 2011||Voyage Medical, Inc.||Tissue visualization and manipulation systems|
|US7930016||Nov 16, 2006||Apr 19, 2011||Voyage Medical, Inc.||Tissue closure system|
|US7935108||Feb 22, 2005||May 3, 2011||Cardiofocus, Inc.||Deflectable sheath catheters|
|US7942871||May 11, 2007||May 17, 2011||Vytronus, Inc.||Device for ablating body tissue|
|US7950397||May 11, 2007||May 31, 2011||Vytronus, Inc.||Method for ablating body tissue|
|US7957820 *||Nov 25, 2008||Jun 7, 2011||Endoscopic Technologies, Inc.||Conduction block verification probe and method of use|
|US7959630||Sep 11, 2008||Jun 14, 2011||Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc.||Medical probes for creating and diagnosing circumferential lesions within or around the ostium of a vessel|
|US7963940||Aug 22, 2005||Jun 21, 2011||Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc.||Local perfusion device|
|US8025661||Feb 3, 2003||Sep 27, 2011||Cardiofocus, Inc.||Coaxial catheter instruments for ablation with radiant energy|
|US8048066||Jun 16, 2009||Nov 1, 2011||Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc.||Cryotreatment device and method of forming conduction blocks|
|US8050746||Jul 10, 2007||Nov 1, 2011||Voyage Medical, Inc.||Tissue visualization device and method variations|
|US8078266||Feb 5, 2008||Dec 13, 2011||Voyage Medical, Inc.||Flow reduction hood systems|
|US8080006||Apr 16, 2008||Dec 20, 2011||Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc.||Method for tissue cryotherapy|
|US8131350||Dec 20, 2007||Mar 6, 2012||Voyage Medical, Inc.||Stabilization of visualization catheters|
|US8137333||Jul 25, 2007||Mar 20, 2012||Voyage Medical, Inc.||Delivery of biological compounds to ischemic and/or infarcted tissue|
|US8146603||Apr 22, 2011||Apr 3, 2012||Vytronus, Inc.||Method for ablating body tissue|
|US8152795||Apr 14, 2008||Apr 10, 2012||Cardiofocus, Inc.||Method and device for cardiac tissue ablation|
|US8221310||Aug 30, 2007||Jul 17, 2012||Voyage Medical, Inc.||Tissue visualization device and method variations|
|US8231613||May 2, 2011||Jul 31, 2012||Cardiofocus, Inc.||Deflectable sheath catheters|
|US8235985||Sep 11, 2008||Aug 7, 2012||Voyage Medical, Inc.||Visualization and ablation system variations|
|US8241272||Jul 5, 2006||Aug 14, 2012||Cardiofocus, Inc.||Methods for ablation with radiant energy|
|US8267932||May 2, 2011||Sep 18, 2012||Cardiofocus, Inc.||Deflectable sheath catheters|
|US8277444||Aug 15, 2006||Oct 2, 2012||Cardiofocus, Inc.||Treatment of atrial fibrillation by overlapping curvilinear lesions|
|US8295902||Nov 11, 2009||Oct 23, 2012||Shifamed Holdings, Llc||Low profile electrode assembly|
|US8333012||Oct 8, 2009||Dec 18, 2012||Voyage Medical, Inc.||Method of forming electrode placement and connection systems|
|US8366705||Apr 16, 2009||Feb 5, 2013||Cardiofocus, Inc.||Coaxial catheter instruments for ablation with radiant energy|
|US8382747||Oct 18, 2007||Feb 26, 2013||Medtronic Cryocath Lp||Method and apparatus for inflating and deflating balloon catheters|
|US8414508||Oct 30, 2009||Apr 9, 2013||Vytronus, Inc.||System and method for delivery of energy to tissue while compensating for collateral tissue|
