|Publication number||US6611712 B2|
|Application number||US 09/748,765|
|Publication date||Aug 26, 2003|
|Filing date||Dec 26, 2000|
|Priority date||Dec 26, 2000|
|Also published as||US6915163, US7257444, US7774065, US8219197, US20020078968, US20040030359, US20050234520, US20070276446, US20100305644|
|Publication number||09748765, 748765, US 6611712 B2, US 6611712B2, US-B2-6611712, US6611712 B2, US6611712B2|
|Inventors||Julio C. Spinelli, Qingsheng Zhu|
|Original Assignee||Cardiac Pacemakers, Inc.|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (12), Referenced by (49), Classifications (8), Legal Events (4)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
This invention pertains to cardiac rhythm management devices and, in particular, to systems and methods for testing such devices in order to appropriately set operating parameters.
Cardiac rhythm management devices are devices that either pace or otherwise excite selected chambers of the heart by electrical stimulation. A pacemaker, for example, is a cardiac rhythm management device that enforces a particular heart rate by delivering pacing pulses to the heart in response to lapsed time intervals and sensed cardiac electrical activity (i.e., intrinsic heart beats). Cardiac rhythm management devices, either in addition to or instead of pacing the heart, may also deliver stimulation pulses in order to excite a particular chamber or region of a chamber in synchrony with sensed intrinsic cardiac activity occurring elsewhere. Such devices are typically implanted subcutaneously on a patient's chest and have leads threaded intravenously into the heart to connect the device to the electrodes used for sensing and stimulation.
In order to cause a contraction in the absence of intrinsic activity (referred to herein as excitation), the stimulus pulses delivered to the heart by the device must achieve “capture,” which refers to causing sufficient depolarization of the myocardium that a propagating wave of excitation and contraction result (i.e., a heart beat). A stimulus pulse that does not capture the heart is thus an ineffective pulse. This not only wastes energy from the battery of the device, but can have deleterious physiological effects as well. For example, a pacemaker that is not achieving capture is not performing its function in enforcing a minimum heart rate. For a particular implanted lead, a capture threshold exists which is the lowest energy pulse that will achieve capture when a stimulus pulse is output through the lead. (The energy of a stimulus pulse is determined by the voltage and duration of the pulse.) A common technique used to determine if capture is present during a given cardiac cycle is to look for an “evoked response” immediately following a stimulus pulse. The evoked response is the wave of depolarization that results from the stimulus pulse and evidences that the stimulated chamber has responded appropriately and contracted. In the case of ventricular stimulation, by detecting the evoked R-wave, the device is able to detect whether the stimulus pulse was effective in capturing the heart, that is, causing a ventricular contraction. Capture verification can be performed by a clinician using an external programmer to adjust operating parameters and monitor sensing data to ensure that the heart is reliably paced and/or otherwise excited. Alternatively, a cardiac rhythm management device may be programmed to perform capture verification tests automatically, either at periodic intervals or upon a command from an external programmer.
Stimulation/sensing leads are generally of two types, bipolar and unipolar. A unipolar lead has one electrode at its distal end connected to a conductor within the lead which is covered by insulation. A bipolar lead has two conductors which are respectively connected to a distal and proximal electrode. The distal electrode is usually a tip electrode which may be fixed into the myocardium, and the proximal electrode is a ring electrode around the body of the lead. In bipolar stimulation, a stimulus pulse is output between two electrodes, and in bipolar sensing, the voltage difference between the two electrodes is sensed. A bipolar stimulus pulse may be output with a polarity such that one electrode is the cathode (electrically negative) and the other electrode is the anode (electrically positive). In unipolar sensing/stimulation, the electrode at the end of the lead is used as either a cathode or anode, and the housing of the device or an electrode on another lead is used as an electrode of the opposite polarity, referred to as a reference. Cathodal stimulation of the myocardium is generally preferred because it has a lower and more stable capture threshold. Cardiac rhythm management devices with bipolar leads may typically be programmed to deliver either bipolar or unipolar stimulus pulses through a lead. Bipolar stimulation is preferred by some clinicians, however, because it more precisely delivers energy to the heart with less risk of causing contractions of overlying skin or skeletal muscle.
