Search Images Maps Play YouTube News Gmail Drive More »
Sign in
Screen reader users: click this link for accessible mode. Accessible mode has the same essential features but works better with your reader.


  1. Advanced Patent Search
Publication numberUS661011 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateOct 30, 1900
Filing dateJun 7, 1900
Priority dateJun 7, 1900
Publication numberUS 661011 A, US 661011A, US-A-661011, US661011 A, US661011A
InventorsMaschil D. Converse
Original AssigneeJohn J Tower, Maschil D Converse
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Pipe and nut wrench.
US 661011 A
Abstract  available in
Previous page
Next page
Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

No.- 66!,0"; Pat'ented out; 30, I900.



(Application filed June 7 1900.)

3 Sheets-Sheet l.

(No Model.)

m: uonms PETERS 00., vnomuwa. WASHINGTON, a c

(No Model.)

w yi mwoeo Patentd Oct. 30, [900. M. D. CONVERSE. PIPE AND NUT WRENCH. A ucatiml filed Ju'me 7, .1900.

3 Sheets-Sheat 3.




SPECIFICATION formingpart of Letters Patent No. 661,011, dated October 30. 1900. Application filed June 7, 1900. Serial No. 19,368. (No model.)

To all whom it may concern.-

Be it known that I, MAsoHIL D. OoNvEEsE,

a citizen of the United States, residing at New York, borough of Manhattan, in the county of New York and State of New York, have invented certain new and useful Improvements inPipe and Nut Wrenches; andI do declare the following to be a full, clear, and exact description of the invention, such as will enable others skilled in the art to which it appertains to make and use the same, reference being had to the accompanying drawings,aud to the letters of reference marked thereon,which .form a part of this specification.

My present invention relates to pipewrenches and to combined nut and pipe wrenches, and more particularly to that class of such tools in which a circumscribing jaw is provided with teeth on the engaging side, the points of which may be described as ranged upon a line or lines curvilinearly eccentric and eccentric divergent to theengaging surface of the arc of anotherthe fulcrumjaw, which latter is usually of uniform radii, sometimes also rigid or integral and sometimes revoluble and toothed orsmooth. In the practical use of these types of wrenches as heretofore constructed certain annoying difficulties have been encountered which it is the 0 purpose of my present invention to overcome,among which are (a) uncertainty or lack of promptness and uniformity of grip upon pipes or nuts of varying dimensions, within the range of any given size of Wrench, (b) 5 liability to slip upon pipe of one dimension in some instances, or (c) to indent or crush the pipe of other dimensions, and (d) to become jammed or bound upon the same in other cases, so that in consequence it has 0 not been possible to operate such wrenches with confidence and uniform and unfailing facility. The two first-named difficulties (ab) are manifestly bound to occur if the convergence of the line-of-the-teethpoints-of the 5 teeth on the circumscribing jaw is inconstant or of unequal degree with respect to the engaging surface (or line-of-the-teeth points) of the fulcrum-jaw and whether the latter be rigid or smooth, and the third (0) and fourth 5c named (d) difficulties will occur when, combined with such inconstant convergence, the

- degree of convergence is too low or acute and whether, as stated, the fulcrum-jaw be rigid and smooth or revoluble and toothed or smooth, a too low or too acute angle of convergence in any case causing the pipe to be impinged by the respective jaws at points too nearly approximating the eXactdiametra-l sides, as will be clearly understood by those skilled in the art on examination of the accompanyingdrawings. 'lhisstatementoffact respecting the state of the art is furthermore based upon extended practical tests and experimental observation of known forms of the type of tools referred to when applied to either old or new work in which the ordinary gas,

steam, and hydraulic pipe of commerce has been employed and with the express purpose of ascertaining the defects in such wrenches, the causes for their unsatisfactory operation, and of devising means for overcoming the same.

To this end my present invention consists in, first, constructing pipe-wrenches of the class described so that the points of the teeth on the circumscribing jaw shall be ranged on a true involute line the evolute of which is concentric to thee ngaging arc of the fulcrum-jaw, and, second,which evolute shall be of such diameter as to insure in manufacture any proper predetermined degree of con vergence of the involute line relatively the said engaging are surface of the fulcrum-jaw that the uses of the tool may demand, which for ordinary metal pipe may not be, however, I have discovered, less than eleven degrees nor greater than fifteen degrees; third, in constructing the perpendicular side of the respective teeth on the circumscribing jaw tangential to the evolute and orderly graduating and differentiating thespacing of the same,for purposes hereinafter shown, and, fourth, in a certain specific provision for preventing crushing of very thin pipe when it is desir-' able or necessary to use the tool on the same, and in other certain particulars of combination of all these, all of which will be hereinafter fully set forth and claimed. By means of my said improvements a pipe-Wrench of this type may also be readily used for turning square or hexagonal nuts,as will be seen.

