US 653224 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
No. 653,224. Patented July lo, loom c. E. nuRYEA.
(Application filed May 18, 1898.)
(No Model.) 3 Sheets-Sheet E 1 gl. l Wi I in,r @mfm M ms sums mens co. PHoTouTHo. wAsmNarnN. n. c.
Patented my lo, |9001.
C. E. DURYEA.
(Application xed may 1e, 189s.)
3 Sheets-Shogi V2 (No Model.)
Patented .luly I0, |9010..
C. E. DUBYEA.' MTB VEHICLE.
(Application filed May 1B, 1898.)
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AsmNnroN. uv c "N'iTED STATES.
PATENT i OFFICE,
CHARLES E. DURYEA, OF PEORIA, ILLINOIS, ASSIGNOR TOTI'IE DURYEA MANUFACTURING COMPANY, OF SAME PLACE.
SPECIFICATION forming part of Letters Patent No. 653,224, dated July 10, 1900.
Application filed May 16, 1898. Serial No. 680,826. (No model.)
T0 ctZZ whom it nto/y concern: 4 1
Be it known that I, CHARLES E. DURYEA, a citizen of the United States,residing at Peoria, in the county of Peoria and State of Illinois, have invented certain new and useful Improvem ents in Motor-Vehicles ;V and I do hereby declare the following to be a full, clear, and exact description of the invention,such as will enable others skilled in the art to which it ap'- pertains to make and use the same.
My invention relates vmore particularly to the lighter forms of motor-vehicles and is shown as embodied in a tricycle having a seating capacity for two persons, the same being propelled by an internal-combustion engine.
The objects of my invention are to provide a cheap, simple, and efficient steering, a compact and durable speed-varying mechanism, a more ready control, an improved brake, a light air-jacketcd engine, a cheap and simple 'balance-gear, and such other minor obj ects as may appear hereinafter in this specification. I attain these objects by mechanism shown in the accompanying drawings, forming part of this specification, in whichl Figure l is a general plan, the seat having been removed. Fig. 2 is an elevation, one wheel and the end of the box being removed. Fig. 3 is a detail of the engine-throttle. Fig. 4 is an elevation ofthe side of the front hub. Fig. 5 is a vertical section through the same looking forward. Figs. 6, '7, and S are sec,- tional elevation, plans, and detail of the speedvarying mechanism. Figs. 9 and l()l are details of the controlling devices, while Figs. l1 and 12 are details ofj the brake and balancegea-r.
Similar letters refer to similarparts throughout the several views.
The forward ends of the frame of the vehicle rest upon the opposite ends of a support a, preferably elastic in a vertical direction,which passes through the ring-shaped hub of the front Wheel and is supported thereby. This support a has pivotal bearings d in a ring a2, which serves as a ball-race for the hub of the wheel. The hub proper, a4, is a metal ring into the outer circumference of which spokes are driven,and ball-race rings or cones are screwed .into the innercircumference, completing a Abearin g on the balls of which the wheel rolls.
Guide-arms a3 a3 are -fastened to and project from the ring a2. To their extremities ropes are attached in any suitable manner, which pass back to and around pulleys o5 a5 to a swivel a6. It is preferred to provide their ends with like threaded screws and tap same into the ends of said swivel. This provides a means for both shortening the ropes and altering the position of the swivel, so that it may remain in the proper position to correspond with a given position of the steeringwheel. The swivel a6 is pivoted to the lower end of the steering-lever t, which in turn is mounted in bearings b b under the seat. It will readily be seen that movement of the steering-lever b will produce a corresponding effect on the wheel. This wheel is placed well forward, so as to relieve it of most of the load and permit it to swing more freely.
The propelling machinery consists,broadly, of an engine with crank-shaft, a main rear axle with wheels, sprockets on the shaft and axle, and a chain connecting same. In view of the fact that internal-combustion engines do not reverse easily and do :not give much power at slow speeds it is advisable to provide some sort of speed-varying mechanism whereby the relative number of crank-shaft turns to each turn of the rear axle may be varied and whereby the direction of the rear axle may be changed without stopping the engine. This is accomplished by means of gears, friction-clutches, andother parts shown in Figs. G, 7, and 8.
