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Publication numberUS659786 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateOct 16, 1900
Filing dateJun 6, 1900
Priority dateJun 6, 1900
Publication numberUS 659786 A, US 659786A, US-A-659786, US659786 A, US659786A
InventorsJohn M Browning
Original AssigneeJohn M Browning
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Recoil-operated firearm.
US 659786 A
Abstract  available in
Previous page
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

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(Appliation mod June 6. 1900.)

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SPECIFIGATION forming part of Letters Patent N61 659,7"86, daten october -1 6, i900.

'- Appunti@ inta :rn-e 6,1000. serai no'. 19,200. (Numdam -To all whom, it may concern.-

' Be it known that I, JOHN M. BROWNING, a

' citizen of the United States, residing at Ogden,

' in the conn ty of iVeberand State of Utah,have

invented certain newand useful Improvements in Automatic Gnus, of which the following is a specification, reference being had therein to the accompanying drawings. This invention relates to automatic-or recoil-operated guns.

The object of the invention is to improve the construction and combination of parts of a gun of this character and to make the operation of the bolt-carrier and the bolt dependent on the condition of usage, so that the working may be automatic or manual, as may be desirable.

Figure 1 is a longitudinal nearly-central secvtion'of the stock, magazine, andthe main portions of the. operating mechanism of a rie involv'ing` the principles of this invention with rel portions of the gun.

breech closed and in ring position'. Fig. l is a similar section of the front stock and bar- Fig; 2 is a broken longitudinal section and partial elevation of the bolt, bolt-carrier, and associated mechanismA in recoiled position with breech locked and magazine omitted. Fig. Sis a similar view forward position, and bolt-carrier in rear po- Y sition with bolt-carrier aboutto 'spring for.

ward. 'Fig'. 4 isa bottom. plan of aportion of j 'the barrel with bolt and bolt-carrier` in locked position. Fig. 5 is a detail-plan of s'l-ideway guide-strip. Fig. Gis a detail section'of boltcarrier, showing bolt in .locked position and extractor .in operative position.' Fig. 7 is an elevation of the bolt-czftrrier, showing bolt in unlocked. position. Fig. 8 is a broken section of the rear part of the barrel.v Figs. 9 and 10 "are detailv elevationaiidplan of the holt-cai`` rier stop.` Figs.'A 11 and 12am-plan' .and elevation 'of magazine-follower.

section, of the.cartridge-extractor. Fig. 16is Fig.' 19 is an elevation,

Fig. V20 a plan, and Fig. 2 end-elevation,

of `the operating-slide detached.' Fig. -22 -is aptop planofthe bolt-car lier; Fig. 23, a side elevation ofthe same, andhFig'. 24 a front elevation-of the bolt-carrier and' bolt'inV locked Fig. 13 is as ide elevation, Fig. 14 a plan, and Fig. 15a crossl'ceiven position. Fig. 25 is an elevation of the bolt. Fig. 26 isaplan of the receiver or shoe, partly broken away to showthe engagement of exe.

figures, but their location will generally be apparent.

'lhe receiver, shoe, or frame A is of suit-- able form and material t-o receive and support the operative parts of the gun and is suitably connected to the butt-stock l and to the forestock 2. V'Ihe,receiver has a longitudinal generallycylindrical 'chamber 3, in which therear end of the barrelB and the bolt-,car

rier D may .have longitudinal movement. y The bolt-darrer D is connected by a link or pitman E to the action-rod F, the link E being pivoted to both parts. The action-rod F ymoves in a suitable guideway I in the buttst'ock and pai'takes of the longitudinal movement of the bolt-carrier D. The action-spring G surrounds .the rod F, having its rear bear- 8o ing against the front of the guideway I or other suitable support'fxed to the .stock and showing breech unlocked, barrel returned to its front end bearing against the head6 ofv the action-rod and the bolt-carrier connected the action-rod', thusteuding .to always press l thereto to the forward position of saidparts.

The operatingslide H has a s tem 7, which connects with the action-rodwG andmoves with the action-rod 'by means of a pin-andshoulder engagement 8, Fig. 1, or'other `suitable connection. The slide'H is guided in the slideway 9 by reason of the handpiece 10,

projecting'through a slot 11 in-said slidewayg.