In some cases tools of the class to which my invention relates have been constructed with a smooth or with a serrated (toothed) pivoted support or fulcrum-jaw. In my present invention I dispense with these and employ only a smooth rigid (preferably integral) fulcrum -jaw constructed, preferably, with uniform radii, though it may be of involute form, as will be clearly understood; but in the case of very thin pipe (more properly tub ing) I sometimes employ a toothless orsmoothsurfaced cotleave-recessed striding fulcrumpiece retno ably pivoted to the rigid fulcrumbearingconcentricallyi Efforthas been made (with obvious error) to ovi-ircome the tendency of such wrenches to jam or bind the pipe between the rigid jaws thereof by making a straight plane surface (instead of an arc form) upon the fulcrum-jaw. Such form, as will he seen, I cannot successfully employ. Mypresentinvention,furthermore, operating successfully fulfils the original objects for which this type of tool was designed-via, a wide range within small compass.

In the drawings, Figure I is a side elevation of my invention, showing the manner of its construction, the relation of its various parts and their form, and also illustrating its operation in part, as well certain other matters hereinafter referred to. Fig. 2 is a similar view, partly sectional, showing a specit'ic construction' as to a part of my inven tion, also certain other matters hereinafter referred to. Fig. 3 is a cross-sectional view of a portion of Fig. 2, hereinafter referred to. Figs. 4:, 5, and (3 are diagrammatical representations of right and wrong relations between the impingit'tg surfaces of pipe-wrenches of the class my invention relates to, hereinafter particularly referred to. Figs. 7 and 8 are preciselysimilarside elevations of my in vention, showing its adaptation as a nutwrench, all of which will be hereinafter more fully described in detail.

. Like letters indicate corresponding parts throughout the drawings.

A is what I term the involute jaw, B the fulcrum-jaw, and Gthe handle, of the wrench.

ca are graduated differentially-spaced teeth on the jawA, with the points of each ranged upon an in volute line represented by the dotted line Z) (7, traced in the well-known way from the evolutc, which is represented by the dotted circle 0. To lay out or determine the proper graduation and differential spacing of the teeth a, a and for other purposes, a semicircle (Z (1, (shown in dotted lines, Fig. 1,) of uniform radii,coneenrric to the jaw B,isdrawn at any point beyond the inner face of the jaw A, and straight lines tangential to the evoiu te c are drawn to points 6 e e, equidistant from each other on said line ('1 (l, and a tooth-point is then located at each intersection thereof with said involute line b b, the perpendicular sideff of the teeth respectively coinciding with said tangential lines, so as to be tangent to said evolute. Now the line Z) Z), being a true evolute, converges at a uniform degree relatively the engaging surface g of the fulcrum-jaw B, so that it follows that the teeth a a will be uniformly graduatet'l and differential.

B in Figs. 2 and 3 is a removable pivoted fulcrum-jaw or striding piece mounted in a slotj in the fulcrum 13 on the pin 71. and pro vided with one or more smooth'surfaced or toothless concave recesses i i in order to presentagreatersurfaee contact on smaller pipe, as at r, or two points of contact on larger pipe, as at s s, and to be used as hereinafter explained.

In order that the potency and operation of my present improvements may be more clearly understood, I have shown diagrammatically by Figs. L, 5, and 6 a comparison of the same and known forms of this type of wrenches. In these diagrams, g" represents the engaging surface (g) of the fnlcrumjaw B; I) b, the involute line (b) of jaw A of my invention as they would appearstraightened out, illustrating the constant degree of convergence thereof, which (degree) throughout the drawings is about twelve and one-half degrees, as may be seen by laying a protractor upon the dotted lines o o o of the diagrams, (which lines correspond to dotted line 0 of Fig. 1.) In diagram Fig. 5 line 7r 7; is the eccentric dotted line 75 7t: of Fig. 1 straight-, ened out, illustrating the inefficiency of such a line for the points of the teeth of the circumscribing jaw A to be ranged upon, and in diagram Fig. 6 lines Z andm are, respectively, the two eccentric dotted lines I and m (that cross each other at n) of Fig. 2 straightened out, also illustrating the inefficiency of such combination of eccentric lines for the points of the teeth of the circumscribing jaw A to be ranged upon, both which (/5 and Z and in) represent the construction heretofore practiced.