|US8417321||Aug 24, 2011||Apr 9, 2013||Voyage Medical, Inc||Flow reduction hood systems|
|US8419613||Sep 13, 2011||Apr 16, 2013||Voyage Medical, Inc.||Tissue visualization device|
|US8425456||Apr 27, 2010||Apr 23, 2013||Medtronic Cryocath Lp||Compliant balloon catheter|
|US8444639||Jan 18, 2012||May 21, 2013||Cardiofocus, Inc.||Coaxial catheter instruments for ablation with radiant energy|
|US8475379||Nov 17, 2009||Jul 2, 2013||Vytronus, Inc.||Systems and methods for ablating body tissue|
|US8475440||Dec 10, 2007||Jul 2, 2013||Medtronic Cryocath Lp||Wide area ablation of myocardial tissue|
|US8491636||Oct 16, 2006||Jul 23, 2013||Medtronic Cryopath LP||Method and apparatus for inflating and deflating balloon catheters|
|US8511317||Feb 27, 2012||Aug 20, 2013||Vytronus, Inc.||Method for ablating body tissue|
|US8512324||Jan 4, 2008||Aug 20, 2013||Medtronic Cryocath Lp||Wide area ablation of myocardial tissue|
|US8540704||Jun 10, 2004||Sep 24, 2013||Cardiofocus, Inc.||Guided cardiac ablation catheters|
|US8545491||Dec 13, 2005||Oct 1, 2013||Medtronic Cryocath Lp||Method and apparatus for inflating and deflating balloon catheters|
|US8585689||Oct 4, 2011||Nov 19, 2013||Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc.||Cryotreatment devices and methods of forming conduction blocks|
|US8585695||Jul 22, 2008||Nov 19, 2013||Hue-Teh Shih||Systems and methods for noncontact ablation|
|US8585696 *||Dec 23, 2008||Nov 19, 2013||Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc.||Electrosurgical probe having conductive outer surface to initiate ablation between electrode|
|US8607800||Sep 28, 2012||Dec 17, 2013||Vytronus, Inc.||Method for ablating body tissue|
|US8657805||May 8, 2008||Feb 25, 2014||Intuitive Surgical Operations, Inc.||Complex shape steerable tissue visualization and manipulation catheter|
|US8679104||May 14, 2008||Mar 25, 2014||Medtronic Cryocath Lp||Wide area ablation of myocardial tissue|
|US8694071||Feb 11, 2011||Apr 8, 2014||Intuitive Surgical Operations, Inc.||Image stabilization techniques and methods|
|US8696653||Oct 1, 2010||Apr 15, 2014||Cardiofocus, Inc.||Cardiac ablation system with pulsed aiming light|
|US8702688||Oct 6, 2010||Apr 22, 2014||Cardiofocus, Inc.||Cardiac ablation image analysis system and process|
|US8709008||May 9, 2008||Apr 29, 2014||Intuitive Surgical Operations, Inc.||Visual electrode ablation systems|
|US8758229||Dec 20, 2007||Jun 24, 2014||Intuitive Surgical Operations, Inc.||Axial visualization systems|
|US8814845||Feb 3, 2012||Aug 26, 2014||Intuitive Surgical Operations, Inc.||Delivery of biological compounds to ischemic and/or infarcted tissue|
|US8834519||Nov 18, 2011||Sep 16, 2014||Artritech, Inc.||Method and device for left atrial appendage occlusion|
|US8858609||Feb 6, 2009||Oct 14, 2014||Intuitive Surgical Operations, Inc.||Stent delivery under direct visualization|
|US8900219||Apr 14, 2009||Dec 2, 2014||Cardiofocus, Inc.||System and method for visualizing tissue during ablation procedures|
|US8900222||Jan 25, 2013||Dec 2, 2014||Medtronic Cryocath Lp||Method and apparatus for inflating and deflating balloon catheters|
|US8926602||Jan 28, 2010||Jan 6, 2015||Medtronic Cryocath Lp||Triple balloon catheter|