The crank-shaft c has a pinion c fixed thereon and meshing into idlers c5 c5, which in turn 'mesh into an internal gear c6, mounted upon and concentric with the shaft. It is evident that if the internal gear be held sta-v tionary rotation of the shaft will carry the idlers in the same direction, but at a slower rate of speed; also, that if the -idler-studs c7 c7 are held stationary the internal gear will be carried in a direction reversely to the motion of the shaft. Finally, that if the idlers and the internal gearare held in a fixed relation to each other they will all move with the shaft. ternal gear c6 or the idler-studs and frame c7 stationary at willby means of theclutchf `-shoes d/ d, respectively, which shoes )engage Provision is made for holding the in-v IOO the frame f' f under the action of the togglejoints operated by the collars e e. A sprocketdrum c3 is journaled on the shaft c and encircles the nest of gears. By the shoe d2 the internal gear may be lockedto the drum c3, and by the shoe cl3 the idler-studs and frame c7 may likewise be looked to the drum. Locking both internal gear and idlers to the same piece acts as if locked together, and the result is that the nest of gears move together without relative motion between themselves, and being locked to the sprocket-drum the sprocket is carried forward as if it were part of or fixed to the shaft. From this it will be seen that a slow speed forward results when the clutches stand as shown in Fig. 7 and that by shifting the collar e so as to release d and lock d2 a fast speed forward results, while an intermediate position of the collar e leaves both d and d2 released and allows the internal gear to run freely in a reverse direction, which free running causes no power to be applied to the sprocket-drum, and the vehicle is to all practical intents free from the engine.
To reverse the motion of the vehicle, the collar e is left in the intermediate position described and the collar e is shifted so as to lock the shoe d to the frame f. The intent of this action is to hold the idler-studs and frame c7 stationary. To this end the supporting-frame d4 of the clutch-shoe d engages the idler-stud frame c7. It is evident that the clutch-shoe d3 must be released if the `drum c3, which carries the sprocket c4, is to be driven, and, further, that it should be released before the clutch-shoe d is locked, as otherwise the drum c3 would be held station- 'ary and movement of the vehicle stopped. To the end, therefore, that the shoe d3 may always be released before the shoedis locked i-t lis arranged that movement toward lockingthe latter releases the former. Several 'means of doing this may be used; but the preferred means is as shown and consists of a toggle-ring and frame d5, on which the toggles of A the shoe d? are pivoted, which frame extends to and is-engaged by the frame or support d" of the shoe d. By reference to Fig. Sit will be seen that d4 engages d5 closely and c7 loosely, so that motion of d around the common center c in the direction of the arrow will move @Z5 some distance before affecting c7. From Fig. 6 it will be apparent that this motion of d5 will release the shoe d3 'and compress the spring d; also,that the said spring d6 will return the parts to their origi- 1 nal position,with the shoe d3 locked,whenever the shoe d is released and the parts d5 and c7 free to move with respect to each other. In this description of the reversing action it has been assumed that'cl'L received motion in the direction of the arrow in Fig. 8, whereas, in fact, the crank-shaft c revolves in a direction 4opposite thereto and tends to carry'all parts therewith, inwhichevent the friction of the shoe d as it begins to lock retards the frame d4 and produces a relative effect, as described.
