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Publication numberUS6600197 B1
Publication typeGrant
Application numberUS 09/438,105
Publication dateJul 29, 2003
Filing dateNov 10, 1999
Priority dateDec 8, 1997
Fee statusPaid
Also published asUS5986306
Publication number09438105, 438105, US 6600197 B1, US 6600197B1, US-B1-6600197, US6600197 B1, US6600197B1
InventorsSetsuo Nakajima, Takeshi Fukunaga
Original AssigneeSemiconductor Energy Laboratory Co., Ltd.
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Thin film transistor having a heat sink that exhibits a high degree of heat dissipation effect
US 6600197 B1
Abstract
In forming a pair of impurity regions in an active layer, an intrinsic or substantially intrinsic region having a double-sided comb shape is also formed by using a proper mask. The intrinsic or substantially intrinsic region is composed of a portion that effectively functions as a channel forming region and portions in which a channel is not formed and which function as heat sinks. The heat dissipation effect is improved because the heat sinks are formed by the same material as the channel forming region.
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Claims(113)
What is claimed is:
1. A semiconductor device comprising at least a bottom gate type thin film transistor including:
a gate electrode being formed on an insulating surface;
a gate insulating film being formed on the gate electrode; a semiconductor island being formed on the gate insulating film;
a first region having a double-sided comb shape formed in the semiconductor island;
a trunk portion formed in the first region;
a plurality of branch portions formed in the first region extending vertically from the trunk portion;
a pair of impurity regions formed in the semiconductor island where the first region is not formed;
wherein the gate electrode is located under only the trunk portion of the first region with the gate insulating film therebetween,
wherein a plurality of channel regions are formed in first portions of the first region,
wherein a plurality of heat sink regions are formed in second portions of the first region.
2. A device according to claim 1, wherein the bottom gate type thin film transistor is an inverted staggered type thin film transistor.
3. A device according to claim 1, wherein the semiconductor island is a crystalline silicon island.
4. A device according to claim 1, wherein the semiconductor device is a CMOS circuit.
5. A device according to claim 1, wherein said semiconductor device is a liquid crystal display device.
6. A device according to claim 1, wherein said semiconductor device is an EL display device.
7. A device according to claim 1, wherein said semiconductor device is an image sensor.
8. A device according to claim 1, wherein said semiconductor device is a personal computer.
9. A device according to claim 1, wherein said semiconductor device is a portable terminal apparatus.
10. A device according to claim 1, wherein said semiconductor device is a mobile computer.
11. A device according to claim 1, wherein said semiconductor device is a cellular telephone.
12. A device according to claim 1, wherein said semiconductor device is a projection display apparatus.
13. A device according to claim 1, wherein said semiconductor device is a digital (video) camera.
14. A device according to claim 1, wherein said semiconductor device is a scanner.
15. A device according to claim 1, wherein the semiconductor island comprises SiXGe1-X (0<X <1).
16. A device according to claim 1, wherein each of the pair of impurity regions comprises at least one selected from the group consisting of phosphorus, arsenic and boron.
17. A semiconductor device according to claim 1, wherein the plurality of channel regions are formed in the first portions of the trunk portion.
18. A semiconductor device according to claim 1, wherein the second portions comprises the plurality of branch portions and the trunk portion in which the first portions is not formed.
19. semiconductor device comprising at least a bottom gate type thin film transistor including:
a gate electrode formed on an insulating surface;
a gate insulating film formed on the gate electrode;
a semiconductor island formed on the gate insulating film;
a pair of impurity regions formed in the semiconductor island;
a first region between the pair of impurity regions in the semiconductor island;
a first portion in the first region;
at least a second portion projecting from the first portion in the first region;
wherein the gate electrode is located under only the first portion of the first region.
20. A device according to claim 19, wherein the bottom gate type thin film transistor is an inverted staggered type thin film transistor.
21. A device according to claim 19, wherein the semiconductor island is a crystalline silicon island.
22. A device according to claim 19, wherein the semiconductor island comprises SiXGe1-X (0<X<1).
23. A device according to claim 19, wherein each of the pair of impurity regions comprises at least one selected from the group consisting of phosphorus, arsenic and boron.
24. A device according to claim 19, wherein the semiconductor device is a CMOS circuit.
25. A device according to claim 19, wherein the semiconductor device is a liquid crystal display device.
26. A device according to claim 19, wherein the semiconductor device is an EL display device.
27. A device according to claim 19, wherein the semiconductor device is an image sensor.
28. A device according to claim 19, wherein the semiconductor device is a personal computer.
29. A device according to claim 19, wherein the semiconductor device is a portable terminal apparatus.
30. A device according to claim 19, wherein the semiconductor device is a mobile computer.
31. A device according to claim 19, wherein the semiconductor device is a cellular telephone.
32. A device according to claim 19, wherein the semiconductor device is a projection display apparatus.
33. A device according to claim 19, wherein the semiconductor device is a digital (video) camera.
34. A device according to claim 19, wherein the semiconductor device is a scanner.
35. A semiconductor device comprising at least a bottom gate type thin film transistor including:
a gate electrode formed on an insulating surface;
a gate insulating film formed on the gate electrode;
a semiconductor island formed on the gate insulating film;
a source region and a drain region formed in the semiconductor island;
a first region between the source and drain regions in the semiconductor island;
a first portion in the first region;
at least a second portion projecting from the first portion in the first region;
wherein the gate electrode is located under only the first portion of the first region where the second portion does not project therefrom,
wherein the second portion is formed only on one of the source region side and the drain region side.
36. A device according to claim 35, wherein the bottom gate type thin film transistor is an inverted staggered type thin film transistor.
37. A device according to claim 35, wherein the semiconductor island is a crystalline silicon island.
38. A device according to claim 35, wherein the semiconductor island comprises SiXGe1-X (0<X<1).
39. A device according to claim 35, wherein each of the pair of impurity regions comprises at least one selected from the group consisting of phosphorus, arsenic and boron.
40. A device according to claim 35, wherein the semiconductor device is a CMS circuit.
41. A device according to claim 35, wherein the semiconductor device is a liquid crystal display device.