|US8934962||Aug 31, 2007||Jan 13, 2015||Intuitive Surgical Operations, Inc.||Electrophysiology mapping and visualization system|
|US8998893||May 12, 2011||Apr 7, 2015||Boaz Avitall||Catheter systems for cardiac arrhythmia ablation|
|US9033885||Oct 30, 2009||May 19, 2015||Vytronus, Inc.||System and method for energy delivery to tissue while monitoring position, lesion depth, and wall motion|
|US9033961||Apr 14, 2009||May 19, 2015||Cardiofocus, Inc.||Cardiac ablation catheters for forming overlapping lesions|
|US9033967||Nov 19, 2013||May 19, 2015||Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc.||Cryotreatment devices and methods of forming conduction blocks|
|US9055906||May 12, 2010||Jun 16, 2015||Intuitive Surgical Operations, Inc.||In-vivo visualization systems|
|US9101735||Jul 7, 2009||Aug 11, 2015||Intuitive Surgical Operations, Inc.||Catheter control systems|
|US9113911||Sep 6, 2012||Aug 25, 2015||Medtronic Ablation Frontiers Llc||Ablation device and method for electroporating tissue cells|
|US9155452||Apr 24, 2008||Oct 13, 2015||Intuitive Surgical Operations, Inc.||Complex shape steerable tissue visualization and manipulation catheter|
|US9155587||May 14, 2009||Oct 13, 2015||Intuitive Surgical Operations, Inc.||Visual electrode ablation systems|
|US9155588||Jun 9, 2009||Oct 13, 2015||Vytronus, Inc.||System and method for positioning an elongate member with respect to an anatomical structure|
|US9180307 *||Mar 15, 2011||Nov 10, 2015||St. Jude Medical, Atrial Fibrillation Division, Inc.||Method of reducing the occurrence of arrhythmias via photobiomodulation and apparatus for same|
|US9192287||Jun 18, 2012||Nov 24, 2015||Intuitive Surgical Operations, Inc.||Tissue visualization device and method variations|
|US9192789||Oct 30, 2009||Nov 24, 2015||Vytronus, Inc.||System and method for anatomical mapping of tissue and planning ablation paths therein|
|US9220924||Jul 14, 2014||Dec 29, 2015||Vytronus, Inc.||System and method for energy delivery to tissue while monitoring position, lesion depth, and wall motion|
|US9226648||Dec 20, 2007||Jan 5, 2016||Intuitive Surgical Operations, Inc.||Off-axis visualization systems|
|US9265563||Feb 22, 2007||Feb 23, 2016||Custom Medical Applications, Inc.||Ablation instruments and related methods|
|US9332893||Aug 5, 2014||May 10, 2016||Intuitive Surgical Operations, Inc.||Delivery of biological compounds to ischemic and/or infarcted tissue|
|US9339322||May 13, 2015||May 17, 2016||Boston Scientific Scimed Inc.||Cryotreatment devices and methods of forming conduction blocks|
|US9387031||Jul 29, 2011||Jul 12, 2016||Medtronic Ablation Frontiers Llc||Mesh-overlayed ablation and mapping device|
|US9421066||Oct 31, 2014||Aug 23, 2016||Cardiofocus, Inc.||System and method for visualizing tissue during ablation procedures|
|US9440091||Nov 5, 2015||Sep 13, 2016||St. Jude Medical, Atrial Fibrillation Division, Inc.||Method of reducing the occurrence of arrhythmias via photobiomodulation and apparatus for same|
|US9468364||Nov 13, 2009||Oct 18, 2016||Intuitive Surgical Operations, Inc.||Intravascular catheter with hood and image processing systems|