It is now evident that holding d4 releases cl3 and holds c7, on which the idler-gears are journaled; also, that forward motion of the shaft c will cause reverse motion of the internal gear ,c6 and that locking the shoe d2 will carry the sprocket-drum cs in the same direction as c6. It will also be seen that the collar e need only be shifted when it is desired to reverse, a fact to which reference will be made later, While the collar e is used to effect all other desired changes of the gearing. The collars are shifted by any suitable means, such as the levers g g. The frames ff are fixed to the vehicle in any suitable manner so as to be securely held. All of the clutch-shoes are held out of engagement when released and are kept in proper parallel position by the springs 77, 71, 7L, which hook into their ends, pass through slots in the supporting-frames, and again attach to opposite shoes. All the toggle members are adjustable in length,one part being screwed into the other and having a spring-retainer d8, which insures that the parts remain as placed till it is desired to change them, when it may be quickly effected. One or more openings are provided in the drum c3, so that the adjustment may be made and the parts inspected, although the whole drum may be removed from the shaft c by taking off a single nut. After the drum is removed the pinion @"may be removed and then all the otherparts may be easily removed and separated. The long bearing of c7, with di inside it on the shaft, insures the concentricity of the idlers and fittings, while the same concentric arrangement of c performs the same office for the internal gear.
The toggles controlled by the -sliding'collars do not bear on the collars, as is common, but, as is shown, pivot one against the other, which relieves the collar from any transverse thrust and insures that it may `shift freely.
The sprocket c4 is detachably secured to the drum c8 in any preferred manner, so that it may be quickly detached and another of different size attached andthe relative speeds of the engine crank-shaft and the rear axle varied. This ability to vary this relation is of particular importance on vehicles usinginternal-combustion engines and in countries where a few minutes rainfall may change the road-bed from a fairly-good one to one so almost impassable that the variation provided by the gears is not sufficient. The lever h incloses in its upper end a tube fi, having a small handle or point-er i', an annular groove (internal) i2, and an arm 113. The pointer z" is normally forward, but may be used to turn the tube z' through an arc of one hundred and eighty degrees, in which case it points backward, the object of the pointer being to indicate the direction in which the vehicle will move if power is applied and also to serve as a handle for shifting the collar e. The tube is shown in Fig. 10 with the pointer in forward position, while in Fig. 9 the arm/8, link IOO IIO
4, shifter-lever g', and collar e are shown in reverse position, the dotted lines indicating forward position. The shifter g' slides loosely on the spindle j. The pointer t" has a spring or similar retainer which drops into a slight notch in the top of the lever Z9 and insures that the parts remain in place till some slight force is applied to move them.
Fitting freely into the tube t' is the controller Zr, which is provided with a handle Z at its upper end and with a combined rack and pinion m at its lower end. It is capable of two motions-longitudinal and rotary. When moved longitudinally, it serves as a rack to turn the pinion n on the spindle j. (See Figs'. 9 and 10.) When rotated, it serves as a pinion m to operate the rack o, and at all times it is in engagement with both the rack o and the pinion n. It will be observed that these latter are in the same horizontal plane as the pivot of the lever b and that oscillation of the said lever does not affect the rack o nor the pinion n. Rotating the pinion ln rotates its spindle j, which, being threaded into the shift-lever g, (see Fig. 9,) carries the collar e to the point desired. The extremes of this movement may be easily limited; but the intermediate position in which both clutchshoes LZ and (Z2 are out of engagement and the vehicle not driven is not so easily determined. To fix this and insure that the vehicle may not be started by any one accidentally touching the handle, a catch Z is fixed inside of the handle Z and springs into the internal annular groove t2 when in the intermediate position. A pressure of the finger is :required to release it from this groove before the controller can be moved longitudinally again, although there is nothing to prevent it from being rotated.
The rack 0 controls the throttle of the cngine in any preferred manner, and for the purposes of this description it is connected with a damper or check in the air-supply pipe which feeds the engine. Fig. 3 shows details of connection of rack with damper.
In engines of the smaller sizes it is possible to keep the cylinders cool by the use of air circulated. past their walls, which are preferably corrugated to increase the radiating-surface. I provide a light case p, having an outlet p2, which serves to direct and guide the air past the cylinder-Walls and further turn the exhaust-pipe p into the outlet of said box in any well-known manner, so as to force the circulation of air and' increase the cooling effect. The advantages of this method are that the'waste energy of the exhaust-gases is used to accelerate the motion of the air instead of using power direct from the engine in some mechanical manner. Connection may be made with the exhaust-pipe p' directly, as shown in Fig. 2, or a muiiier to deaden the violence of the exhaust and render it more steady may be used.