42. A device according to claim 35, wherein the semiconductor device is an EL display device.
43. A device according to claim 35, wherein the semiconductor device is an image sensor.
44. A device according to claim 35, wherein the semiconductor device is a personal computer.
45. A device according to claim 35, wherein the semiconductor device is a portable terminal apparatus.
46. A device according to claim 35, wherein the semiconductor device is a mobile computer.
47. A device according to claim 35, wherein the semiconductor device is a cellular telephone.
48. A device according to claim 35, wherein the semiconductor device is a projection display apparatus.
49. A device according to claim 35, wherein the semiconductor device is a digital (video) camera.
50. A device according to claim 35, wherein the semiconductor device is a scanner.
51. A semiconductor device comprising:
a semiconductor island formed over an insulating surface;
a gate insulating film adjacent to the semiconductor island;
a gate electrode adjacent to the semiconductor island with the gate insulating film interposed therebetween, the gate electrode having a double-sided comb shape;
a pair of first regions doped with an impurity and formed in the semiconductor island wherein said pair of first regions are formed in a self-alignment manner with respect to the gate electrode;
a second region formed in the semiconductor island between the pair of first regions.
52. A semiconductor device according to claim 51, wherein the semiconductor device comprising a top-gate type thin film transistor.
53. A semiconductor device according to claim 51, wherein the semiconductor device comprising a bottom-gate type thin film transistor.
54. A semiconductor device according to claim 51, wherein the semiconductor device is an electronic apparatus selected from the group consisting of an image sensor, a personal computer, a portable terminal apparatus, a mobile computer, a cellular telephone, a projection display apparatus, a digital camera, and a scanner.
55. A semiconductor device according to claim 51, wherein the semiconductor device is a liquid crystal display device.
56. A semiconductor device according to claim 51, wherein the semiconductor device is an EL display device.
57. A semiconductor device according to claim 51, wherein the semiconductor island comprises SiXGe1-X (0<X<1).
58. A semiconductor device comprising:
a semiconductor island formed over an insulating surface;
a gate insulating film adjacent to the semiconductor island;
a gate electrode adjacent to the semiconductor island with the gate insulating film interposed therebetween;
a pair of impurity regions formed in the semiconductor island;
a first region interposed between the pair of impurity regions, which formed in the semiconductor island;
wherein the first region comprises a first portion and a second portion projecting from the first region;
wherein the first portion is overlapped with the gate electrode.
59. A semiconductor device according to claim 58, wherein the semiconductor device comprising a top-gate type thin film transistor.
60. A semiconductor device according to claim 58, wherein the semiconductor device comprising a bottom-gate type thin film transistor.
61. A semiconductor device according to claim 58, wherein the semiconductor device is an electronic apparatus selected from the group consisting of an image sensor, a personal computer, a portable terminal apparatus, a mobile computer, a cellular telephone, a projection display apparatus, a digital camera, and a scanner.
62. A semiconductor device according to claim 58, wherein the semiconductor device is a liquid crystal display device.
63. A semiconductor device according to claim 58, wherein the semiconductor device is an EL display device.
64. A semiconductor device according to claim 58, wherein the semiconductor island comprises SiXGe1-X (0<X<1).
65. A semiconductor device comprising:
a semiconductor island formed over an insulating surface;
a gate insulating film adjacent to the semiconductor island;
a gate electrode adjacent to the semiconductor island, with the gate insulating film interposed therebetween;
a pair of impurity regions formed in the semiconductor island;
a first region having a double-sided comb shape interposed between the pair of impurity regions, which formed in the semiconductor island;
a trunk portion formed in the first region;
at least a branch portion formed in the first region extending vertically from the trunk portion;
wherein the trunk portion is overlapped with the gate electrode.
66. A semiconductor device according to claim 65, wherein the semiconductor device comprising a top-gate type thin film transistor.
67. A semiconductor device according to claim 65, wherein the semiconductor device comprising a bottom-gate type thin film transistor.
68. A semiconductor device according to claim 65, wherein the semiconductor device is an electronic apparatus selected from the group consisting of an image sensor, a personal computer, a portable terminal apparatus, a mobile computer, a cellular telephone, a projection display apparatus, a digital camera, and a scanner.
69. A semiconductor device according to claim 65, wherein the semiconductor device is a liquid crystal display device.
70. A semiconductor device according to claim 65, wherein the semiconductor device is an EL display device.
71. A semiconductor device according to claim 65, wherein the semiconductor island comprises SiXGe1-X (0<X<1).
72. A semiconductor device comprising:
a semiconductor island formed over an insulating surface;
a gate insulating film adjacent to the semiconductor island;
a gate electrode adjacent to the semiconductor island with the gate insulating film interposed therebetween;
a pair of impurity regions formed in the semiconductor island;
a first region having a double-sided comb shape interposed between the pair of impurity regions, which formed in the semiconductor island;
a trunk portion formed in the first region;
at least a branch portion formed in the first region extending vertically from the trunk portion;
wherein at least a contact hole is formed at one edge side of the at least a branch portion.
73. A semiconductor device according to claim 72, wherein the semiconductor device comprising a top-gate type thin film transistor.
74. A semiconductor device according to claim 72, wherein the semiconductor device comprising a bottom-gate type thin film transistor.
75. A semiconductor device according to claim 72, wherein the semiconductor device is an electronic apparatus selected from the group consisting of an image sensor, a personal computer, a portable terminal apparatus, a mobile computer, a cellular telephone, a projection display apparatus, a digital camera, and a scanner.
76. A semiconductor device according to claim 72, wherein the semiconductor device is a liquid crystal display device.
77. A semiconductor device according to claim 72, wherein the semiconductor device is an EL display device.
78. A semiconductor device according to claim 72, wherein the semiconductor island comprises SiXGe1-X (0<X<1).
79. A semiconductor device comprising:
a semiconductor island formed over an insulating surface;
a gate insulating film adjacent to the semiconductor island;
a gate electrode adjacent to the semiconductor island with the gate insulating film interposed therebetween;
a pair of impurity regions formed in the semiconductor island;
a first region having a double-sided comb shape interposed between the pair of impurity regions, which formed in the semiconductor island;