Once a cardiac rhythm management device has been implanted, a clinician typically sets up the configuration of the device using an external programmer. Among the parameters that can be adjusted during this process, is the stimulus pulse energy for a given lead, which is normally set to a value corresponding to the capture threshold determined for that lead. For example, the stimulus pulse energy may be set to the value of the capture threshold plus some specified safety margin. The present invention is directed toward an improved method and apparatus for adjusting the stimulation parameters of a cardiac rhythm management device employing bipolar stimulation.
The present invention is an apparatus and method for testing the capture threshold of a bipolar lead of a cardiac rhythm management device in order to determine an appropriate stimulus pulse energy for the lead and/or select an appropriate stimulation configuration. The method is particularly useful with bipolar leads used to excite the left ventricle such as when delivering cardiac resynchronization therapy.
In one embodiment, a unipolar capture threshold is measured for the cathode of a bipolar lead, and the bipolar stimulus pulse energy is set to correspond to the measured unipolar cathodal threshold. Alternatively, the bipolar capture threshold using the anode and cathode of the lead is also measured, and the bipolar stimulus pulse energy is then set to the greater of the measured bipolar capture threshold and the measured unipolar cathodal capture threshold.
In another embodiment of the invention, a stimulation configuration is determined for a bipolar lead having proximal and distal electrodes. Unipolar capture thresholds for the proximal and distal electrodes of a bipolar lead are measured, and the electrode of the bipolar lead having the lowest unipolar capture threshold is selected as the cathode for bipolar stimulation, with the other electrode serving as the anode. The stimulus pulse energy for bipolar stimulation may then be set to correspond to the measured unipolar capture threshold for the electrode selected to be the cathode. Alternatively, the bipolar capture threshold for the configuration is also measured, and the bipolar stimulus pulse energy is set to the greater of the measured bipolar capture threshold and the measured unipolar cathodal capture threshold.
FIGS. 1 and 2 illustrate particular embodiments of a method for adjusting stimulation parameters.
FIG. 3 is a block diagram of a cardiac rhythm management device.
Pacing therapy has been found to be useful in treating congestive heart failure (CHF), a clinical syndrome in which an abnormality of cardiac function causes cardiac output to fall below a level adequate to meet the metabolic demand of peripheral tissues. It has also been shown that some CHEF patients suffer from intraventricular conduction defects (a.k.a. bundle branch blocks). The cardiac outputs of these patients can be increased by improving the synchronization of right and left ventricular contractions with biventricular pacing or left ventricular pacing/excitation, or by improving the synchrony of contractions of the septum and free wall of a ventricle, both of which are referred to as cardiac resynchronization therapy.
In order to excite the left ventricle, the lead must be disposed near the left ventricle, preferably in the region of the free lateral or posterior wall, which may most easily be accomplished by placing the lead through the coronary sinus and into a left cardiac vein. Unlike a lead for the right ventricle, which is disposed within the ventricle where a tip electrode can be fixed into the myocardium, the electrodes of a lead in a cardiac vein cannot be fixed into the myocardium since that would require puncturing the vein. Instead, in the case of a bipolar lead, both the tip and ring electrodes (or proximal and distal electrodes in the case where both electrodes are ring electrodes or other types of structures) are positioned within the vein adjacent to the left ventricular myocardium.