(See Figs. 19, 20, and 21.) An enlarged opening 12 in the slidewaypeifmils the-assembling y'of these parts`,vand'the slidewa'y [oi-nis a couvenient closing and' strengthening plece'for.

the-bottom ofthe butt-stock, a boss '5 c? the operating-slide extending-'above the slideway.. 'A

To 'first open the grin, as for loading the magazine, draw back the slidelH by the hand. or plunger piecelO. This 'draws back the actonirod,.link, and4 bolt-carrier, as will be readily understood.v -The holt-carrier D .'be- ,ing pivoted to link-E cannot rotate in the ref It may be otherwise supported tol move lengthwise only-in' said receiver.- v The boltcarrier D is cored 'lengthwise to receive 1 lie bolt and so hold the bolt in its lorw'ardlpo-A bou c. Bolt 7C has cesareo I spiral wings A, which grooves 18 in the boltengage correspondin carrier. The bolt which engage .with spiral er circumferential grooves 20 in the rear extension 30 of the barrel in theusual manner of engagement. of a for locking the bolt to the barrel. Both spiral4 mutilated screw or bayonet-catch engagement and circumferential locking-grooves are old,

and this invention-is ap licabletoeitherform. The barrel B is normal y held forward `in the fore stock 2, Fig. 1f, by spring M', which is inclosed in housing'N,la`nd a collar 0' on the rotationin the stock way and cushionedv in usualmanner. When position relatively` A explained, the ,lugs 16 lof the bolt are in -posi tion to enter the .longitudinall grooves 1'9of. When Aso entered, a'

barrel receives the thrust of the spring M. A shoulder 22 servesasa forward check or stop -to the barrel, andthebarrel .is held .against in any suitable or usual the bolt C is in its forward to the 'bolt-carrier D, as will' be hereinafter thebarrel extensions. forward movement-fof` -the bolt carrier rotates the bolt on its axis by reason of theen- .gagemen't'of the wings 15' on the bolt'with the' spiral grooves 18 in the bolt-carrier, and

" the lugs 16 of thebolt are carried around to locked position inl-therecesses`20, ofthe bar- .rel-extensionsBO, the boltgat. the: same time having a spiral telescopic movement into the carrier, whichelos'es up the barrel extensions.-

The extractor Whasa' lng 23, which extends 35.1bolt of the extractor-'rests in a groiove'in the A carrier and' has al longitudinal movement.

l l' draws baokthe'bolt-.carrer therein limited by thecon tact of lug 23 with the ends of theslot 24. Bolt Chas a trans'- verse groove or notch '25,-into which the lugv nectons lstated ,f partly t'- havin'g. .meanwhile moved back. .1,elatively", the bolt will- -move f back wi-th the carrier, the barrel being' all the -while heldforward jbyits'spring M. Whenltheboltclarrer'fhas l i )movement `unders'uch.conditions, the bolt?v :will extendforward. from 'the carrier.

completed its backward l einen, in whielrtne. lugsiegsreiin. une with -a Irecess. inf the bolt-.carriei-,is actuated by a spring to project its frontend behind the A.the grooves 19in :he barrel.

has lockinglugs 16,.

-of the latch-lever Q,

on the handle 10.3 This. thlQuSh the @Dilirotatingthegboltvby 'means 'of the spiral wing-and-groove ,connota-1 tions. fand.x when the? 'bolt has turned fari. L enough, tha-bolt-carri' A recess in the receiver permits the projectionof the rear end-of the'- exte'nsion'bolt-lockS when in poforces in this-end of the the telescopic movement fat-the. proper time. Thisjagtomatic locking and unlock-ing of the bolt in its position relatively to the carrier insures the proper engagement of the bolt withthe barrel. ANow supposea cartridge to be inserted -in the bar- -rel of the ygun-and the'bo'lt closed thereon by stop S, permitting aforward movement of the bolt-carrier. The

7 sition of Fig. 26; but as lthe bolt-carrier moves v forward an incline in thewallof the receiverl ofbolt and carrier bolt-will present its wings 16' in line with the' 'recesses 19 of the barrel extension andwill enter therein. AtA this' instant the bolt-lock t'S is released,- and the forward movement of fbolt-carrier D lock-ed position, thebolt-carrier closing over the` bolt into close'contactwith the barrel, as iin Fig. 4..` If the'cartridge-is-now fired, the v recoil.carriesthe barrel and bolt-carrier di-' rectly backward, as in Fig. 2, compressing 'both springs Gand F.. 'Latch P, pivoted in 'the receiver'on the'pivot 31 of the hammer, is.

