|Publication number||US6508117 B1|
|Application number||US 09/903,922|
|Publication date||Jan 21, 2003|
|Filing date||Jul 12, 2001|
|Priority date||Jul 12, 2001|
|Also published as||US20030010110|
|Publication number||09903922, 903922, US 6508117 B1, US 6508117B1, US-B1-6508117, US6508117 B1, US6508117B1|
|Inventors||Paul L. DuBois, Dan H. Emmert, Gregory P. Gee|
|Original Assignee||Delphi Technologies, Inc.|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (16), Referenced by (9), Classifications (11), Legal Events (4)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
The advantage of using electronic rather than mechanical fuel management systems has been recognized by the automotive industry. With such electronic fuel management, it is required to generate and provide mass airflow data to the control system to regulate the appropriate fuel/air combustion ratio. In order to accomplish precise fuel control in an automotive internal combustion engine, mass air flow data is determined through utility of a mass air flow sensing device positioned upstream of the intake manifold of the engine. In an engine with pulsing or reversing flow, the fuel management is improved if the sensing device is a bi-directional mass air flow (BAM) sensor to be able to measure both in-flow and out-flow of air, so that errors due to monitoring flow reversals in the manifold can be avoided.
A typical bi-directional mass air flow sensor generally consists of a thin film heater element and four thin-film sensor resistors on a thin membrane of glass on top of a substrate. The heater element and sensor resistors typically are formed of platinum (Pt), and the substrate typically is a micromachined silicon wafer. The sensor resistors are connected in a Wheatstone bridge circuit configuration to convert the sensed temperature difference into a corresponding voltage. The substrate material is removed from a small area beneath the heater element and the sensor resistors, and left under the area of the sensor containing the interconnects and mechanical support. The glass over the area where the substrate has been removed commonly is referred to as the “window”. The heater element is energized to produce a temperature at the center of the window that is considerably higher than ambient temperature; this arrangement results in a temperature gradient from the center of the window to the edges of the window. The high thermal coefficient of resistance (TCR) of the thin-film resistor material causes the resistance of the sensor resistors to change in proportion to the temperature change in the area of the window containing the sensor resistors. With proper calibration of the sensor, a gas caused to flow across the sensor, perpendicular to the length of the sensor resistors, will cause the temperature gradient on each side of the heater element to change in a manner that allows the direction and mass flow rate of the gas flow to be determined.
However, a bi-directional mass air flow sensor must be thermally balanced in the center of the window, or the sensor output will drift with time at low flow rates. By the term “thermal balance” it is meant that the temperature gradient must not change with time for a consistent air flow, or, that the change in gradient on one side of the sensor is cancelled by a compensating change on the other side of the sensor. Previous methods attempting to achieve this required thermal balance have included the addition of a metal framing around and extending over the edge of the window, as well as techniques to place an etch stop into the silicon substrate to define the edge of the window.
Now, according to the present invention, a novel circuit arrangement is provided for thermally balancing a bi-directional mass airflow sensing device. The invention provides for a bi-directional mass air flow sensing device for measuring air flow, comprising a bridge circuit coupled across a voltage potential, wherein the bridge circuit comprises: a first side including first and second temperature dependent sensor resistors connected in series and disposed on a thermally insulative substrate window in line with an air flow and arranged such that relative to a first direction of air flow, the first sensor resistor is upstream of the second sensor resistor; a second side in parallel with the first side and including third and fourth temperature dependent sensor resistors connected in series and disposed on the thermally insulative substrate in line with the air flow such that relative to the first direction of air flow, the third sensor resistor is upstream of the fourth sensor resistor; and, a temperature dependent balance resistor connected between the first and second temperature dependent sensor resistors on the first side of the bridge circuit.
The balance resistor physically is positioned between the heater and the contiguous sensor resistors on the sensor window, and, electrically is connected between upstream and downstream sensor resistors on one side of the Wheatstone bridge circuit. A shunt resistor may be placed in parallel with the balance resistor. In this arrangement, some of the current that normally would flow through the balance resistor now flows through the shunt resistor. If the voltage across the bridge circuit remains the same, then changing the amount of current flow through the bridge changes the total resistance as measured externally. If the shunt resistor is divided into two separate resistors, then the change in TCR can be adjusted differently for the upstream and downstream sensor resistors on one side of the bridge circuit.
