US 650501 A
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No. 650,50l. Patented May 29, I900.
A. R. BAILEY.
(Application filed Dec. 2, 1897;, (No Model.) 2 Sheets-Sheet l.
BY W ATTORNEY n: mums PETERS ca mow-Lama. \wsnmamu n c No. 650,50l. Patented May 29, I900.
A. R. BAILEY. WATER STILL.
(Application filed D ec. 2, 1897.) (No 'Model.) .2 isheets sheet z,
MBMYTZMMLV ATTORNEY Nit-En STATE PATENT OFFICE.
ARTHUR R. BAILEY, OF NEW YORKTN. Y., ASSIGNOR TO THE A. R. BAILEY MANUFACTURING COMPANY, OF SAME PLACE.
SPECIFZCATION forming part of Letters Patent No, 650,501, dated May 29, 1900. Application filed December 2, 1897. Serial No. 660,465. (Ndmodeh) To a whom it may concern? Be it knownthat I, ARTHUR R. BAILEY, a citizen of the United States, and a resident of New York, (Brooklyn in the county of Kings and State of New York, have invented certain new and useful Improvements in WVater-Stills, of which the following is a specification.
My invention has for its main object to provide a novel, simple, practicable, and highlyefficient water-still, more particularly for household purposes, and one in which the foul gases arising from vaporization are eliminated and in which the distillate is subjected to the action of purified or sterilized air.
My invention consists in the various features of construction and arrangement and combinations of devices hereinafter more fully described, and particularly pointed out in the accompanying claims.
In the accompanying drawings, Figure 1 is a front elevation of a water-still embodying my improvements, and Fig. 2 is a central vertical section of the same.
In both views the same part will be found designated by the same numeral of reference.
The still is circular in form and is composed, preferably, of two main partsl and 2, the former resting or seating upon the latter and readily detachable therefrom. The part 1 comprises a cylinder 3, a cone-like device 4, a flue 5, and a faucet 6. The conical device t is attached to the lower end of the cylinder 3 and the flue 5 is attached at the apex of the cone centrally of the cylinder 3 and extends up to about the level of the top of said cylinder, the flue being largest at its lower end and tapering to a smaller diameter at its upper end. Communication is had to said flue by means of a small opening 7 at the apex of the cone. At the base of the cone is an outwardly and upwardly extending flange 8, by which the cone is attached to the bottom of the cylinder 3 by a folded or beaded joint, and said tapering flange affords a ready means for conveniently seating the upper main member of the still upon the top of the lower member, as shown clearly at Fig. 2. Theinterior of the cylinder 3 'not occupied by the cone and by the flue constitutes the condensingreservoir 9 and is filled with water, preferably up to the level shown.
The space or area oncompassed by the interior of the cone constitutes the condensing-chamber 10, and the flue 5 is provided for carrying off the volatile gases arising from the conversion of the water into steam or vapor.
The lower member of the still consists of a cylinder 11, having an integral bottom 12, forming a pot-like structure.
Within the cylinder 11 and secured thereto are two circular peculiarly-shaped pieces 13 and l t. The piece 13 where its edge joins the cylinder 11 all around is inade substantially horizontal and forms or provides at this locality an annular water-chamber 15. From this point the part 13 curves upwardly and inwardly and terminates in a neck-like portion 16 at near the base of the cone. The part 14 is likewise substantially horizontal where it joins the interior of the cylinder 11 and is then curved inwardly and upwardly to form a neck 17 substantially parallel with the neck 16, thus providing also an annular chamber or reservoir 18 for the distilled water. The opening or space 19 between the two parts 13 and ll forms or constitutes a sterilizingchamber, to which air is admitted from the outside of the cylinder by means of a lateral inlet or opening 20.
The lower portion of the vessel 2 constitutes the boiler or retort 21, and communicating therewith from the water-chamber 15 is a pipe 22, which supplies said retort by the overflow from the water-chamber 15. Attached to the outer side of the cylinder 11 is a feed-cup 23, which by an opening 2% in the side of the cylinder communicates with the chamber 15. Said feed-cup is located directly under the faucet 6, which is placed near the lower end of the cylinder 3, so that water drawn off 0 from the condensing-reservoir 9 may fall into said cup and pass into the chamber 15 and by means of the overflow or pipe 22 enter the retort.
A ball-float 25 is provided inthe retort, 5 which rises and falls with the level of the water therein, and to the said ball-floatis connected a vibratory pointer or indicator 26, which is arranged within the feed-cup at the outer side of the cylinder 11, so as to indicate I00 at all times the level of the water within the retort. The arm 27 of the ball-float passes horizontally through a small tube 28, attached to the inner side of the cylinder 11, and oscil lates in the manner of a rock-shaft. The indicator 26 being attached to or made integral with said rock-shaft consequently swings in the are of a circle as the level of the water in the retort changes. When the retort is full,
the indicator stands at the extreme right of the cup, as shown by the dotted lines at Fig. 1, and as the water-level in the retort is reduced the indicator swings over toward the left-hand side of the feed-cup.