Because it is fixed into the myocardium, the tip of a bipolar lead in the right ventricle has a lower capture threshold than the ring electrode. Normally, therefore, the tip of a bipolar lead is used as the cathode in order to achieve the desirable cathodal capture when a voltage pulse is impressed across the two electrodes. (Cathodal capture means that cathodal stimulation is responsible for the contraction.) With a bipolar lead in a cardiac vein, on the other hand, both electrodes are external to the myocardium and may have similar capture thresholds so that either anodal or cathodal capture can occur when a pacing pulse is output through the lead. It has been found, however, that anodal thresholds increase over time so that eventually only the desired cathodal capture will occur. Nevertheless, a problem arises when the pulse energy for a bipolar lead in a cardiac vein is adjusted. When the lead is implanted, the capture threshold for the tip or distal electrode (i.e., the electrode usually selected to function as the cathode) may be higher than that of the ring or proximal electrode. When the clinician then determines the capture threshold of the lead with a bipolar pulse in order to adjust the stimulus pulse energy, it is impossible to distinguish between anodal and cathodal capture. There is then a risk that the stimulus pulse energy will be set to an anodal capture threshold when the cathodal capture threshold is higher. As the anodal capture threshold increases over time, the stimulus pulses may no longer be of sufficient energy to excite the left ventricle (diminishing or eliminating the programmed safety margin), and the patient may experience sporadic or total loss of resynchronization therapy.
As aforesaid, if the capture threshold of a bipolar lead is measured, it may be impossible to tell whether it is anodal or cathodal capture that is being measured. This problem may be overcome by measuring a unipolar capture threshold for the electrode of the lead that is to be used as a cathode. The stimulus pulse energy for bipolar stimulation is then set to correspond to the measured unipolar cathodal threshold, either manually or automatically. That is, the bipolar stimulus pulse energy is set equal to the unipolar cathodal threshold plus a specified safety margin. In the case where the stimulus pulse energy is manually adjusted, the bipolar threshold is reported to the clinician as the unipolar measurement with the cathodal lead, and the clinician then adjusts the bipolar stimulus energy accordingly with a specified safety margin. This avoids the problem of using a measured bipolar capture threshold and inadvertently setting the bipolar stimulus energy to correspond with an anodal capture threshold. Alternatively, the bipolar capture threshold is also measured, and the bipolar stimulus pulse energy is set to correspond to the greater of the bipolar and unipolar cathodal capture thresholds. In the case where the stimulus pulse energy is manually adjusted, the bipolar threshold is reported to the clinician using the larger of the bipolar and unipolar measurements. FIG. 1 illustrates the steps involved in performing a particular implementation of the method. At steps 100 through 103, unipolar pulses are output to the cathode to determine the minimum pulse energy that results in capture. Various algorithms may be used to accomplish this, but all involve increasing and decreasing the pulse energy while testing for capture until the capture threshold is determined. After the unipolar cathodal capture threshold is determined at step 103, two alternative means for determining the bipolar pulse energy are shown in FIG. 1, designated A and B. In alternative A, the bipolar pulse energy is set to correspond to the measured unipolar threshold at step 104. In alternative B, a bipolar capture threshold is determined at steps 105 through 108, and the unipolar and bipolar thresholds are compared at step 109. If the bipolar capture threshold is greater than the unipolar capture threshold, the bipolar pulse energy is set to correspond to the bipolar capture threshold (with a specified safety margin) at step 110 and/or the bipolar capture threshold is reported as the measured bipolar capture threshold at step 112. Otherwise, the bipolar pulse energy is set to correspond to the unipolar capture threshold (with a specified safety margin) at step 104 and/or the bipolar capture threshold is reported as the measured unipolar capture threshold at step 113.