pressed Vup by'a spring 61 to engagea shoulder32 on'the bolt-carrier, thus retaining the 'carrierin its rearmost position. The barrel B'moves forward under the impulse of spring AM, and, pulling the bolt-With it by means of ithe vlocking 'engagementdescribed, -caxises thebolt' C to partiallyrotate until it is Viin-- locked, when 'the barrel continues to' 4move forward, leaving the bolt in the position of Fig. I.. 'The extractorW engages the cartridge ange' or groove asv usual, and when the barrel has -m'oved forward far enough the spring-oejector 33, Fig. 6, -pressing on the lower part 'of the cartridge-head throws'out the shell throughthe 'opening `34: in the receiver in 8s causes the bolt to rotate to' l usualmanner. 'The-flirtherforward move? ment of the barrel B -brings the lug 35 on the )barrel into contact with the front portion 36 rocking said lever on its IIC pivot 37 andl also' 4rockirigthe latch P, with V which saidleve'r engages, as indicated in Figs.' 2 and. 3. As soon as -the'latch P is rocked 1impulse 'of thev action spring G, Vcarrying`- a' cartridge-with it, if. one be, preset,.an d clos-V scribed. (When -the barrel, with the bolt locked to it, .moves back; nnderthe' recoil .im-' pulse, the lug 38on the'-bolt-carrierjstrilmg f the surface -36 of the latch-lever`Q, d epresses said lever so.- that'the .lng 35 von vthe barrel rides over the latchlever; Y but when the.l bolt- 'isfn position -to' engage the 'lug 35 on the barcarrier is drawn-back by pulling on the operating.-slide H the lug, 38 -rides over the lever "Qyivhicll''immediately rises and its front end l l L3orel Aand to holdthe barrel i against backward movement even sh'onld the cartridge stick in thebarrel'. The gnnthenlopens, asinFig. 3.

The magazine E is-0g any usual construe` tion to receive its cartridges side byside or one above another, and the magazine has a spring-actuated follower T, Figs. 1 and 16. Alongside the magazine is the bolt-stop R, having a side projection 40,'which extends overa nib 41 on the follower T. It there be a cartridge o r cartridges in the magazine, the follower T cannot rise s far .that nib 41 lifts the stop R, the follower being held down by the cartridge or cartridges thereon; but if the magazine be empty the follower is lifted by its spring until its nibenconnters the boltstop, andthis engagement of the follower with the stop lifts the stop R in front of the bolt. carrier, as in Fig. 3, holding the bolt"in posi! tion to allow the charging of the magazine through 'opening 34. Any usual detent'may` and 'magazine to be loaded,- the and bolt vand in the bolt in positionto enter catch is forward. The h hold the top cartridge from rising under the impulse of t-he follower T. The stop R, as

shown, has a finger-piece 43, by which the s top may be released when desi rable, said finger-piece extending alongside the magazine. The hammer J, pivoted at 31, is pressed upward by the. spring 51, as heretofore, and the trigger 52 may engage the hooks of the projection 53, as heretofore. The safety-catch has a tang 54, which mayslide under. the h eel of thehammerwhen the hammer istnrned back, Figs. 2 and 3, and' at the same time the end of the catch L lmay enter notch 55 in the trigger and so lock both hammer and trigger, `when ,the slide isdrawn back by the finger acting ou :finger-piece 56. It is desirable to lock the hammer at full-cock, sothat thev other mechanism may slide over the hammer Without interference therewith.

The front stock 2 sleeve v60, which sleeve may screw into the front of the frame A. A bolt V, which screws into a threaded hole in the front of this sleeve, serves to hold the parts together. .By removing this bolt the front stockand barrel m'ay be separated from the rear stock.

The operations of the diierent parts have been` separately explained. supposing. gun gun may b'e fired by pulling the trigger when the safetyamm-er strikes the firing-pin and explodes the cartridge.` The recoil carries back the barrel, belt-carrier, moving back the hammer is cocked. thereby andsoheld. The latch P,

. pressed up by the spring 61, holdstheboltf .carrier back and the action -sprngcompressed. 'The barrel then moves forward, turning and'unlocking the bolt and leaving the lockingif grooves in othe -ba'eh the bolt-lock holding it Vlio..