|US9510732||Jul 8, 2009||Dec 6, 2016||Intuitive Surgical Operations, Inc.||Methods and apparatus for efficient purging|
|US9526401||Jan 16, 2013||Dec 27, 2016||Intuitive Surgical Operations, Inc.||Flow reduction hood systems|
|US9555223||Sep 26, 2008||Jan 31, 2017||Medtronic Cryocath Lp||Method and apparatus for inflating and deflating balloon catheters|
|US9604014||Mar 15, 2013||Mar 28, 2017||Clearline Md, Llc||System for detecting and removing a gas bubble from a vascular infusion line|
|US20020183729 *||Jul 22, 2002||Dec 5, 2002||Farr Norman E.||Phototherapeutic wave guide apparatus|
|US20030065307 *||Aug 30, 2002||Apr 3, 2003||Lesh Michael D.||Device and method for forming a circumferential conduction block in a pulmonary vein|
|US20030111085 *||Aug 30, 2002||Jun 19, 2003||Lesh Michael D.||Device and method for forming a circumferential conduction block in a pulmonary vein|
|US20030135238 *||Dec 12, 2001||Jul 17, 2003||Milbocker Michael T.||In situ bonds|
|US20030181901 *||Feb 26, 2003||Sep 25, 2003||Maguire Mark A.||Surgical ablation probe for forming a circumferential lesion|
|US20030212351 *||Jun 18, 2003||Nov 13, 2003||Hissong James B.||Methods of using high intensity focused ultrasound to form an ablated tissue area containing a plurality of lesions|
|US20040002740 *||May 7, 2003||Jan 1, 2004||The Regents Of The University Of California||System and method for forming a non-ablative cardiac conduction block|
|US20040006333 *||Feb 3, 2003||Jan 8, 2004||Cardiofocus, Inc.||Coaxial catheter instruments for ablation with radiant energy|
|US20040015106 *||Jun 20, 2003||Jan 22, 2004||Coleman R. Glen||Focused ultrasound ablation devices having selectively actuatable emitting elements and methods of using the same|
|US20040098075 *||Feb 24, 2003||May 20, 2004||The Regents Of The University Of California||Cardiac stimulation system and method|
|US20040106896 *||Dec 23, 2002||Jun 3, 2004||The Regents Of The University Of California||System and method for forming a non-ablative cardiac conduction block|
|US20050010201 *||May 4, 2004||Jan 13, 2005||Marwan Abboud||Method and device for epicardial ablation|
|US20050038419 *||Feb 3, 2003||Feb 17, 2005||Cardiofocus, Inc.||Coaxial catheter instruments for ablation with radiant energy|
|US20050059965 *||Sep 15, 2003||Mar 17, 2005||Scimed Life Systems, Inc.||Catheter balloons|
|US20050065504 *||Jun 10, 2004||Mar 24, 2005||Gerald Melsky||Guided cardiac ablation catheters|
|US20050070887 *||Sep 26, 2003||Mar 31, 2005||Scimed Life Systems, Inc.||Medical probes for creating and diagnosing circumferential lesions within or around the ostium of a vessel|
|US20050080403 *||Oct 5, 2004||Apr 14, 2005||Olympus Corporation||Operation system|
|US20050137661 *||Dec 17, 2004||Jun 23, 2005||Sra Jasbir S.||Method and system of treatment of cardiac arrhythmias using 4D imaging|
|US20050143777 *||Dec 17, 2004||Jun 30, 2005||Sra Jasbir S.||Method and system of treatment of heart failure using 4D imaging|
|US20050159788 *||Jun 16, 2003||Jul 21, 2005||Kress David C.||Transmurality assessment apparatus and methods|
|US20050171520 *||Feb 16, 2005||Aug 4, 2005||Farr Norman E.||Phototherapeutic wave guide apparatus|