a trunk portion formed in the first region;
at least two branch portions formed in the first region extending vertically from the trunk portion;
wherein at least a contact hole is formed between the at least two branch portions.
80. A semiconductor device according to claim 79, wherein the semiconductor device comprising a top-gate type thin film transistor.
81. A semiconductor device according to claim 79, wherein the semiconductor device comprising a bottom-gate type thin film transistor.
82. A semiconductor device according to claim 79, wherein the semiconductor device is an electronic apparatus selected from the group consisting of an image sensor, a personal computer, a portable terminal apparatus, a mobile computer, a cellular telephone, a projection display apparatus, a digital camera, and a scanner.
83. A semiconductor device according to claim 79, wherein the semiconductor device is a liquid crystal display device.
84. A semiconductor device according to claim 79, wherein the semiconductor device is an EL display device.
85. A semiconductor device according to claim 79, wherein the semiconductor island comprises SiXGe1-X (0<X<1).
86. A semiconductor device comprising:
a semiconductor island formed over an insulating surface;
a gate insulating film adjacent to the semiconductor island;
a gate electrode adjacent to the semiconductor island with the gate insulating film interposed therebetween;
a source region and a drain region formed in the semiconductor island;
a first region between the source and drain regions in the semiconductor island;
a first portion in the first region;
at least a second portion projecting from the first portion in the first region;
wherein the gate electrode is located under only the first portion of the first region where the second portion does not project therefrom,
wherein the second portion is formed only on one of the source region side and the drain region side.
87. A semiconductor device according to claim 86, wherein the semiconductor device comprising a top-gate type thin film transistor.
88. A semiconductor device according to claim 86, wherein the semiconductor device comprising a bottom-gate type thin film transistor.
89. A semiconductor device according to claim 86, wherein the semiconductor device is an electronic apparatus selected from the group consisting of an image sensor, a personal computer, a portable terminal apparatus, a mobile computer, a cellular telephone, a projection display apparatus, a digital camera, and a scanner.
90. A semiconductor device according to claim 86, wherein the semiconductor device is a liquid crystal display device.
91. A semiconductor device according to claim 86, wherein the semiconductor device is an EL display device.
92. A semiconductor device according to claim 86, wherein the semiconductor island comprises SiXGe1-X (0<X<1).
93. A semiconductor device comprising:
an active layer;
a pair of impurity regions having an n-type or p-type conductivity in the active layer;
a first region interposed between the pair of impurity regions, said first region including:
a first portion,
at least a second portion projecting from the first portion;
a gate electrode adjacent to said active layer with a gate insulating film therebetween,
wherein only the first portion is overlapped with a gate electrode.
94. A semiconductor device according to claim 93, wherein the semiconductor device comprising a top-gate type thin film transistor.
95. A semiconductor device according to claim 93, wherein the semiconductor device comprising a bottom-gate type thin film transistor.
96. A semiconductor device according to claim 93, wherein the semiconductor device is an electronic apparatus selected from the group consisting of an image sensor, a personal computer, a portable terminal apparatus, a mobile computer, a cellular telephone, a projection display apparatus, a digital camera, and a scanner.
97. A semiconductor device according to claim 93, wherein the semiconductor device is a liquid crystal display device.
98. A semiconductor device according to claim 93, wherein the semiconductor device is an EL display device.
99. A semiconductor device according to claim 93, wherein the semiconductor island comprises SiXGe1-X (0<X<1).
100. A semiconductor device comprising:
an active layer;
a pair of impurity regions having an n-type or p-type conductivity in the active layer;
a first region interposed between the pair of impurity regions, said first region having a double-sided comb shape including:
a trunk portion being perpendicularly to a channel direction,
at least a branch portion being parallel with the channel direction;
a gate electrode adjacent to said active layer with a gate insulating film therebetween,
wherein only said trunk portion is overlapped with a gate electrode.
101. A semiconductor device according to claim 100, wherein the semiconductor device comprising a top-gate type thin film transistor.
102. A semiconductor device according to claim 100, wherein the semiconductor device comprising a bottom-gate type thin film transistor.
103. A semiconductor device according to claim 1 wherein the semiconductor device is an electronic apparatus selected from the group consisting of an image sensor, a personal computer, a portable terminal apparatus, a mobile computer, a cellular telephone, a projection display apparatus, a digital camera, and a scanner.
104. A semiconductor device according to claim 100, wherein the semiconductor device is a liquid crystal display device.
105. A semiconductor device according to claim 100, wherein the semiconductor device is an EL display device.
106. A semiconductor device according to claim 100, wherein the semiconductor island comprises SiXGe1-X (0<X<1).
107. A semiconductor device comprising:
a semiconductor island formed on an insulating surface;
a first region having a double-sided comb shape formed in the semiconductor island;
a trunk portion formed in the first region;
a plurality of branch portions formed in the first region extending vertically from the trunk portion;
a pair of impurity regions formed in the semiconductor island where the first region is not formed;
a gate electrode adjacent to only the trunk portion of the first region with a gate insulating film therebetween,
wherein a plurality of channel regions are formed in first portion of the first region where the plurality of branch portions do not extend from the trunk portion,
wherein a plurality of heat sink regions are formed in second portions of the first region including the plurality of branch portions and a plurality of cross regions of the trunk portion where the plurality of branch portions extend therefrom.
108. A semiconductor device according to claim 107, wherein the semiconductor device comprising a top-gate type thin film transistor.
109. A semiconductor device according to claim 107, wherein the semiconductor device comprising a bottom-gate type thin film transistor.
110. A semiconductor device according to claim 107, wherein the semiconductor device is an electronic apparatus selected from the group consisting of an image sensor, a personal computer, a portable terminal apparatus, a mobile computer, a cellular telephone, a projection display apparatus, a digital camera, and a scanner.
111. A semiconductor device according to claim 107, wherein the semiconductor device is a liquid crystal display device.
112. A semiconductor device according to claim 107, wherein the semiconductor device is an EL display device.
113. A semiconductor device according to claim 107, wherein the semiconductor island comprises SiXGe1-X(0<X<1).
Description