While the lighter vehicles may be and usually are made without springs, I have shown the rear ends as mounted on springs q q, and that the spring action may not interfere with the proper working of the chain or other gearing used I connect the rear axle with the engine-shaft (or with the vehicle-frame in proximity to the en gine-shaft) by adjustable links r r, which insure that under the spring action the engine-shaft and the rear axle remain parallel and at an approximately-fixed distance from each other. These links r r, being adjustable in length, permit the distance between the said shaft and axle to be suited to the requirements of the chain or other connection.
It is advisable that the brake be applied to the rear axle in the case of light rubber-tired vehicles, and that a large brake-surface may be had I so shape the large sprocket r', Fig. 12, that a brake-band may bear against the inner surface of its rim, while the chain runs on the outer surface. This brake-band is held in place by two or more projections r3, Figs. 1, 2, and 12, which are carried by one of the links r. The band r2, Figs. 2 and 11, is pref`V erably covered with leatherto afford a smooth bearing-surface and is expanded for duty.. by the toggle-lever r4. (Shown in Fig. 11.) This toggle is adjustable, the part 115 being swiveled at one end and threaded into a swivel at the other, as shown in small detail near Fig. 11. A rope r6 proceeds thence to a lever a, near the seat, but not directly thence lest the rise and fall of the body under the spring action should apply or effect the application of the braken To prevent this, the rope r6 is carried to a pulley rs or similar pivotal point near the engine-shaft or the point to which the links r are connected. Instead of the rope and pulley other suitable means,such as push-rods and a bell-crank, could be used;. but in any case it is preferable to have the connection act from a point near the center of the arc described by the axle as it rises and falls over obstacles. A very common method of transmitting the power imparted to the large sprocket farther on to the driving-wheels is by the use of a balancegear, a device usually consisting of two large bevelgears fastened more or less directly one to each driving-wheel and one or more small bevel-pinions fastened. to the large sprbcketV and meshing with the large bevels. I have modified this arrangement by providing a journalor bearing for the large sprocket lr' on and around the axle s between the large, bevels. (See Fig. 12.) I further use an axle extending through both driving-wheelsfas-V tened to one (not shown in Fig. 12) and. having the other wheel journaled thereon, as shown. This latter is fixed to a tube which extends concentric with the axle to a lpoint inside the bearing for the spring q, which tube is in reality an extension of the wheeljournalbox, and which further has the other larger bevel fixed on the end thereof. A nut on the end of the axle prevents separation of the large bevels.A A row of balls takes the end" IIO fer to reduce the end of the axle and the tube journaled thereon to such a size that the rear wheels may be interchanged. This reduction does not affect the strength,for itis made only near the wheel and the axle remains full size for some distance after it is encircled by the tube. A ball-case or j ou rnal-box t around the tube provides a bearing for the spring q and a pivotal point for the rear end of the link r, which may be fastened to said bearingin any preferred manner, but is shown as simply screwed loosely thereon. (See Fig.12.)
Most internal-combustion engines are started by applyinga crank to the engine-shaf t and giving the same a few turns to draw in a charge and compress and lire the same, after which operation is automatic, the crank being made with a ratchet or other means of allowing the engine to run away from it. While I commonly use such a device for getting the engine originally started, at which times, for Various reasons, the engine may not start promptly, I prefer to use at other times the starting device shown in Figs. l and 2 at x Qc.
This consists of a cam j ournaled on the crankshaft and provided with a ratchet and spring. The ratchet grips the shaft as the cam is rotated in one direction and the spring returns the cam to its original position. A rope is wound around the cam and passes between the pulleys terminating in a stirrup 502, which hangs just below the frame of the vehicle. The operator places his foot in the stirrup and bears down. The large diameter of the cam starts the engine quickly, and as the leg leverage increases the cam gets smaller and the speed of the engine faster. Usually one stroke will suffice, but should it not another can be made.