|US20050215989 *||Mar 23, 2004||Sep 29, 2005||Cryocath Technologies Inc.||Method and apparatus for inflating and deflating balloon catheters|
|US20050217909 *||Oct 18, 2002||Oct 6, 2005||Etienne Guay||Three-wheeled vehicle having a split radiator and an interior storage compartment|
|US20050222557 *||Feb 22, 2005||Oct 6, 2005||Cardiofocus, Inc.||Deflectable sheath catheters|
|US20050224086 *||Mar 31, 2004||Oct 13, 2005||Daniel Nahon||Method and apparatus for preventing atrial fibrillation|
|US20050267452 *||Aug 4, 2005||Dec 1, 2005||Cardiofocus, Inc.||Phototherapeutic wave guide apparatus|
|US20050271631 *||May 12, 2005||Dec 8, 2005||Lee Randall J||Material compositions and related systems and methods for treating cardiac conditions|
|US20060015165 *||Jul 20, 2005||Jan 19, 2006||Bertolero Arthur A||Conduction block verification probe and method of use|
|US20060030843 *||Oct 6, 2005||Feb 9, 2006||Cryocath Technologies Inc.||Endovascular cryotreatment catheter|
|US20060069385 *||Sep 28, 2004||Mar 30, 2006||Scimed Life Systems, Inc.||Methods and apparatus for tissue cryotherapy|
|US20060083717 *||Sep 26, 2005||Apr 20, 2006||Lee Randall J||System and method for forming a non-ablative cardiac conduction block|
|US20060116673 *||Jan 20, 2006||Jun 1, 2006||Jules Gauthier||Ablation instrument and method|
|US20060122589 *||Dec 13, 2005||Jun 8, 2006||Cryocath Technologies Inc.||Method and apparatus for inflating and deflating balloon catheters|
|US20060138122 *||Feb 16, 2006||Jun 29, 2006||Jules Gauthier||Microwave ablation instrument with flexible antenna assembly and method|
|US20060247611 *||Apr 29, 2005||Nov 2, 2006||Marwan Abboud||Wide area ablation of myocardial tissue|
|US20060253113 *||Jul 5, 2006||Nov 9, 2006||Cardiofocus, Inc.||Methods for ablation with radiant energy|
|US20060258981 *||Apr 27, 2005||Nov 16, 2006||Tracee Eidenschink||Balloon catheter with perfusion lumen|
|US20060270982 *||May 13, 2005||Nov 30, 2006||Mihalik Teresa A||Compliant balloon catheter|
|US20070032783 *||Oct 16, 2006||Feb 8, 2007||Cryocath Technologies Inc.||Method and apparatus for inflating and deflating balloon catheters|
|US20070060918 *||Aug 22, 2005||Mar 15, 2007||Holman Thomas J||Local perfusion device|
|US20070129682 *||Dec 2, 2005||Jun 7, 2007||Tracee Eidenschink||Guidewire with perfusion capability|
|US20070167828 *||Nov 16, 2006||Jul 19, 2007||Vahid Saadat||Tissue imaging system variations|
|US20070265609 *||May 11, 2007||Nov 15, 2007||Thapliyal Hira V||Method for Ablating Body Tissue|
|US20070265610 *||May 11, 2007||Nov 15, 2007||Thapliyal Hira V||Device for Ablating Body Tissue|
|US20070293724 *||Jun 14, 2007||Dec 20, 2007||Voyage Medical, Inc.||Visualization apparatus for transseptal access|
|US20080009925 *||Sep 24, 2007||Jan 10, 2008||Cryocath Technologies Inc.||Method and Apparatus for Inflating and Deflating Balloon Catheters|
|US20080015445 *||Jul 10, 2007||Jan 17, 2008||Voyage Medical, Inc.||Tissue visualization device and method variations|
|US20080015569 *||Jul 10, 2007||Jan 17, 2008||Voyage Medical, Inc.||Methods and apparatus for treatment of atrial fibrillation|
|US20080033241 *||Jul 25, 2007||Feb 7, 2008||Ruey-Feng Peh||Left atrial appendage closure|