This application is a continuation of U.S. application Ser. No. 09/205,019, filed on Dec. 4, 1998. Now U.S. Pat. No. 5,986,306.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

1. Field of the Invention

The present invention relates to thin-film elements using a thin-film semiconductor, particularly a thin-film transistor (hereinafter abbreviated as TFT). The present invention also relates to semiconductor devices such as electro-optical devices and semiconductor circuits using such a thin-film transistor.

2. Description of the Related Art

In recent years, with the spread of liquid crystal displays (LCDs), active matrix liquid crystal displays (AMLCD) are required to have improved performance. However, there are various problems that have obstructed such improvement in performance.

Increase in operation speed is one item of the required improvements in performance. However, it is known that the self-heating of a TFT increases as the operation speed is increased. This is also problematic in integrated circuits ICs.

In particular, in circuits, such as driver circuits (a buffer, an analog switch, etc.), in which a large current needs to flow and which are constituted of TFTs having a very long channel width (W), each constituent TFT exhibits a high degree of self-heating and the temperature of the entire circuit may become abnormally high. There is one report that the temperature increased to as high as several hundred degrees centigrade in certain situations.

The self-heating varies or deteriorates the characteristics of a TFT and makes it difficult to make highly reliable products. To suppress self-heating of a TFT having a long channel width, the following conventional technique has been proposed.

FIG. 2A is a schematic top view showing an active layer (thin-film semiconductor layer) of a TFT. FIGS. 2B-2D are sectional views taken along lines A—A′, B—B′, and C—C′ in FIG. 2A, respectively.

In FIG. 2A, reference numeral 201 denotes a substrate having an insulative surface, while and 202 and 203 denote a pair of impurity regions formed by adding an n-type or p-type impurity to an active layer that is a semiconductor thin film. The impurity regions 202 and 203 serve as source/drain regions.

The pair of impurity regions 202 and 203 are formed in a self-aligned manner by using a gate electrode 204 as a mask. The region under the gate electrode 204 is doped with neither of those impurities, and channel forming regions 205 are formed there (see FIGS. 2B and 2D).

The conventional structure shown in FIGS. 2A-2D has a feature that openings 206 formed in the active layer in patterning it and the channel forming region divided into a plurality of parts. Hence, substantially a plurality of TFTs are arranged in parallel.

The openings 206 function as heat sinks for escape of Joule heat generated in the channel forming regions 205. This technique allows Joule heat generated in the channel forming regions 205 to escape efficiently, thereby reducing the amount of heat generated in the TFT and in turn securing its reliability.

In the conventional technique shown in FIGS. 2A-2D, the regions 206 serving as the heat sinks are filled with a gate insulating film 207. Therefore, the channel forming regions 205 are insulated from each other by the gate insulating film 207.

As a result Joule heat generated in the channel forming regions 205 is introduced to the gate insulating film (typically a silicon oxide film) 207. However, the efficiency of heat dissipation is not high because the heat conductivity of silicon oxide (about 1.4 W/mK) is two orders smaller than that of silicon (about 150 W/mK). This results in the problem as a sufficient level of heat dissipation effect cannot be obtained.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

An object of the present invention is to provide a TFT having a heat sink that exhibits a higher degree of heat dissipation effect than in the conventional technique, thereby resulting in a highly reliable semiconductor device.

The present invention provides a semiconductor device comprising a semiconductor circuit having a plurality of thin-film transistors that use a thin-film semiconductor as an active layer, wherein the active layer comprises a pair of impurity regions exhibiting an n-type or p-type conductivity and an intrinsic or substantially intrinsic region interposed between the pair of impurity regions; and wherein the intrinsic or substantially intrinsic region comprises a first region and second regions projecting from the first region, only the first region being overlapped with a gate electrode.

One important feature of the present invention is that in the above configuration the first region has been formed in a self-aligned manner by using the gate electrode as a mask and the second regions have been formed intentionally by photolithography.

According to another aspect of the present invention, there is provided a semiconductor device comprising a semiconductor circuit having a plurality of thin-film transistors that use a thin-film semiconductor as an active layer, wherein the active layer comprises a pair of impurity regions exhibiting an n-type or p-type conductivity and an intrinsic or substantially intrinsic region interposed between the pair of impurity regions; and wherein the intrinsic or substantially intrinsic region assumes a double-sided comb shape that comprises a trunk portion extending approximately perpendicularly to a channel direction and branch portions extending approximately parallel with the channel direction, only the trunk portion being overlapped with a gate electrode.