In another embodiment, a bipolar stimulation configuration is determined by measuring the unipolar capture thresholds for both electrodes of a bipolar lead and selecting the electrode with the lower threshold as the cathode for bipolar pacing. The bipolar stimulus pulse energy is then set to correspond to the determined lower unipolar capture threshold. Alternatively, the bipolar capture threshold is also measured, and the bipolar stimulus pulse energy is set to correspond to the greater of the bipolar and unipolar cathodal capture thresholds. FIG. 2 illustrates the steps of an exemplary implementation of this method. At steps 200 through 204, the unipolar capture threshold for the proximal electrode is determined, and the unipolar capture threshold for the distal electrode is determined at steps 205 through 208. At step 209, the electrode with the lowest unipolar capture threshold is selected as the cathode for bipolar stimulation. Two alternatives are shown for setting the bipolar stimulus pulse energy. In alternative A, the bipolar stimulus pulse energy is set to correspond to the lowest unipolar capture threshold at step 210, and/or the bipolar capture threshold is reported as the measured unipolar capture threshold at step 223. In alternative B, a bipolar capture threshold is determined at steps 211 through 214, and the unipolar and bipolar thresholds are compared at step 229. If the bipolar capture threshold is greater than the cathodal unipolar capture threshold, the bipolar pulse energy is set to correspond to the measured bipolar capture threshold at step 215. Otherwise, the bipolar pulse energy is set to correspond to the lowest measured unipolar capture threshold at step 210 and/or the bipolar capture threshold is reported as the measured lowest unipolar capture threshold at step 223.
A block diagram of a cardiac rhythm management device having an atrial and two ventricular sensing/stimulation channels is shown in FIG. 3. The control unit of the device is made up of a microprocessor 10 communicating with a memory 12 via a bidirectional data bus 13, where the memory 12 typically comprises a ROM (read-only memory) for program storage and a RAM (random-access memory) for data storage. The control unit could be implemented by other types of logic circuitry (e.g., discrete components or programmable logic arrays) using a state machine type of design, but a microprocessor-based system is preferable. The control unit is capable of operating the device in a number of programmed pacing and/or resynchronization modes which defines how stimulation pulses are output in response to sensed events and expiration of time intervals. A telemetry interface 80 is also provided for communicating with an external programmer.
The device has an atrial sensing/stimulation channel comprising a bipolar lead made up of ring electrode 43 a and tip electrode 43 b, sense amplifier 41, pulse generator 42, and an atrial channel interface 40 which communicates bidirectionally with a port of microprocessor 10. The device also has two ventricular sensing/stimulation channels that similarly include a bipolar lead made up of ring (or proximal) electrode 23 a and tip (or distal) electrode 23 b, a bipolar lead made up of ring (or proximal) electrode 33 a and tip (or distal) electrode 33 b, sense amplifiers 21 and 31, pulse generators 22 and 32, and ventricular channel interfaces 20 and 30. For each channel, the same lead and electrode are used for both sensing and stimulation. The device also has an evoked response sensing channel that comprises an evoked response channel interface 50 and a sense amplifier 51. The evoked response sensing channel enables the controller to determine if capture has been achieved by a stimulus pulse by sensing whether or not an evoked potential occurs subsequent to the pulse. The channel interfaces include analog-to-digital converters for digitizing sensing signal inputs from the sensing amplifiers, registers that can be written to for adjusting the gain and threshold values of the sensing amplifiers, and, in the case of the ventricular and atrial stimulation channel interfaces, registers for controlling the output of stimulus pulses and/or changing the stimulus pulse voltage amplitude.
Still referring to FIG. 1, the electrodes are connected to the sense amplifiers and pulse generators by means of a switching circuit 70 which enables the amplifiers and pulse generators to be connected to selected tip or ring electrodes of any of the sensing/stimulation channels that connect through the switching circuit 70, as well as to the device housing or can 60, which is also electrically connected to the switching circuit. The configuration of the switching circuit 70 is preferably implemented as an array of MOSFET transistors controlled by outputs of the controller 10. Switching circuit 70 enables any of the tip or ring electrodes of the sensing channels or the device housing to be used as a cathode or anode.