|US20080039791 *||Oct 18, 2007||Feb 14, 2008||Cryocath Technologies Inc.||Method and apparatus for inflating and deflating balloon catheters|
|US20080058591 *||Aug 30, 2007||Mar 6, 2008||Voyage Medical, Inc.||Tissue visualization device and method variations|
|US20080058650 *||Aug 30, 2007||Mar 6, 2008||Voyage Medical, Inc.||Coronary sinus cannulation|
|US20080071259 *||Nov 26, 2007||Mar 20, 2008||Jules Gauthier||Microwave ablation instrument with flexible antenna assembly|
|US20080091180 *||Dec 10, 2007||Apr 17, 2008||Cryocath Technologies Inc.||Wide area ablation of myocardial tissue|
|US20080138416 *||Jun 13, 2007||Jun 12, 2008||Fmc Biopolymer As||Method and systems for using biopolymer-based beads and hydrogels|
|US20080183036 *||Dec 18, 2007||Jul 31, 2008||Voyage Medical, Inc.||Systems and methods for unobstructed visualization and ablation|
|US20080208182 *||Apr 16, 2008||Aug 28, 2008||Boston Scientfic Scimed, Inc.||Method for tissue cryotherapy|
|US20080215043 *||May 14, 2008||Sep 4, 2008||Cryocath Technologies Inc.||Wide area ablation of myocardial tissue|
|US20080243111 *||Jan 6, 2006||Oct 2, 2008||James Gammie||Surgical method and apparatus for treating atrial fibrillation|
|US20080275300 *||Apr 24, 2008||Nov 6, 2008||Voyage Medical, Inc.||Complex shape steerable tissue visualization and manipulation catheter|
|US20080281293 *||May 8, 2008||Nov 13, 2008||Voyage Medical, Inc.||Complex shape steerable tissue visualization and manipulation catheter|
|US20090018534 *||Sep 11, 2008||Jan 15, 2009||Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc.|
|US20090030276 *||Jul 25, 2008||Jan 29, 2009||Voyage Medical, Inc.||Tissue visualization catheter with imaging systems integration|
|US20090030412 *||May 9, 2008||Jan 29, 2009||Willis N Parker||Visual electrode ablation systems|
|US20090054803 *||Aug 31, 2007||Feb 26, 2009||Vahid Saadat||Electrophysiology mapping and visualization system|
|US20090062790 *||Aug 29, 2008||Mar 5, 2009||Voyage Medical, Inc.||Direct visualization bipolar ablation systems|
|US20090076498 *||Sep 11, 2008||Mar 19, 2009||Voyage Medical, Inc.||Visualization and ablation system variations|
|US20090076503 *||Nov 25, 2008||Mar 19, 2009||Bertolero Arthur A||Conduction block verification probe and method of use|
|US20090125022 *||Nov 10, 2008||May 14, 2009||Voyage Medical, Inc.||Tissue visualization and ablation systems|
|US20090143640 *||Nov 25, 2008||Jun 4, 2009||Voyage Medical, Inc.||Combination imaging and treatment assemblies|
|US20090171339 *||Dec 23, 2008||Jul 2, 2009||Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc.||Electrosurgical probe having current enhancing protrusions|
|US20090171340 *||Dec 23, 2008||Jul 2, 2009||Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc.||Electrosurgical probe having conductive outer surface to initiate ablation between electrode|
|US20090187179 *||Feb 22, 2007||Jul 23, 2009||Racz N Sandor||Ablation Instruments and Related Methods|
|US20090221871 *||May 12, 2009||Sep 3, 2009||Voyage Medical, Inc.||Precision control systems for tissue visualization and manipulation assemblies|