In each of the above configurations, the thin-film semiconductor can be a silicon semiconductor or a compound semiconductor including silicon.

According to another aspect of the present invention, there is provided a method of manufacturing a semiconductor, comprising the steps of forming an active layer by patterning a thin-film semiconductor; forming a gate electrode above the active layer via an insulating film; forming one or a plurality of island-like mask patterns so that they cross the gate electrode and extend perpendicularly to a longitudinal direction of the gate electrode; and adding an n-type or p-type impurity to the active layer by using the gate electrode and the one or a plurality of mask patterns as masks.

According to still a further aspect of present invention, there is provided a method of manufacturing a semiconductor, comprising the steps of forming a gate electrode; forming an active layer made of a thin-film semiconductor above the gate electrode via an insulating film; forming an insulating film pattern having a double-sided comb shape above the active layer; and adding an n-type or p-type impurity to the active layer by using the insulating film pattern as a mask.

In each of the above manufacturing methods, each of a pair of impurity regions formed by the impurity adding step assumes a comb-teeth shape and the teeth portions of the pair of impurity regions are opposed to each other. That is, an intrinsic or substantially intrinsic region having a double-sided comb shape is formed under the insulating film pattern as the mask in the impurity adding step.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

FIGS. 1A-1D show the structure of an active layer according to the present invention;

FIGS. 2A-2D show the structure of a conventional active layer;

FIG. 3 shows the structure of an intrinsic or substantially intrinsic region shown in FIGS. 1A-1D;

FIG. 4 illustrates definitions of a channel length and a channel width;

FIGS. 5A-5E and 5A′-5E′ are sectional views showing a process for manufacturing a TFT according to a first embodiment of the present invention;

FIGS. 6A-6D show the structure of an active layer according to a third embodiment of the present invention;

FIGS. 7A-7E and 7A′-7E′ are sectional views showing a process for manufacturing a TFT according to the third embodiment of the present invention; and

FIGS. 8A and 8B show arrangements of contact holes according to a sixth embodiment of the present invention.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS

The present invention as summarized above will be hereinafter described in detail in the following embodiments.

First, a general concept of the present invention will be described with reference to FIGS. 1A-1D. FIG. 1A is a top view of an active layer that utilizes the present invention. FIGS. 1B-1D are sectional views taken along lines A—A′, B—B′, and C—C′ in FIG. 1A, respectively.

In FIG. 1A, reference numeral 101 denotes a substrate having an insulative surface, and 102 and 103 denote a pair of impurity regions (source/drain regions) formed by adding an n-type or p-type impurity to an active layer that is a semiconductor thin film.

An intrinsic or substantially intrinsic semiconductor region 104 is formed so as to be interposed between the impurity regions 102 and 103. The term “intrinsic semiconductor region” means a completely neutral semiconductor region where no impurity for imparting one type of conductivity is added. The term “substantially intrinsic semiconductor region” means a region that exhibits n-type or p-type conductivity in such a range that the threshold voltage is controllable (i.e., the concentration of an n-type or p-type impurity is 1×1017 atoms/cm3 or less, preferably 1×1016 atoms/cm3 or less), or a region where a conductivity type is canceled out intentionally.

FIG. 3 shows only the intrinsic or substantially intrinsic region 104. As shown in FIG. 3, the region 104 comprises a double-sided comb shape consisting of a trunk portion (hereinafter referred to as a first region) 104 a extending approximately perpendicularly to the channel direction and branch portions (hereinafter referred to as second regions) 104 b extending approximately parallel with the channel direction. As a result, each of the impurity region 102 and 103 assumes a comb-teeth shape.

The first region 104 a , which exists right under the gate electrode 105 via a gate insulating film 106 in FIG. 1A, is formed when a self-aligned manner in forming the source/drain regions 102 and 103 by using the gate electrode 105 as a mask.

On the other hand, the second regions 104 b , which projects from the first region 104 a (preferably approximately perpendicularly thereto), are formed intentionally by photolithography.

As is apparent from FIG. 1A, since only the first region 104 a coextends with the gate electrode 105, a channel region that is formed during operation of the TFT is formed only in the first region 104 a. In this sense, the first region 104 a can also be called a channel forming region.

On the other hand, the second regions 104 b are semiconductor regions that are always kept intrinsic or substantially intrinsic because they do not overlap with the gate electrode 105. Since only this portion has high resistivity, it does not serve as a source or drain region, and a channel is not formed there.

However, in the present invention, the second regions 104 b have the role of heat sinks for allowing escape of Joule heat generated in the channel forming region and the role of substantially dividing the channel forming region into a plurality of parts.

Accordingly, by forming the second regions 104 b , the channel forming region is divided into a plurality of parts, and Joule heat generated in each channel forming region can be introduced to the second regions 104 b (and as a result, to the gate electrode 105 or the source/drain regions 102 and 103). As a result, accumulation of Joule heat in the active layer (particularly in its central portion) can be effectively prevented.

In the conventional technique described in the background section, heat dissipation is effected by the openings that are formed in the active layer. However, this structure cannot provide an efficient heat dissipation effect because of too large a difference in heat conductivity. In contrast, in the structure of the present invention, the difference in heat conductivity is negligible because the heat sinks are made of the same semiconductor layer as the channel forming region. Hence, heat dissipation is effected very efficiently.

Now, a channel length and a channel width will be defined with reference to FIG. 4. FIG. 4 shows only the active layer of FIG. 1A.