The capture threshold for a stimulation channel is determined by testing the channel using the dedicated evoked response sensing channel. In this test, it is determined whether or not a sensing/pacing channel is achieving capture with the stimulus pulses delivered by the channel's lead. The evoked response sensing channel includes a sense amplifier for sensing an evoked response generated after a stimulus pulse is delivered. The evoked response sensing channel is connected to a selected electrode of the pacemaker's sensing/stimulation channels by means of the switching circuit 70. After switching the input of the evoked response sensing channel to the electrode that is to be tested to verify capture, a stimulation pulse is output and an evoked response is either detected or not, signifying the presence or loss of capture, respectively.
A cardiac rhythm management device with a bipolar pacing lead such as illustrated in FIG. 3 may be programmed to perform any of the methods described above with reference to FIGS. 1 and 2 in order to determine a bipolar stimulus pulse energy and/or a bipolar stimulation configuration for the device. The programming may specify that the method steps are performed either upon request from a clinician via an external programmer or automatically at periodic intervals. In the former case, the device may either automatically set the parameters to the appropriate values as determined by the device or may report an appropriate stimulation configuration and/or bipolar stimulus energy via the external programmer, with those parameters either being selected or not for configuring the device by the clinician.
Although the invention has been described in conjunction with the foregoing specific embodiment, many alternatives, variations, and modifications will be apparent to those of ordinary skill in the art. Such alternatives, variations, and modifications are intended to fall within the scope of the following appended claims.
|Cited Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US5324310 *||Jul 1, 1992||Jun 28, 1994||Medtronic, Inc.||Cardiac pacemaker with auto-capture function|
|US5480414||Jun 13, 1994||Jan 2, 1996||Medtronic, Inc.||Method and apparatus for controlling pacemaker during automatic capture detection|
|US5601615||Aug 16, 1994||Feb 11, 1997||Medtronic, Inc.||Atrial and ventricular capture detection and threshold-seeking pacemaker|
|US5674254||May 22, 1995||Oct 7, 1997||Vitatron Medical, B.V.||Cardiac pacemaker system and method for determining a measure of pacing threshold without incurring loss of capture|
|US5713933||Nov 30, 1994||Feb 3, 1998||Medtronic, Inc.||Method and apparatus for automatic pacing threshold determination|
|US5718720||Dec 13, 1996||Feb 17, 1998||Sulzer Intermedics Inc.||Implantable cardiac stimulator with capture detection and impedance based autotuning of capture detection|
|US5741312||Mar 12, 1997||Apr 21, 1998||Vitatron Medical, B.V.||Pacemaker system and method with improved capture detection and threshold search|
|US5766230||Nov 6, 1996||Jun 16, 1998||Sulzer Intermedics Inc.||Pacemaker with intra-stimulus capture detection|
|US5843137||Jan 22, 1997||Dec 1, 1998||Medtronic, Inc.||Capture detection method|
|US5855594||Aug 8, 1997||Jan 5, 1999||Cardiac Pacemakers, Inc.||Self-calibration system for capture verification in pacing devices|
|US5861013 *||Apr 29, 1997||Jan 19, 1999||Medtronic Inc.||Peak tracking capture detection circuit and method|
|US5902325||Jul 30, 1998||May 11, 1999||Medtronic, Inc.||Method and apparatus for detecting cardiac capture|