The upper portion of the distilled-water reservoir 18 has a lateral outlet 29, which is located directly over the feed-cup 23, so that when said reservoir becomes full any excess of the distillate will overflow into the feedc-up and back through the chamber 15 and overflow-pipe 22 into the retort.
At a suitable point at the bottom of the distilled-water reservoir 18 is a faucet 3.0, by which the distilled water may be drawn off when desired.
For the purpose of further aerating the distilled water I have provided a contrivance consisting of a round tube 31, which is filled with animal charcoal, quartz, or other substance 32, properly supported between perforated plates or woven-wire grates 33. The said tube is provided with a cover 34, through an opening in which the spout or nozzle of the faucet 30 projects, so as to lead the distilled water from the reservoir directly into the .said charcoal-tube, which latter at its lower end is provided with an outlet 35 for the discharge of the distilled and aerated water into any desired retaining vessel. At near the bottom of the part 2 and in the retort is an air-pipe 36, which passes diametrically through from one side of the-cylinder 11 to the other, and one end of said air-tube is connected to a lateral branch 37 of the charcoal-tube 31, while the opposite end of said air-tube is open. The upper end of the charcoal-tube has also a lateral branch 38, which takes air from the annular sterilizingchamber 19.
The active absorbent nature of H 0, which passes from my apparatus for distillation into aerating device 32, draws toit air from any source. If pulverized charcoal were used in this aerating device, air might not pass through it readily enough to accomplish the purpose desired; but coarse granulated bonecharcoal is used, and as the water trickles through it said water is broken up and a larger surface is presented to. the air than would be the case if it passed through the aerator in drops. By this means a greater demand for air exists in the aerator, and this demand must be supplied from some source. In my distilling device this supply is drawn from tube 36, which is surrounded by boilinghot water for sterilizing purposes.
When it may be desired to use the still, water is placed in the retort up to about the line a and .in the sterilizing-chamber to the level shown, and the condensing-reservoir 9 is also filled and the still is placed over a fire. As soon as the Water in the retort begins to boil steam rises and, passing through the neck 16, enters the condensing-chamber 10 and there condenses. This condensation of the steam or hot vapor tends to create a partial vacuum in the condensing-chamber, and the air is drawn through the opening 20 through the sterilizing-chamber 19 into the condensingchamber 10, and this air serves not only to drive olf the volatile gases arising from the boiling water, but it also assists in condensation and restores to the condensed water the oxygen driven oif by the, heat. The gases pass out of the opening 7 from the condensing-chamber and into the flue 5 in much the same manner-that smoke is drawn from a stove to the top of a building. Steam cannot escape here because the flue is surrounded by water that is cooler than the steam, and this not only creates a resistance to partially-condensed steam, but actually condensesit before it can escape. As the steam condenses against the roof of the condensing-chamber 10 it runs down into the distillediwater reservoir 18 and there accumulates until itis full, as shown, whenit may be drawn off through the faucet 30; but should the still be neglected for any length of time the reservoir 18 will overflow through the outlet 29 into the feed-cup 23, from which through the opening 24 the water will pass into the water-chamber 15 in the sterilizingchamber 19 and from the said water-chamber through the vertical tube 22 into the retort. This replenishes the supply of water in the retort and in the chamber 15 as fast as it boils away.
The neck 17 is slightly higher than the bottom of the outlet 29, and hence should the still be neglected for any length of time, as above described, the water will flow through the outlet 29 and thence into the feed-cup; but if the water should overflow the neck 17 it will pass down into the sterilizing-chamber and from this through the overflow-pipe 22 into the retort.
The purpose of the water in the chamber 15 or in the sterilizing-chamber is to keep this chamber scalding hot and to moisten the surfaces thereof, so that the air in passing through it must strike against these moist surfaces and cause particles of dust to adhere thereto. This air must also pass through the hot steam generated in the sterilizingbecomes too full of steam, it is intermittently blown out of the air-inlet 20. As the cooling water in the reservoir 9 becomes heated the free atmospheric gasessuchas carbon dioxid, ammonia, sulfureted, phosphoreted,
and earbureted hydrogen-pass off into the open air and the coarser earthy particles are precipitated to the bottom of the reservoir. This constitutes the first process of purification.
V hen the distilled water is drawn off from the reservoir 18, more water should be supplied to the retort or else it will boil dry.
. This water may be taken from the reservoir 9 through the faucet 6, which water runs into the feed-cup 23 and then into the retort, as before described. As fast as the water in the condensing-reservoir 9 is used more cold water is added, which keeps the temperature cool enough to permit rapid condensation; but I do not depend entirely upon the cold water to condense the steam, as the sterilized air continually rising from the chamber 19 assists in promoting condensation, as before stated.