Referring now to the drawings in which like elements are numbered alike, and wherein:
FIG. 1 depicts a bridge circuit for a bi-directional mass air flow sensor device according to the prior art;
FIG. 2 illustrates a sensor topology according to the prior art;
FIG. 3 depicts a preferred bridge circuit for a bi-directional mass air flow sensor device; and,
FIG. 4 illustrates a preferred sensor topology.
A typical bi-directional mass air flow sensor device generally comprises a thin film platinum heating elements and four thin film platinum film sensor resistors (two separate pairs of upstream and downstream sensor elements) on a thin glass membrane on the surface of a micromachined silicon substrate. As depicted in FIG. 1, the sensor resistors (U1, D1, U2, and D2) are connected in a Wheatsone bridge configuration, wherein resistors U1 and U2 are on the upstream side of the heater element (relative to a unidirectional air flow), and resistors D1 and D2 are located on the downstream side of the heater element. Vref is the reference voltage, and S−and S+are the outputs of the bridge circuit.
As illustrated in FIG. 2, the silicon typically is moved from a small area 10 of the substrate under the heater element 12 and sensor resistors D1, D2, U1, and U2. The silicon substrate is left in place under the area of the substrate containing the interconnects and mechanical support (not shown) The membrane of glass remaining in the area 10 where the silicon substrate has been removed is referred to as the “window” 14.
In the operation of the sensor, the heater element 12 is energized to produce a temperature at the center of window 14 that is considerably higher than ambient temperature. A temperature gradient thus is produced from the center of window 14 to its edges. The sensor resistors D1, D2, U1, and U2, preferably made of platinum, feature a high resistance dependency on temperature, a high thermal coefficient of resistance (TCR), preferably from about 3000 ppm/° C. to about 3800 ppm/° C., and, accordingly, the resistance of the sensor resistors is caused to change in proportion of the temperature change in the area of the window containing the sensor resistors. With appropriate calibration, a gas flowing across the sensor in a perpendicular direction to the length of the sensor resistors D1, D2, U1, and U2 will cause the temperature gradient on each side of heater 12 to change in a manner that allows the direction and mass flow rate of the gas flow to be determined.
To prevent the sensor output from drifting with time, the sensor is thermally balanced in the center of the window by the incorporation of a balance resistor on the sensor window. As depicted in the circuit schematic of FIG. 3, a balance resistor Rb physically is positioned between the heater and the sensor resistors D1, D2, U1, and U2. Balance resistor Rbis connected electrically between the upstream and downstream sensor resistors on one side of the bridge circuit, shown in FIG. 3 with the balance resistor Rb connected between upstream sensor resistor U1, and downstream sensor resistor D1. A shunt resistor Rs (shown divided into two shunt resistor components Rs1 and Rs2) is placed in parallel with the balance resistor Rb.
The shunt resistor Rs (Rs=Rs1+Rs2) is located off the sensor window and is made of a low TCR material, such as carbon film or metal glaze, preferably having a TCR in the range about +/−200 ppm/° C.
The physical layout of the sensor topology is illustrated in FIG. 4. The overall bi-directional mass flow air meter sensor, which may, for example, be about 2 mm to about 3 mm wide, or so, and about 4 mm to about 8 mm long, includes a thin window 14, comprised typically of a thin, dielectric, thermally insulative glass material, such as silicon dioxide and/or silicon nitride, having a thickness of about 1 mm to about 2 mm. In fabricating the sensor, window 14 is defined by etching from the backside of the silicon substrate wafer an area 10 on which the dielectric glass, the heater element 12, and sensor resistors D1, D2, U1, and U2 can be deposited and formed. The window area 10 generally measures about 0.2 mm to about 0.6 mm wide and about 1.5 mm to about 3.0 mm long. The heater element and sensor resistors typically are patterned and etched from a common metal layer on top of the dielectric layer. The metal should feature high thermal coefficient of resistance; platinum is a preferred material. As noted in FIG. 4, balance resistor Rb is positioned between the heater element 12 and the sensor resistors D1, D2, U1, and U2.