|Citing Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US6963775 *||Aug 22, 2003||Nov 8, 2005||Cardiac Pacemakers, Inc.||System and method for verifying capture in a multi-site pacemaker|
|US7257444 *||Jun 16, 2005||Aug 14, 2007||Cardiac Pacemakers, Inc.||Apparatus and method for testing and adjusting a bipolar stimulation configuration|
|US7392086||Apr 26, 2005||Jun 24, 2008||Cardiac Pacemakers, Inc.||Implantable cardiac device and method for reduced phrenic nerve stimulation|
|US7555336 *||Dec 20, 2005||Jun 30, 2009||Medtronic, Inc.||Automatic LV/RV capture verification and diagnostics|
|US7623921||Aug 23, 2005||Nov 24, 2009||Cardiac Pacemakers, Inc.||System and method for verifying capture in a multi-site pacemaker|
|US7647108||Sep 30, 2004||Jan 12, 2010||Cardiac Pacemakers, Inc.||Methods and systems for selection of cardiac pacing electrode configurations|
|US7738959 *||Sep 30, 2002||Jun 15, 2010||Medtronic, Inc.||Method and apparatus for performing stimulation threshold searches|
|US7774065||Aug 9, 2007||Aug 10, 2010||Cardiac Pacemakers, Inc.||Apparatus and method for testing and adjusting a bipolar stimulation configuration|
|US8126546||Jun 30, 2009||Feb 28, 2012||Pacesetter, Inc.||Anodal excitation of tissue|
|US8145310||Jul 7, 2008||Mar 27, 2012||Cardiac Pacemakers, Inc.||Non-captured intrinsic discrimination in cardiac pacing response classification|
|US8185202||May 22, 2008||May 22, 2012||Cardiac Pacemakers, Inc.||Implantable cardiac device for reduced phrenic nerve stimulation|
|US8209013||Sep 14, 2006||Jun 26, 2012||Cardiac Pacemakers, Inc.||Therapeutic electrical stimulation that avoids undesirable activation|
|US8219197||Aug 9, 2010||Jul 10, 2012||Cardiac Pacemakers, Inc.||Apparatus and method for testing and adjusting a bipolar stimulation configuration|
|US8260421||May 22, 2008||Sep 4, 2012||Cardiac Pacemakers, Inc.||Method for reducing phrenic nerve stimulation|
|US8265736||Aug 7, 2007||Sep 11, 2012||Cardiac Pacemakers, Inc.||Method and apparatus to perform electrode combination selection|
|US8401639||Mar 16, 2010||Mar 19, 2013||Cardiac Pacemakers, Inc.||Anodal stimulation detection and avoidance|
|US8615297||Aug 27, 2012||Dec 24, 2013||Cardiac Pacemakers, Inc.||Method and apparatus to perform electrode combination selection|
|US8649866||Feb 10, 2009||Feb 11, 2014||Cardiac Pacemakers, Inc.||Method and apparatus for phrenic stimulation detection|
|US8682433||Nov 21, 2011||Mar 25, 2014||Medtronic, Inc.||Method for efficient delivery of dual site pacing|
|US8948867||Sep 14, 2006||Feb 3, 2015||Cardiac Pacemakers, Inc.||Capture detection with cross chamber backup pacing|
|US8983602||Nov 20, 2013||Mar 17, 2015||Cardiac Pacemakers, Inc.||Method and apparatus to perform electrode combination selection|
|US8996112||Jan 17, 2014||Mar 31, 2015||Cardiac Pacemakers, Inc.||Method and apparatus for phrenic stimulation detection|
|US9008771||Mar 5, 2012||Apr 14, 2015||Cardiac Pacemakers, Inc.||Non-captured intrinsic discrimination in cardiac pacing response classification|
|US9008775||Mar 13, 2014||Apr 14, 2015||Cardiac Pacemakers, Inc.||Method and apparatus to perform electrode combination selection|
|US9037238||Nov 21, 2011||May 19, 2015||Michael C. Soldner||Method for efficient delivery of dual site pacing|
|US9037239||Jul 24, 2008||May 19, 2015||Cardiac Pacemakers, Inc.||Method and apparatus to perform electrode combination selection|