|US20090221997 *||Apr 16, 2009||Sep 3, 2009||Cardiofocus, Inc.||Coaxial catheter instruments for ablation with radiant energy|
|US20090240248 *||Dec 29, 2006||Sep 24, 2009||C.R. Bard , Inc||Methods and Apparatus for Ablation of Cardiac Tissue|
|US20090251228 *||Mar 17, 2009||Oct 8, 2009||Sony Corporation||Voltage-controlled variable frequency oscillation circuit and signal processing circuit|
|US20090253974 *||Apr 8, 2008||Oct 8, 2009||Marc Mounir Rahme||Use of tools, mapping systems, catheters, electrodes or any devices targeting any autonomic nerve(s) structure(s) in the human heart for the diagnostic, treatment and/or prevention of the recurrence of cardiac arrhythmias.|
|US20090275842 *||Dec 20, 2007||Nov 5, 2009||Vahid Saadat||Stabilization of visualization catheters|
|US20090299354 *||Apr 14, 2009||Dec 3, 2009||Cardiofocus, Inc.||Cardiac ablation catheters for forming overlapping lesions|
|US20090299358 *||Jun 16, 2009||Dec 3, 2009||Lafontaine Daniel M||Cryotreatment Device and Method of Forming Conduction Blocks|
|US20090299363 *||Dec 20, 2007||Dec 3, 2009||Vahid Saadat||Off-axis visualization systems|
|US20090312673 *||Jun 11, 2009||Dec 17, 2009||Vytronus, Inc.||System and method for delivering energy to tissue|
|US20090326320 *||Apr 14, 2009||Dec 31, 2009||Cardiofocus, Inc.||System and method for visualizing tissue during ablation procedures|
|US20090326572 *||Jun 11, 2009||Dec 31, 2009||Ruey-Feng Peh||Apparatus and methods for rapid tissue crossing|
|US20100004506 *||Sep 11, 2009||Jan 7, 2010||Voyage Medical, Inc.||Tissue visualization and manipulation systems|
|US20100004633 *||Jul 7, 2009||Jan 7, 2010||Voyage Medical, Inc.||Catheter control systems|
|US20100010311 *||Jul 8, 2009||Jan 14, 2010||Voyage Medical, Inc.||Methods and apparatus for efficient purging|
|US20100022876 *||Jul 22, 2008||Jan 28, 2010||Hue-Teh Shih||Systems and Methods for Noncontact Ablation|
|US20100049099 *||Jul 17, 2009||Feb 25, 2010||Vytronus, Inc.||Method and system for positioning an energy source|
|US20100113928 *||Oct 30, 2009||May 6, 2010||Vytronus, Inc.||System and method for delivery of energy to tissue while compensating for collateral tissue|
|US20100113985 *||Oct 30, 2009||May 6, 2010||Vytronus, Inc.||System and method for energy delivery to tissue while monitoring position, lesion depth, and wall motion|
|US20100114094 *||Oct 30, 2009||May 6, 2010||Vytronus, Inc.||System and method for anatomical mapping of tissue and planning ablation paths therein|
|US20100125198 *||Nov 17, 2009||May 20, 2010||Vytronus, Inc.||Systems and methods for ablating body tissue|
|US20100130836 *||Nov 13, 2009||May 27, 2010||Voyage Medical, Inc.||Image processing systems|
|US20100152582 *||Jun 11, 2009||Jun 17, 2010||Vytronus, Inc.||Handheld system and method for delivering energy to tissue|
|US20100204560 *||Nov 11, 2009||Aug 12, 2010||Amr Salahieh||Low profile electrode assembly|
|US20100211056 *||Apr 27, 2010||Aug 19, 2010||Medtronic Cryocath Lp||Compliant balloon catheter|
|US20100256629 *||Apr 6, 2010||Oct 7, 2010||Voyage Medical, Inc.||Methods and devices for treatment of the ostium|
|US20100292558 *||May 12, 2010||Nov 18, 2010||Voyage Medical, Inc.||In-vivo visualization systems|