In this specification, in FIG. 4, the shortest distance (corresponds to the gate electrode width) connecting the impurity regions 102 and 103 is defined as a channel length L (the direction along the channel length L is called a channel direction). The width of the channel forming region in the direction perpendicular to the channel direction is defined as a channel width W.

A channel is formed in the entire region right under the gate electrode 105, and hence the channel forming region is the first region (trunk portion) 104 a . Therefore, based on the above definitions, it can be said that the channel forming region (considered a carrier movement path) has the channel length L and the channel width W.

However, because it is thought that carriers move with priority in regions where the impurity regions 102 and 103 are closest to each other, the effective channel regions are regions 401 (one of which is enclosed by a broken line). Hence, it can be said that the portions of the channel forming region that are interposed between the branch portions 104 b serving as the heat sinks, have almost no contribution to carrier movement and mainly function as parts of the heat sinks.

Therefore, although the entire channel forming region has the channel width W, an effective channel width (actually contributory to carrier movement) is given by the sum of channel widths of the effective channel regions 401.

As described above, the TFT utilizing the present invention has the features that the active layer has the intrinsic or substantially intrinsic region that assumes a double-sided comb shape, and that part of that region is used as the channel forming region that contributes to carrier movement while the other portions are used as heat sinks for dissipating Joule heat.

The most important point is that the regions used as the heat sinks are formed by the same semiconductor layer as the channel forming region, whereby there exists no difference in heat conductivity and hence the heat dissipation effect is improved.

Specific embodiments of the present invention will be hereinafter described.

EMBODIMENT 1

A process for manufacturing a TFT utilizing the present invention will be described below with reference to FIGS. 5A-5E and 5A′-5E′, which are sectional views taken along lines B—B′ and C—C′ in FIG. 1A, respectively.

In FIGS. 5A and 5A′, reference numeral 501 denotes a substrate having an insulative surface which may be a glass substrate, a silicon substrate, a glass ceramics substrate, or the like, formed with an undercoat film thereon. In the case of a quartz substrate, there is no specific reason for forming an undercoat film.

Then, a crystalline silicon film as an active layer 502 is formed on the substrate 501. The crystalline silicon film may be either a single crystal thin film or a polycrystalline thin film. Where a single crystal thin film is formed, an SOI substrate such as an SIMOX or UNIBOND substrate may be used.

Where a polycrystalline thin film is formed, it may be one formed by any known process. Usually, an amorphous silicon film is crystallized by laser processing or furnace annealing. Instead of a silicon film, compound semiconductors including silicon such as SixGe1-X (0<X <1) may be formed.

Then, a 120-nm-thick gate insulating film 503 is formed so as to cover the active layer 502, and a metal film or a conductive silicon film as a gate electrode 504 is formed thereon (see FIGS. 5B and 5B′).

Then, one or a plurality of resist masks 505 are formed so as to cross the gate electrode 504 and extend perpendicularly to the longitudinal direction of the gate electrode 504 (i.e., approximately parallel with the channel direction). The resist masks 505 are patterned in island-like form.

In this state, a pair of impurity regions 506 and 507 are formed by adding an n-type or p-type impurity to the active layer 502 by using the gate electrode 504 and the resist masks 505 as masks. Phosphorus or arsenic may be added to impart n-type conductivity, and boron may be added to impart p-type conductivity.

In this step, as shown in FIG. 5C, intrinsic or substantially intrinsic regions 508 wider than the gate electrode 504 are formed in the regions where the resist masks 505 have been intentionally formed. As shown in FIG. 5C′, in the region where the resist masks 505 have not been formed, an intrinsic or substantially intrinsic region 508 is formed in a self-aligned manner with only the gate electrode 504 serving as a mask.

In the intrinsic or substantially intrinsic regions 508 shown in FIG. 5C, the regions right under the gate electrode 504 belong to a first region (trunk portion) the other regions; are second regions (branch portions). Substantially all of the regions 508 appearing in FIG. 5C function as heat sinks.

The intrinsic or substantially intrinsic regions 508 shown in FIG. 5C′ also belong to the first region, and all of those regions function as effective channel regions.

After the pair of impurity regions (source/drain regions) 506 and 507 and the intrinsic or substantially intrinsic semiconductor regions 508 having a double-sided comb shape are formed, the impurity is activated, and an interlayer insulating film 509 is formed (see FIGS. 5D and 5D′).

Then, after contact holes are formed, source/drain electrodes 510 and 511 are formed. Finally, hydrogenation is performed, to complete a TFT having a structure shown in FIGS. 5E and 5E′.

The most important point of this embodiment is to use the active layer having the structure described above in connection with FIGS. 1A-1D. The other structures are not limited to this embodiment at all.

Therefore, as long as the structure of the present active layer of the invention is implemented, TFTs having other structures or TFTs manufactured by other manufacturing methods can utilize the present invention.

For example, a configuration in which low-concentration impurity regions (LDD regions) or offset regions are formed between the channel forming region and the source/drain regions can utilize the present invention because the basic structure remains the same.

EMBODIMENT 2

Although the first embodiment is directed to an n-type TFT (NTFT) or a p-type TFT (PTFT), it is effective to construct a CMOS circuit by combining those TFTs complementarily. In particular, in active matrix type LCDs, it is desirable that driver circuits and other signal processing circuits be constituted of CMOS circuits.

Since the advantage of the present invention can be obtained in the same manner in both of-an n-type and p-type TFTs, a highly reliable semiconductor circuit can be realized by applying the present invention to a semiconductor circuit constituted of CMOS circuits.