I have found by actual experiment, and, indeed, it is common scientific knowledge, that water while hot will not absorb and take up a suflieiency of air no matter how fully it comes in contact with the air. As the distilled water is drawn off from the reservoir 18 quite hot, it must be allowed still further to cool in the presence of pure air if it is to be fully aerated, and for this purpose I have provided the aerating contrivance above described. The charcoal 32 operates tobreak up the water into minute particles in order to allow the air from the tube 36 and the airchamber 19 to get to it and cool it. The charcoal tube or holder is supplied with sterilized air from the sterilizing-chamber, which communicates with the top of the holder, and also with sterilized air from the pipe 36, which connects with the bottom of said holder. The I charcoal plays no part in the purifying of the water. Its sole purpose is to separate the water, so that more air will be absorbed. The tube 36 is surrounded by the boiling water in the retort, and this sufficiently heats the air passing through it to sterilize it. The aerating device is detachably connected with the still, and while I prefer to use-it it is not absolutely necessary to the proper working of the still. It may be removed and the water allowed to cool in a jar afterbeing drawn 0%, a fiulfy cotton cloth being thrown over the jar to keep out the dust and bacteria.
The still may be conveniently cleaned by separating the two main parts 1 and 2at'the joint-line, as thereby access is readily gained to the largeror principal parts of the still.
The still is of such construction that it may be automatically operated for hours or days at a time withoutatteution. A pi pe-or rubber tubing 39, Fig. 1, may be connected with the faucet G and with a faucet in the water-pipe of a city supply or other suitable source of supply. Another pipe or piece of tubing 40 may be connected to an overflow-nipple 41 at the upper portion of the condensing-reservoir, (upon removal of the cap 42, which closes said overflow when the still is not to be run automatically,) and the lower end of said pipe or tubing is permitted to discharge into the feed-cup 23. A third pipe or piece oftubing 43 is connected to a nipple 44 on the feed-cu p, (after the removal of its cap 45,) and the lower end of said pipe or tubing discharges into a sink, waste-pipe, or other outlet. The faucet 30 is then opened, and a large receptacle for the distilled water is connected with the outlet 35 if the aerating device be in use, but if. not with the said faucet. A very small stream of water is then allowed to run through the faucet 6, which is wide open to let the supply into the condensing-reservoir, and the water circulates from-the bottom of the condensingreservoir to the overflow 41 through the feedcup 23 and out through the outlet or nipple 44 through the pipe or tubing 43 into the sink or the like. The result of this arrangement is that the condensing water in the reservoir is kept cool and the sterilizing-reservoir and the retort are supplied with water as fast as it boils away, thus replenishing for an indefi: nite time the supply within the still. Itis not desirable for family use to run the still automatically unless it is necessary to keep. the still working all day to supply a comparatively-large amount of water. \Vhere only, a few quarts of water are required for drinking purposes daily, it is more economical to operate the still without the automatic connections, and it cannot run dry if properly managed;
As the water in the reservoir 18 overflows,
through the exposed tube or outlet 29, the overflow may be readily seen, and hence the water may be drawn off through the faucet 30 as soon as possible without wasting it.
The lower side of the mouth of the branch 38 is slightly higher than the lower side of the mouth of the outlet 44 and also slightly higher than the mouth of the tube 22, and hence the overflow would take place out of the parts 44 and 22 before it would pass through the lateral branch 38.
Some of the novel features and advantages of my improved still may now be enumerated. First. The construction of the apparatus is such that it works on the principle known as open distillation -that is to say, the steam is generated under atmospheric pressure and condenses in the presence of pure airnovel means being provided to supply an abundance of sterilized air to the condensing-chamber for absorption by the steam during the differentstages of condensation.
Second. The second advantage of myconstruetion of still is the storing of the distilled water on the inside of the apparatus away from dust and polluted air. This storing of the water also enables me to neglect the still 7 for hours at a time without dangerof boiling the retort dry, and thereby completely ruining it. In the stills which I have made the reservoir 9 holds eight quarts of water, the
retort holds three quarts of water, and the reservoir 18 holds one and one-half quarts of 'water, and hence the still can be operated and neglected for at least ten .hours before there would be a quart and a half of loss by 1 reason of any steam escaping or any'other' way, so that for all practical purposes when properly filled with water the still cannot boil dry -from neglect.
Third. The third advantage of my construction of still is the easy access to every inner part forkeeping the condensing-surfaces, &c., clean, which is imperative where pure water is desired and which cleaning is impossible where a worm is employed.