.in suchposition. -new cartridge rises in front of the bolt. The

The shell is ejected and a extreme forward movement of the barrelfre- "I-leases the holt-carrier by the action on the latch and latch-lever, and when released the' bolt-carrier moves forward under the innence of thelactiou-spring, its forward move-l ment unlocking 'the bolt from the (Barrier and then engaging and locking it with the barrel.

'than the eye can tion`to the bolt-carrier,

re-ar stock,

Thus the loading .is entirely automatic-or recoil-actuated, but the firing is by meansof a pull on the trigger, as with most other guns; No time is lostin loading the gun, as the action is almost instantaneous and follow; but thejfiring may be as deliberate as is desired. If there be no cartridges in the magazine, the barrel,vbolt,

and bolt-carrier move back-togetherwhen"a cartridge is fired and then the barrel moves forwardl and the bolt and carrier are held back by the latch, thatthe magazine may b e filled lfrom the top.

YChanges and modications withinthescope of the claims are contemplated. I have described the best form'of the invention known to me at the present time, but do not limit to precise for-'ms and constructions save as pointed-out in the claims..

1. Inan automatic gun as described,'the

combination of a receiver in whichthe barrel moves as described, a barrel, bolt, and bolt-- much quicker as hasbeen explained, so.

carrier, and means for locking4 the bolt to the barrel by a partial rotation of the bolt,

and for holding back the the bolt from the'barrel by movement ofthe bolt and an exten sionboitf relatively to the bolt-carrier, when the barrel moves forward from its recoiled position, substantially as described. 2. Inan automatic gun, the combination of the receiver,

barrel, bolt, and bolt-carrier,

bolt-and unlocking a reverse rotary,

vlock for holding'the bolt in forward position roc spiral wing-and-groove connectionbetween the b olt and bolt-carrier as described, locking-ribs on the bolt engaging corresponding grooves inthe barrel, the pivoted extension bolt-lock operatingas describedy and engaging .the frame to release.

carrier moves forward,` all substantially as described. v

-3. Inan automaticgun, the combination of the receiver in 4which the barrel may move longitudinally, the barrel, bolt-carrier, and bolt, 4the latter moving telescopically and spirally in. the carrier, means for holding the the bolt land permit -its spiral telescopic movement as the `boltbarrel forwardwhen the bolt-carrier is drawn 'to the rear, and

tions to the bolticarrier withinl the rear stock,

by which the bolt-'carrier and b olt may be f x20 man ually retracted,1t h e barrel remaining forward, substantially as described.

4. In an'automatic gun,Y the combination the'bolt" may be locked by partial rotation as 710i. the receiver, bolt :carrier reciprocating described, a link connected to the bolt-cal` rier'and a reciprocating action-rod within the connected to said link, and a spring bearing said rod forward,su bstantally as described.

45. In an-automatic gun, the combination of the receiver, the barreleonstructed to re- .ciprocatc therein, a spring actingto press the i bolt-carrierrearwardly; and a springpressy ine the arrirrferwerdfand afeairierflatch.

'boltlcarrier to lock it'inits `rear-v barrel forward, abolt-earrier and bolt having telescopic spiral connection as described whereby the bolt may be partially rotated and thereby-locked or unlocked from the barrel as'described, an action-spring carried by a slide-piece in. the stock, said slide-piecehaving'a link connection tothe bolt-carrier to move said carrier forward, "all 'substantially as described. 1

6v. In an automatic gun, the combination jot the'recerver;barrei, boltmarrier recrpro' eating in the receiver, and bolt reciprocating in the boltfcarrier," and 'an extension boltlock-engaging the bolt and bolt-'carrier to retain the bolt i-n its forward positionrelatively to its carrier, 'and in position to make 'first locking engagement with. the barrel by direct forwardl movement, substantially as de'- scribed.

-- bolt, constructed t-o reciprocate in the re- .telescopic connectionv between the bolt-carceiver substantially asv described, a spiral rier and bolt,l and a pivoted extension boltlock, automatically holding thebolt forward when the bolt-carrier is in rearmost position, and automatically disengaged bythe forward ymovement of 'the bolt-carrier, substantially therein, and' serving as a longitudinal guide spiral telescop i lvtractor having/a magi-mama a "Qngeinefli most position,

for said slide, substantially as described.