Further, since the~invention can be utilized in a flexible manner, for example, so as to be applied to only NTFTs or PTFTs, TFTs so formed can be combined freely in accordance with the purpose of a circuit.

In active matrix type LCDs, a plurality of circuits are formed on the same substrate, and all circuits do not necessarily have the Joule heat problem. Actually, only circuits in which large current needs to flow (a buffer circuit, an analog switch circuit, a level shifter circuit, etc.) are much influenced by Joule heat.

Therefore, the present invention may be applied to only circuits in which large current needs to flow (i.e., Joule heat generation is prone to occur).

EMBODIMENT 3

Although the first and second embodiments are directed to the case where the present invention is applied to the top-gate TFT (typically a planar TFT), the present invention can also be applied to a bottom-gate TFT (typically an inverted staggered structure TFT).

A case where the present invention is applied to an inverted staggered structure TFT will be described below with reference to FIGS. 6A-6D. FIG. 6A is a top view of an active layer utilizing the present invention while FIGS. 6B-6D are sectional views taken along line A—A′, B—B′, and C—C′in FIG. 6A.

In FIG. 6A, reference numeral 601 denotes a substrate having an insulative surface. and numerals 602 and 603 denote a pair of impurity regions (source/drain regions) formed by adding an n-type or p-type impurity to a semiconductor thin-film as an active layer. Reference numeral 604 denotes an insulating film pattern as a mask that has been used in forming the impurity regions 602 and 603.

Because of an inverted staggered structure TFT, a gate electrode 605 and a gate insulating film 606 are laminated on the substrate 601, and the active layer (thin-film semiconductor) is formed thereon. Therefore, to implement the present invention, an insulating film (silicon oxide film or silicon nitride film) is patterned into the insulating film pattern 604 having a double-sided comb shape, and an n-type or p-type impurity is added by using the insulating film pattern 604 as a mask.

As a result of the impurity addition using the insulating film pattern 604 as a mask having a double-sided comb shape, an intrinsic or substantially intrinsic region 607 also having a double-sided comb shape is formed thereunder. As in the above embodiments, the region 607 is such that a channel is formed in a trunk portion and the other portions (branch portions) function as heat sinks. Other detailed descriptions are omitted here because they have already been made in the first embodiment.

As described in this embodiment, the present invention easily be applied to an inverted staggered structure TFT by using an insulating film pattern having a double-sided comb shape. Although in this embodiment effective channel regions cannot be formed in a self-aligned manner, they can be formed in a self-aligned manner by combining this embodiment with a back exposure technique.

Next, a processing for manufacturing process of an inverted staggered structure TFT utilizing the present invention will be described with reference to FIGS. 7A-7E and 7A′-7E′, which are sectional views taken along lines B—B′ and C—C′ in FIG. 6A, respectively.

First, a glass substrate 701 formed with a silicon oxide film as an undercoat film is prepared as a substrate having an insulating surface, and a tantalum film as a gate electrode 702 is formed thereon. A gate insulating film 703, is a laminated film of a silicon nitride film and a silicon oxide film on the glass substrate 701 and the gate electrode 702 (see FIGS. 7A and 7A′).

Then, an active layer 704 is formed by forming a polysilicon film by laser-crystallizing an amorphous silicon film (or a SiXGe1-X film) as shown in FIGS. 7B and 7B′.

Then, an insulating film pattern 705 having a double-sided comb shape (like the shape shown in FIG. 6A) of a silicon oxide film is formed. The insulating film pattern 705 needs to be thick enough to be able to function well as a mask in impurity addition. Preferably, the thickness should be 100-200 nm.

After the formation of the insulating film pattern 705, a pair of impurity regions 706 and 707 are formed by adding an n-type or p-type impurity. At the same time, an intrinsic or substantially intrinsic semiconductor region 708 is formed so as to assume a doublesided comb shape (see FIGS. 7C and 7C′).

After the formation of the impurity regions (source/drain regions) 706 and 707 and the intrinsic or substantially intrinsic semiconductor region 708 having a double-sided comb shape, the impurity is activated, and an interlayer insulating film 709 is formed (see FIGS. 7D and 7D′).

The insulating film pattern 705 that was formed in the impurity addition step has a role of protecting the intrinsic or substantially intrinsic region 708. In particular, where an organic resin film is used as the interlayer insulating film 709, the use of the insulating film pattern 705 is effective in preventing contamination from an organic substance.

Then, after contact holes are formed, source/drain electrodes 710 and 711 are formed. Finally, hydrogenation is performed, to complete a TFT having a structure shown in FIGS. 7E and 7E′.

Similar to the first embodiment, the TFT structures are not limited to this embodiment at all. Therefore, bottom-gate type TFTs having other structures or manufactured by other manufacturing methods can utilize the present invention. Naturally, a configuration in which LDD regions or offset regions are formed can utilize the present invention.

It goes without saying that inverted staggered structure TFTs of the present invention can be utilized to construct a CMOS circuit or can be applied to only part of a circuit, as indicated in Embodiment 2.

EMBODIMENT 4

While in the first and third embodiments it is necessary to intentionally form a mask pattern of a resist mask or the like in forming the branch portions (second regions) of the intrinsic or substantially intrinsic semiconductor region, it is possible to form an intrinsic or substantially intrinsic region having a double-sided comb shape in a self-aligned manner by forming a gate electrode itself in such form.

That is, by patterning a gate electrode into a double-sided comb shape, source/drain regions and an intrinsic or substantially intrinsic region are formed completely in a self-aligned manner.

In the case of a bottom-gate type TFT as described in the third embodiment, a resist pattern having the same shape as the gate electrode can be formed by using back exposure. Impurity addition can be performed in a self-aligned- manner by using the resist pattern thus formed.