Fourth. The fourth novel point of construction of my still is the separate compartment or chamber in which the steam is generated to sterilize the air used and aerate thesteam as it condenses; also, the peculiar shape of the chamber, which requires the air to strike against the moist surfaces of the chamber so as to remove the dust from the air in much the same way as the dust is removed from the membranes of the nostrils.
Fifth. The fifth novel point of my construction of still is the aerating device containing charcoal or other suitable material or substance and arranged to be supplied with sterilized air for the distillate.
Sixth. The sixth novel pointot' my construction of still is the use of a condensing dome or cone having an outlet at the apex of the cone connecting with a chimney or flue which is surrounded by cold or cool water or the flue operating to draw out the volatile gases, yet,
owing to its tapering form, resisting the escape of the steam.
Various changes iii-detail construction and arrangement may be made Without departing from the gist of the several main features of my invention.
What I claim as new, and desire to secure by Letters Patent, is
1. In a water-still, the combination of a condensing-chamber, a retort therebelow, a passage-way for conducting the steam from the retort to the condensing-chamber, an annular sterilizing-chamber surrounding said passage-way and having at its bottom an annular water-chamber, and a fresh-air inlet to the said annular sterilizing-chamber.
2. In ajwater-still, the combination of a con- (lensing-chamber, a retort therebelow, a passage-way for conducting the steam from the retort 'to the condensing-chamber, an annular upwardly tapering or converging sterilizing-chamber surrounding said passage-way, an annular distilled-water reservoir surrounding said sterilizing-chamber, an annular water-chamber below said distilled-water reser-' chamber, a feed-cup, and an overflow-pipe "from the said water-chamber to the said re tort.
4. In a water-still, the combination with the condensing-chamber, of a distilled-water reservoir thereunder, a sterilizing chamber formed by the two circular and curved plates or pieces 13 and Y14, the part 14 being also constructed to form one wall of the sterilizing chamber and also the receptacle which constitutes the distilled-Water reservoir.
5. In awater-still, the combination with the condensing chamber, of two circular and curved plates or pieces 13 and 14 below said condensing chamber constructed and arranged to form both a distilled-water reservoir and a sterilizing-chamber.
6. In a watenstill, the combinationwiththe condensingchamber, of two circular and curved plates or pieces arranged below the same and constructed to form a distilled-water reservoir, a sterilizing-chamber, and a water-chamber within the sterilizing-chamber.
7. In a water-still, the combination with the condensing-chamber, of a sterilizing-chamber therebelow formed by two circular substantially concentric and'parallel plates or pieces 13 and 14 having each an upwardly-extending neck-like portion so arranged as to form or produce an annular air-space directed toward and com municatin g with the said condensingchamber.
8. In a water-still, the combination with-the condensing-chamber, of an annular distilledwater reservoir thereunder, an annular sterilizing steam-chamber beneath and contiguous to the distilled-water reservoir, and a retort below said sterilizing steam-chamber.
9. In a water-still, the combination with the condensing-chamber, of an annular distilledwater reservoir thereunder, an annular sterilizing-chamber beneath and contiguous to said reservoir, an annular water chamber within said sterilizing-chamber, a fresh-air inlet to the latter, and a retort below said water-chamber.
10. In a water-still, the combination with the condensing-chamber, of a distilled-water reservoir, a sterilizing-chamber thereunder, a water-chamber in said sterilizing-chamber, a retort below said water-chamber, and an overflow-pipe from said water-chamber to said retort.
11. In a water-still, the combination of a distilled-water reservoir having an overflow,
from the distilled-water reservoir to said waa retort below said water-chamber and an overflow from said water-chamber to said retort.
13. In a water-still, the combination of the retort, the condensing-chamber, the annular distilled-water reservoir, the annular sterilizing-chamber, and the aerating-tube connected at its upper end with the distilled-water reservoir and with the sterilizing-chamber.
14. In a water-still, the combination of the retort, the condensing-chamber, the annular distilled-water reservoir, the annular sterilizing-chamber, the aerating-tube having a passage-way at its upper end from the sterilizing-chamber, a faucet discharging from the distilled-water reservoir into the upper end of said aerating-tube, and an air-tube passing through the bottom of the retort and communicating with the bottom of the aeratingtube.
15. In a water-still, the combination of a condensing-reservoir having an overflow at its top and a fa'ucet at its bottom, a pipe as 39 connected at one end to a suitable source of supply and at the other end to said faucet, a pipe as 40 connected at its upper end to said overflow and discharging at its lower end into a feed-cup on the outside of the still, a pipe as 43 connected to an overflow of said feedcup, an overflow-pipe from said Water-charm her, and a retort into which said overflowpipe discharges.
Signed at New York city, in the county of New York and State of New York, this 30th day of November, A. D. 1897.
ARTHUR R. BAILEY. Witnesses:
JAooB FELBEL, K, V. DONOVAN.