|US9199087||Nov 21, 2011||Dec 1, 2015||Medtronic, Inc.||Apparatus and method for selecting a preferred pacing vector in a cardiac resynchronization device|
|US9352160||Mar 23, 2015||May 31, 2016||Cardiac Pacemakers, Inc.||Method and apparatus for phrenic stimulation detection|
|US9415226||Dec 20, 2007||Aug 16, 2016||Pacesetter, Inc.||Method and apparatus with anodal capture monitoring|
|US9427588||Mar 24, 2015||Aug 30, 2016||Cardiac Pacemakers, Inc.||Method and apparatus to perform electrode combination selection|
|US9533160||Jun 24, 2013||Jan 3, 2017||Cardiac Pacemakers, Inc.||Method and apparatus to perform electrode combination selection|
|US9539429||Jun 24, 2013||Jan 10, 2017||Cardiac Pacemakers, Inc.||Method and apparatus to perform electrode combination selection|
|US20040039422 *||Aug 22, 2003||Feb 26, 2004||Cardiac Pacemakers, Inc.||System and method for verifying capture in a multi-site pacemaker|
|US20040064162 *||Sep 30, 2002||Apr 1, 2004||Manrodt Christopher M.||Method and apparatus for performing stimulation threshold searches|
|US20050234520 *||Jun 16, 2005||Oct 20, 2005||Cardiac Pacemakers, Inc.||Apparatus and method for testing and adjusting a bipolar stimulation configuration|
|US20060069411 *||Aug 23, 2005||Mar 30, 2006||Cardiac Pacemakers, Inc.||System and method for verifying capture in a multi-site pacemaker|
|US20060074454 *||Sep 30, 2004||Apr 6, 2006||Freeberg Scott M||Methods and systems for selection of cardiac pacing electrode configurations|
|US20060136002 *||Dec 20, 2005||Jun 22, 2006||Sheth Nirav V||Automatic LV / RV capture verification and diagnostics|
|US20060241711 *||Apr 26, 2005||Oct 26, 2006||Sathaye Alok S||Implantable cardiac device and method for reduced phrenic nerve stimulation|
|US20070276446 *||Aug 9, 2007||Nov 29, 2007||Cardiac Pacemakers, Inc.||Apparatus and method for testing and adjusting a bipolar stimulation configuration|
|US20090030470 *||Jan 26, 2006||Jan 29, 2009||Nils Holmstrom||Implantable heart stimulation device with remedial response to anodal capture|
|US20090210024 *||Feb 10, 2009||Aug 20, 2009||M Brooke Jason||Method and Apparatus for Phrenic Stimulation Detection|
|US20100121396 *||Nov 10, 2008||May 13, 2010||Pacesetter, Inc.||Enhanced hemodynamics through energy-efficient anodal pacing|
|US20100121404 *||Apr 24, 2007||May 13, 2010||St Jude Medical Ab||Implantable heart stimulating device|
|US20100262204 *||Mar 16, 2010||Oct 14, 2010||Mccabe Aaron R||Anodal Stimulation Detection and Avoidance|
|US20100305644 *||Aug 9, 2010||Dec 2, 2010||Spinelli Julio C||Apparatus and method for testing and adjusting a bipolar stimulation configuration|
|US20100331906 *||Jun 30, 2009||Dec 30, 2010||Pacesetter, Inc.||Anodal excitation of tissue|
|EP2092959A1||Jan 26, 2006||Aug 26, 2009||St. Jude Medical AB||Anodal capture|
|WO2011159641A1 *||Jun 14, 2011||Dec 22, 2011||Old Dominion University Research Foundation||Stimulation waveform and system for polarity-independent cardiac resynchronization|
|U.S. Classification||607/11, 607/28|
|International Classification||A61N1/362, A61N1/37|
|Cooperative Classification||A61N1/371, A61N1/3627|
|European Classification||A61N1/362C, A61N1/37D|
|May 25, 2001||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: CARDIAC PACEMAKERS, INC., MINNESOTA
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:SPINELLI, JULIO C.;ZHU, QINGSHENG;REEL/FRAME:011834/0902
Effective date: 20010305
|Feb 26, 2007||FPAY||Fee payment|
Year of fee payment: 4
|Jan 26, 2011||FPAY||Fee payment|
Year of fee payment: 8
|Feb 11, 2015||FPAY||Fee payment|
Year of fee payment: 12