Those skilled in the art will see that my invention provides a uniform or constant angle of convergence for the line of the teethpoints on the circumscribing jaw A with relation to the fulcrum-jaw B, as shown, which can only be done by making said line-of-theteeth points a true involute, and not by use of an eccentric or combination or succession of eccentric lines, as heretofore, and consequently, as shown in Figs. 1. and 2 and in diagram Fig. 4E, pipes of different diameters are impinged (q q g) at uniformly like angle of tangents and that the degree of convergence of the jaws being right-t0 wit, not less than eleven degrees nor more than fifteen degrees, which I have experimentally determinedthe wrench will instantly grip the pipe without slipping on forward movement of the handle 0 in the direction of the arrows and instantly let go without jamming on. reversal thereof, whereas in cases of eccentric line arrangement of the teeth, as illustrated by line 7a of Fig. l and is k of diagram Fi 5, or in cases of combined or successional eccentric lines for the teeth, as illustrated by lines Z and m in Fig. 2 and Z and m in diagram Fig. 6, pipe would not beimpinged at uniformly like angle of tangentsflmt would in the cases of the eccentric k and k k jam at two or more points and only have one point D D in common with my 'invention, and in cases of the combined eccentricsl and mand Z and m would jam in the narrower space and fail to grip in the wider space.

By reference to Figs. 1, 2, 7, and 8, in

which my improved wrench is shown applied to pipes and nuts, it will be seen that by the accurate grad nation and differentiation of the teeth I am enabled to present a uniform number thereof for engagement with the pipes ornuts whatever the dimensions thereof may be, if within the range of a given size of wrench, and that by making the perpendicular side of the teeth tangent to the evolute they will engage and sink into the surface of the pipe without stripping or slivering of their points.

The specific device shown by Figs. 2 and 3 may or may not be employed with the other features of my-invention and, as is manifest, might be employed advantageously in wrenches which do not embody the other features of my invention herein disclosed and in either case without departing from the spirit of my invention.

The concave recesses z i I make of equal depth and uniform size and equidistant from the pivot in order that when the wrench is thrust against a pipe preparatory to gripping the same any one of the recesses without regard to the size of the pipe will instantly and automatically stride the same without manual adjustment, and I make the surfaces of the recesses smooth or toothless in order that the same as the handle 0 is moved forward in the direction of the arrow shall with least possible frictional resistance freely slide circumferentially around the pipe 1), while the latter is held by a rolling contact with the teeth of the circumscribing jaw Aand on reversal of the handle as freely slide off and release the pipe. cifically claim. 7

Having described my invention, what I claim as new, and desire to secure by Letters Patent, 'is

1. In a wrench of the type described in combination, a rigid arc-shaped fulcrum-jaw, a rigid circumscribing jaw provided with teeth having their respective points ranged upon a true involute line relatively the Workable handle.

This construction Ispe-.

2. In a wrench of the type described in combination, a rigid arc-shaped fulcrum-jaw, a rigid circumscribing jawprovidcd with graduated differential teeth having their respective points ranged upon a true involute line relatively the working surface of said fulcrum-jaw, and a suitable handle.

3. Ina wrench of the type described in combination, a rigid fulcrum-bearing, a concave-recessed pivoted striding fulcrum-piece mounted in a slot therein, a rigid circumscribing jaw provided with teeth having their respective points ranged upon a true involute line relatively the axis of said striding fulcrum-piece, and a suitable handle.

4. In a wrench of the type described in the pivot, substantially as and for the pur-' poses shown and described.

6. In a wrench of the type described in combination, a rigid arc-shaped fulcrum-jaw, a rigid circumscribing jaw provided with teeth having their respective points ranged upon a true involute line relatively the working surface of said fulcrum-jaw and with the planes of the perpendicular side of each arranged tangential to the evolute, and a suitable handle.

'7. In a wrench of the type described in combination, arigid arc-shaped fulcrum-jaw, a rigid circumscribing jaw provided with teeth having their respective points ranged upon a true involu te line relatively the working surface of said fulcrum-jaw, said involute line having a constant angle of convergence of not less than eleven degrees nor more than fifteen degrees, and a suitable handle.

In testimony whereof I affix my signature in presence of two witnesses.




Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US4688454 *Jul 26, 1985Aug 25, 1987The Boeing CompanyOpen-ended, high torque wrench for use on nuts to which there is limited access
US4774862 *May 19, 1987Oct 4, 1988The Boeing CompanyOpen-ended wrench
US5259281 *Jan 14, 1993Nov 9, 1993Burke Donald DCombination hand tool
Cooperative ClassificationB25B13/18