I claiml. In a motor-vehicle, a single steeringwheel having a large diameter short-length hub journaled on a steering-head, which is pivoted on a body-support passing through said wheel and head, means for steering the wheel consisting of arms projecting oppositely sidewise from the said head to the extremities of which tensile connectionsare attached.
2. In a motor-vehicle, steering-centers mounted on a spring body-support, a steering-head with sidewise-projecting arms pivoted on said centers, a steering-wheel journaled on said head and tensile connections attached to said arms for controlling the direction of said wheel.
3. In a motor-vehicle, a controlling-lever having a direction-indicator mounted thereon and connected with reversing-clutches by suitable means to effect reverse movement of thel vehicle when the pointer is reversed.
4. In a motor-vehicle, a steering-lever pivvconnected by suitable means to the steeringwheel.
5. In a vehicle, the controlling handle mounted upon a centrally-located lever adapted to oscillate crosswise the vehicle for steering purposes, said controlling-handle being likewise capable of longitudinal and rotative movements.
6. .In a vehicle, a controlling-lever pivoted on the front edge of the seat at the middle thereof, projecting downward inside the vehicle-box and upward between two riders occupying the seat; said lever being adapted to swing sidewise for steering purposes and carrying a controlling-handle adapted to rotate around the longitudinal axisof the lever and move longitudinally thereon.
7. In a vehicle,'a controlling-lever pivoted on the front edge of the seat at the middle thereof, projecting down and inside the vehicle-box and upward between two riders occu pyin g the seat; said lever being adapted to swing sidewise for steering purposes.
8. In a motor-vehicle, a motor having its driving-shaft'crosswse the vehicle with means for applying a starting-crank to either end thereof, and starting mechanism having its controlling-lever arranged substantially midway between the ends of said driving-shaft,
, substantially as and for the purpose specified.
9. In a motorvehicle, a speed changingl mechanism consisting of a pinion affixed to the motor-shaft, a ring-gear encircling same,
idlers meshing into and between said pinion and ring-gear, a sprocket-drum inclosing the whole and friction-clutches adapted to engage said sprocket-drum and lock it to the idlerframe and the ring-gear.
l0. In a motor-vehicle, a speed-changing mechanism consisting of a motor-pinion, a ring-gear, one or more idlers meshing between and into said pinion and gear, necessary framework forl maintaining said idlers and gear concentric with the motor-pinion and friction-clutches adapted to engage a sprocketdrum and iix it immovable as regards either the idler-frame or the rin g-gear frame, or both, at will. y
11. In a motor-vehicle, a'speedfchanging mechanism consisting of a motor-pinion, a
yring-gear, one or more idlers meshing between and into said pinion and gear, necessary framework for maintaining said idlers and gear concentric with the motor-pinion, and one or more friction-clutches carried by the ring-gear frame and adapted to engage at will the sprocket-drum or a fixed frame.
12. In a motor-vehicle, a speed-changing mechanism consisting of a motor-pinion, a
ring-gear, idlers meshing into and between said ring-gear and pinion, an idler-frame carrying journals for said idlers, and frictionclutches for engaging a sprocket-drum; said idler-frame being engaged by a clutch-frame IIO adapted in turn to engage a fixed frame and hold the idler-frame stationary.
13. Inra motor-vehicle, a motor-pinion, ringmitting wheel, mounted upon a drum adapted to be engaged by friction-clutches.
l5. In a motor-Vehicle a balance-gearing consisting of a sprocket-Wheel, driving-pinions mounted on a frame concentric With the driving-axle and attached to the drivingsprocket, drivinggears fixed one to a fulllength axle and the other to a sleeve telescoping over one end of said axle in combination with a vehicle-Wheel mounted on said sleeve, said Wheel being maintained on said sleeve and said sleeve on said axle by a single nut on the projecting axle end.
In testimony whereof I afx my signature in presence of tWo Witnesses.
CHARLES E. DURYEA.
W. H. SGHEURMAN, F. H. BOHANAN.