|US20110060227 *||Nov 16, 2010||Mar 10, 2011||Voyage Medical, Inc.||Tissue visualization and manipulation system|
|US20110060298 *||Nov 16, 2010||Mar 10, 2011||Voyage Medical, Inc.||Tissue imaging and extraction systems|
|US20110082449 *||Oct 1, 2010||Apr 7, 2011||Cardiofocus, Inc.||Cardiac ablation system with pulsed aiming light|
|US20110082450 *||Oct 1, 2010||Apr 7, 2011||Cardiofocus, Inc.||Cardiac ablation system with inflatable member having multiple inflation settings|
|US20110082451 *||Oct 6, 2010||Apr 7, 2011||Cardiofocus, Inc.||Cardiac ablation image analysis system and process|
|US20110082452 *||Oct 1, 2010||Apr 7, 2011||Cardiofocus, Inc.||Cardiac ablation system with automatic safety shut-off feature|
|US20110184400 *||Jan 28, 2010||Jul 28, 2011||Medtronic Cryocath Lp||Triple balloon catheter|
|US20110230798 *||Apr 22, 2011||Sep 22, 2011||Vytronus, Inc.||Method for ablating body tissue|
|US20120239121 *||Mar 15, 2011||Sep 20, 2012||Jaerverud Karin||Method of reducing the occurrence of arrhythmias via photobiomodulation and apparatus for same|
|USRE42961||Jan 28, 2005||Nov 22, 2011||St. Jude Medical, Atrial Fibrillation Division, Inc.||Use of autonomic nervous system neurotransmitters inhibition and atrial parasympathetic fibers ablation for the treatment of atrial arrhythmias and to preserve drug effects|
|EP2540246A1||May 11, 2007||Jan 2, 2013||Vytronus, Inc.||Device for ablating body tissue|
|EP2540347A1||Oct 25, 2010||Jan 2, 2013||Vytronus, Inc.||Ultrasonic systems for ablating tissue|
|WO2007079268A3 *||Dec 29, 2006||Dec 21, 2007||Bard Inc C R||Methods and apparatus for ablation of cardiac tissue|
|WO2009001326A1 *||Jun 27, 2008||Dec 31, 2008||Flip Technologies Limited||'an ablation system and a device and a method for ablating matter in a lumen or a cavity'|
|International Classification||A61B17/22, A61B17/00, A61F2/958, A61B18/08, A61N7/02, A61B18/14|
|Cooperative Classification||A61B2018/0016, A61B2018/00375, A61B2018/00011, A61B2018/00083, A61B2018/00994, A61M2025/1075, A61B2018/1407, A61B2018/00214, A61B2218/002, A61B2018/00898, A61B2018/00273, A61B2018/00107, A61B2018/00285, A61B2018/00351, A61B18/1815, A61M2210/125, A61B2018/00148, A61M25/1002, A61B2017/22054, A61B2018/00797, A61B2018/00839, A61B18/08, A61B2018/00577, A61B2018/00815, A61B18/10, A61B2018/00821, A61B2018/00369, A61B2017/00243, A61B2018/00291, A61B2018/0022, A61B2018/00642, A61B18/1492, A61B2017/22067, A61N7/022, A61B2017/22038|
|European Classification||A61B18/10, A61B18/14V, A61M25/10A|
|Dec 28, 2000||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: REGENTS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, THE, CALI
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:LESH, MICHAEL D.;REEL/FRAME:011386/0473
Effective date: 20001117
|Jun 21, 2006||FPAY||Fee payment|
Year of fee payment: 4
|Jun 9, 2010||FPAY||Fee payment|
Year of fee payment: 8
|Jun 11, 2014||FPAY||Fee payment|
Year of fee payment: 12
|Jun 13, 2017||IPR||Aia trial proceeding filed before the patent and appeal board: inter partes review|
Free format text: TRIAL NO: IPR2017-01338
Opponent name: ST. JUDE MEDICAL, LLC, ST. JUDE MEDICAL CARDIOLOGY
Effective date: 20170428