9. In ag'iin ofx thepharacterdescribed, the receiver,`;.the hol v-izarrier vand boltv having connection, and the exliigengaging slots or openings in thefbltcarrierfzalldbolt, 'wherebytlie I-udgi-etagryr. movements of the 1 yioits'oarrier are 'limited, all combined `substantfllllyfidescribed. nine n 'recel erybarrel, bolt-cargaetion-'piece anda link connecting thdfcirriertliereto for moving the 5 5 111: In aguil ofthe vcharacter".described, the

receiver, barrel; reciprocatingtherein, and v pressed forward by a spring,

J stantially as o bolt-.carrier and bolt having spiral telescopic engagement,sub deserib'e'd,a sliding action-piece 6o in the stock and a link connecting the same 'ingthe bolt-carrier at its .reari nost position,

vbacli'l while the barrel by -atofth bolt-a'rrier and a carrier-latch engag` .Ioholdthecarrier its engagementjwiththe'bolt moves the same spirally f rward, snbstantially'as described.-

combination :ot the receiver,

7 7. 'In' anautomatic gun, the corbinationV of the receiver, the barrel, bolt-carrier, and

combination with p'ivoted hammer, slide in the frame carrier re'ziprocating therein and bolt having 13. The combination with the receiver,bolt

carrier and barrel reciprocating in the receriv'er,"-an :belt Ahavingtelelineepiceoimeetien toits carrier and looking engagement as de"- scribedl with the barrel, of a carrier-latciien-- gaging said carrier to hold it back as the barrel moves engaging the boli to hold the same forward relatively toits carrier, as the barrel engage;v ment moves the bolt forward-from the latched carrier, substantially as described.

'14. The combi-nation of the receiver, boltcarrier" reciprocating therein, bolt having spiral telescopic connection'with carrier, and the barrel sliding inthe receiver and having lockingv engagement with the bolt as def scribed, of the bolt-carrier latch engaging forward, and the bolt extension-lock the bolt-carrier .to hold it in open position,

and the carrierflatch lever engaged by the barrel in its forward movement, andl acting on 4the"carrierlatch to disengage the same, substantiallyas described. s;

15. The combination of carrier and barrel reciprocating ,in the receiver, and bolt telescopi-ng in its Acarrie)` substantially as described, of the carrier-latch lever, a lug on-'the carrier in proximity to the barrel whenjthe parts areinlocked relation, and a lug on the barrel with which the latch-leverengages to hold the barrel forward when not released by the action of the carrier-lug, all substantially as described.

the receiver, boltrod' 16. In a gun of thecbaracter described, the

the receiver and-bolt-carrierl reciprocating therein, the magazine having a 'sprin -actuated follower, and the boltstop pi Voted inthe frameand having aprojection in lineot'` movement of the magazinehalracter described, the

follower, 'nd actuated "thereby, to stop 0 the vi'orvvi'ird bolt movement whenl the magazineis empty, Aand a finger-pieceby which .said stop may be manually released, substantially as de'scribed. f t Z I 4 17 L In a gun o the characterdescribed, .the the not-'clled-trigger, and' a having a'tangwhich comes under the heel ofthe hammer'whiletlie slide entersthenotch in the trigger, whereby the y hammer is lockedfat full-cock and the trig- -ger separately locked" piece. i

In testimony whereof I -aix mjy signature in presence. of two witnesses. f

.i HN TM; Bnowrurr'o.;

by. the saine slide-

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2418946 *Aug 15, 1942Apr 15, 1947Remington Arms Co IncBreech bolt lock for firearms
US2424264 *Oct 27, 1942Jul 22, 1947Yorks Gerald AComposite bolt structure for semiautomatic rifles
US2425434 *Dec 14, 1943Aug 12, 1947Remington Arms Co IncFiring pin supporting means for firearms
US2484694 *Feb 9, 1945Oct 11, 1949Dicke Allen ATwo-part breech closing mechanism for repeating firearms
US3171225 *May 10, 1963Mar 2, 1965Noble Mfg Co IncAutomatic shotgun
US8397623Jan 14, 2009Mar 19, 2013Geoffrey A. HerringRifle and kit for constructing same
Cooperative ClassificationF41A17/38