The effective TCR of the sensor resistors U1, and D1 can thus be modified. This effect occurs because some of the current which normally would flow through the balance resistor Rb now flows through the shunt resistor Rs. If the voltage across the bridge remains the same, then, changing the amount of current flow through the bridge changes the total resistance as measured externally. If the shunt resistor Rs is divided into two resistors, Rs1 and Rs2 as shown in FIG. 3, then the change in TCR can be adjusted differently for sensor resistors U1 and D1.
The adjustment of TCR for sensor resistors U1 and D1 can be illustrated by the following analysis. First, the bridge circuit, effectively the same as that represented in FIG. 3, is redefined by replacing upstream sensor resistors U1, downstream resistor D1, balance resistor Rb, and shunt resistors Rs1, and Rs2 with effective upstream resistor U1eff and effective downstream resistor D1eff, such that:
where I is the current through U1 and D1
D 1eff=(S+)/I (B)
Solving the equation to find U1eff and D1eff, based only on U1, D1, Rb, Rs1, Rrs and Rs yields:
then, the temperature dependence of the platinum resistors are defined as:
where Ro is the resistance at zero degrees Celsius (0° C.), a is a constant and T is the temperature in ° C.
Replacing the resistor values in equations (C) and (D) with their equivalent temperature dependent forms from equation (E) yields the equations:
From equations (F) and (G), it can be seen that the temperature dependence of the upstream sensor resistor U1 and downstream sensor resistor D1 is modified as if the 0° C. value of the resistor is now reduced with increasing temperature. This means that the effective resistance of the upstream sensor resistor U1eff and the downstream sensor resistor D1eff will vary less with temperature than the base sensor resistors U1 and D1.
Further, it is evident from the analysis that by decreasing the ratio of Rs1 to Rs towards 0, the effect of the modification of the temperature dependence is that U1eff approaches U1. The same interpretation can be stated in regard to the relationship of D1eff, D1, and the ratio of Rs2 and Rs.
It also is evident from the equations that as the total shunt resistance (Rs) is made very large, the effect of the temperature dependence of U1oeff and D1oeff is reduced to 0, since Rs become much larger than Rbo·(1+aT).
It equally is evident that as Rs becomes small, that the effect of the temperature dependence also is reduced to 0, since the balance of Rs1 will become small and the ratio in the equation also will become small (since Rs=Rs1+Rs2, so that Rs always is more than or equal to Rs1).
This sensor, for example, effectively may be utilized for determining mass air flow in an arrangement wherein the sensing device is disposed in an air flow channel of an electronic fuel management control system such that air is flowing across the sensor window from the bottom of the sensor to the top of the sensor (as seen in FIG. 4). A predetermined current is passed through heating element 12, causing it to become heated and propagate such heat upstream and downstream to adjacent sensor elements D1, D2, U1, and U2 which in turn become heated. When there is an air flow, the temperature of the upstream sensors are cooled more vigorously than the downstream sensors. As shown and described above, the disclosed sensing device circuit arrangement accomplishes thermal balance in the center of the sensor window, is not influenced by the dimensions of the window, and the output of the sensing device is prevented from drifting over time.
It will be understood that a person skilled in the art may make modifications to the preferred embodiment shown herein within the scope and intent of the claims. While the present invention has been particularly described as being carried out in a specific manner, it is intended not to be limited thereby and rather cover the invention broadly within the scope and spirit of the claims.
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|U.S. Classification||73/204.26, 73/204.15|
|International Classification||G01F1/698, G01F1/688, G01F1/684|
|Cooperative Classification||G01F1/688, G01F1/698, G01F1/6845|
|European Classification||G01F1/688, G01F1/684M, G01F1/698|
|Jul 12, 2001||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: DELPHI TECHNOLOGIES, INC., MICHIGAN
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:DUBOIS, PAUL L.;EMMERT, DAN H.;GEE, GREGORY P.;REEL/FRAME:011994/0625
Effective date: 20010627
|Aug 9, 2006||REMI||Maintenance fee reminder mailed|
|Jan 21, 2007||LAPS||Lapse for failure to pay maintenance fees|
|Mar 20, 2007||FP||Expired due to failure to pay maintenance fee|
Effective date: 20070121