In this embodiment, a channel is formed in the entire intrinsic or substantially intrinsic semiconductor region when the TFT operates (i.e., when it is in an on-state). However, since the resistivity of the channel forming region is one order or more higher than that of the source/drain regions, carriers move with priority in the regions where the source/drain regions are closest to each other.

Therefore, as a result, this embodiment can provide the advantage of the present invention described in the first embodiment. Naturally, from the viewpoint of reducing the amount of generated heat, it is better to cause the second regions to act as complete resistors by not applying a gate voltage to those regions at all as in the case of the first embodiment.

On the other hand, this embodiment provides a merit that the number of patterning steps can be made smaller than in the first embodiment, because the impurity addition step is a completely self-aligned process using only the gate electrode as a mask.

EMBODIMENT 5

Although in the first to fourth embodiments the branch portions (second regions) are provided on both sides, that is, on the sides of both impurity regions (both of the source/drain regions), branch portions may be provided on only one side.

In particular, since heat generation is most prone to occur at the drain junction portion (i.e., the junction portion between the channel forming region and the drain region), a configuration is possible in which second regions are provided only on the drain region side and are not provided on the source region side.

Further, it is not necessary that all the second regions have the same width and length, and the second regions may have different widths or lengths if necessary. For example, second regions in the vicinity of a central portion of the active layer where Joule heat tends to be accumulated may be made wider than those in end portions of the active layer.

EMBODIMENT 6

In this embodiment, arrangements of contact holes for forming source/drain electrodes will be described with reference to FIGS. 8A and 8B.

FIG. 8A shows an example arrangement of contact holes in a TFT having the structure of FIGS. 1A-1D. The parts in FIG. 8A that are the same as in FIGS. 1A-1D are given the same reference numerals as in FIGS. 1A-1D. In this example, the impurity region 102 is continuous, i.e., a side end portion of the active layer serves as a connecting portion. Contact holes 801 are formed in that portion. Similarly, the impurity region 103 is continuous, i.e., a side end portion of the active layer serves as a connecting portion. Contact holes 802 are formed in that portion.

This structure is effective in a case where the intervals between second regions 803 are small. Where the intervals are as small as 3 μm or less, margins large enough to accommodate a contact hole do not exist between the second regions 803. Therefore, it is necessary to secure other spaces for contact holes.

Where the intervals between the second regions are as large as 3 μm or more (preferably 5 μm or more), contact holes can be formed there, and hence, a structure shown in FIG. 8B can be employed.

In the structure shown in FIG. 8B, each of impurity regions 804 and 805 is completely divided by a plurality of second regions 806 into parts that respectively serve as source regions or drain regions.

Contact holes 807 and 808 are formed in the respective divisional regions of the impurity regions 804 and 805, to realize a configuration in which substantially a plurality of TFTs are connected together in series.

This configuration provides an advantage that a high degree of heat dissipation effect is obtained, because the heat sink function of the second regions 806 can be utilized effectively.

EMBODIMENT 7

Various semiconductor circuits can be constructed by forming circuits using TFTs that are configured according to any of the first to sixth embodiments of the present invention. Electro-optical devices as typified by an active matrix LCD can be manufactured by forming such circuits on the same substrate in an integral manner.

It is effective to utilize the present invention in other electro-opticial devices, such as an EL display device and an image sensor, in which TFTs are used as switching elements.

It is also effective to utilize TFTs that are configured according to the present invention in cases of manufacturing such semiconductor circuits as high-frequency circuits and processor circuits by using TFTs having high operation speed.

By using TFTs that are configured according to the present invention in manufacturing those electro-optical devices and semiconductor circuits (each of which is covered by the term “semiconductor device”), the degrees of heat deteriorations are lowered in the entire circuit and hence highly reliable (durable) semiconductor devices can be realized.

EMBODIMENT 8

The electro-optical devices and the semiconductor circuits described in the seventh embodiment can be incorporated in various electronic apparatuses.

A liquid crystal display device and an EL display device can be used as a display device in personal computers, portable terminal apparatuses (mobile computers, cellular telephones, etc.), projection display apparatuses, digital (video) cameras, and the like.

An image sensor can be used as an imaging component in scanners, digital (video) cameras, and the like.

Semiconductor circuits such as a high-frequency circuit and a processor circuit can be used in personal computers and electronic apparatuses having computer-implemented control functions such as consumer electronics products.

As exemplified above, the present invention can be utilized in every electronic apparatus that incorporates a semiconductor device that is formed by using TFTs that uses a thin-film semiconductor.

As described above, by utilizing the present invention, an effective countermeasure can be taken against Joule heat generation that is associated with operation of a TFT and the resulting heat deterioration of the TFT due to accumulation heat can be prevented. As a result, a highly reliable circuit that is resistant to self-heating and a highly reliable electronic apparatus incorporating such a circuit can be realized.

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Classifications
U.S. Classification257/353, 257/E27.111, 257/712, 257/357, 257/707, 257/706, 257/E23.101, 257/E21.413, 257/E21.414, 257/E29.277, 257/E21.346, 257/705, 257/352, 257/66
International ClassificationH01L23/36, H01L29/786, H01L21/336, H01L21/84, H01L27/12, H01L21/77, H01L21/266
Cooperative ClassificationH01L29/66765, H01L27/1214, H01L2924/09701, H01L29/78696, H01L29/66757, H01L21/266, H01L29/78618, H01L27/12, H01L23/36
European ClassificationH01L29/66M6T6F15A2, H01L29/66M6T6F15A3, H01L27/12T, H01L23/36, H01L27/12, H01L21/266, H01L29/786S, H01L29/786B4
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