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Publication numberUS663955 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateDec 18, 1900
Filing dateDec 11, 1897
Priority dateDec 11, 1897
Publication numberUS 663955 A, US 663955A, US-A-663955, US663955 A, US663955A
InventorsAndrew Burgess
Original AssigneeAndrew Burgess
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Automatic firearm.
US 663955 A
Abstract  available in
Previous page
Next page
Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

No. 663,955.v Patented Dec. I8, |900. A. BURGESS.


- `Application med Dec. 11, 1897 No Model.) 2 sheets-sheet l.

0. nu 9 8, C. e D d e. Ll.. n au a P S. S F. G on U DD A 5. 5 9|/ 3 6 6 n N AUTOMATIC FIBEARM.

(Application led Dec. 11, 1897.;

2 Sheets-Sheet 2.

uw Modell) Muse o am. /f



SPECIFICATION forming part of Letters Patent No.

1897. Serial No. 661,583. (No model.)

Application filed December 11,

663,955, dated December 18, ld.

fl'o (/,Z 10h/)1n it 'may concern:

Be it known that l, ANDREW BURGnss, residing' at Buffalo, in the county of Erie and State of New York, haveinvenled certain new and useful Improvements in -Firearms, of which the following is aspecieation, reference being had .therein to the accompanying drawings.

This invention relates Ato automatic firearms. v

The object of the invention is to produce a gun in which the gas-pressure may be utilized to open the breech with as little lost motion as practicable; also, to improve the construetion of guns so that the pressure of gas will unlock the fastening device by a slight rocking of a movable part of the gun on its axis, so that thereafter the breech-opening may be quickly effected; also, to improve the eartridge-feed mechanism, the shell-extracting inechan ism,and various other parts of the gun.

Figure l is a longitudinal section of the gun or pist-ol in closed position. Fig. 2 is a similar section of thesame weapon with breech open, as at the instant after firing. Fig. 3 is a top plan with the partsin position of Fig. 2. Fig. et is a crosssection, and Fig. 5 a broken cen trai section, nearly vertical, of the magazine and stock. Fig. b' isa bottom or end View of the stock and magazi11e-fastening. Fig. T. is a top plan of cartridge-detent. Fig. 8 is a cross-section of a barrel modification, with turbine-rotaiing device. Fig. 9 is a plan of a modification of unlocking mechanism, and Fig. lO a plan of still another modification. Fig. il shows side, top, and end Views of the. extractor-s detached. i

A denotes the stock, l the barrel, and U the casing of the barrel, of an automatic magazinepistol.

In general the same consti-notion may .be applied to larger guns; but there are some features of construction which specially adapt this invention to pistols.

'lhe stock A contains a magazine l, in which mrtridggsv may be placed on top of eachother, the general form olf the magazine being similar to the longitudinal section of a cartridge. A follower in the magazine has a Iloor-piece 3, pivotcd to the plunger 2, and door-piece 3 is kept in the general line of direction of the ca irtridge resting thereon by pressure of the l i l l i l springfollower on a fiattened part of the knuckle, by which the rioor-pieceis pivot-ed to the follower. The magazine may be simply a recess in the stock, or it may have a liningtube 1l of the general form of the opening and removable from the stock with the cover or end piece 5 of the magazine, which may be fixed to the tube i. ln either case the cover may be held in place by spring-hooks 6, which hooks lie in grooves and are secured tothe stock, as by screws s, so as to spring over the head or cover 5 of the magazineto hold it in place and so that by springing the hooks 6 apart the magazine cover and attachments may be removed from the stock. The lower ends of the hooks have linger-pieces thereon. The follower 2 is lifted by the coiled spring 7, which lies between the magazine-cover and the follower and tends at all .times to'lift the follower. A telescopic rod or .tube 8 may connect the magazine-cover and follower. This rod or tube will close into itself when the follower is pressed toward the magazine-cover.

l 'lhc magazine, as shown, curves slightly from the perpendicular. 'lho cylindrical head or follower 2 and the coiled spring will follow a curved passage of this kind, and a longer passage or magazine will thus be formed, besides providing for the taper of the cartridge.

'lhc central portion of the magaziue'reccss is of such diameter as to receive a coiled spiral spring 7 of greater diameter than the diameter of the cartridge. The imi-gazine-recess in front and rear of such spring-chamber is of lesser diameter, approximating the diameter of a cartridge. 'lho central recess of the magazine thus serves to guide the followerspring, while the front and rear recesses of the magazine guide the point and head of the cartridge and of ihc Hoor-plate il. When cartridges are placed in the magazine, the follower and magazinefcovcr are placed behind suoi cartridges and will press the cartridges il'cw or many in number) toward the upper pari of the magazine. (See Fig. 2.) The magazine guides the cartridges toward ihc liringshicid or reci'iil-abuiment l2 at the rear olf the barrel.

For loading the first cartridge the barrel may be pushed forward in the casing and the top cartridge in the magazine impclled by the spring-actuated follower will rise into lOO .in front of the flange or head. The'wedgeshaped pieces 11 close in behind the barrel and embrace the cartridge-head just in rear of the barrel when the barrel is closed back. As the barrel moves forward a pin at each side of the barrel strikes the inclinedshoulder 61 of the extractors, thus giving the extractors an upward impulse,'and as the inside of the casing is concave this upward impulse causes the rear ends o f the extractors to bear against the lconcave surface, and as these ends rise they close toward each other and clasp the rising cartridge. As the pivot of the extractors 10 is a little above the'jaws 1l, this upward movement of the extractors causesthem to press backward on the fiange of the cartridge as well, binding the flange against the liring-abutment. When the barrel moves back, the pin or boss 60 no longer supporting the extractors, the extractors will fall downward and spread slightly, the scooplike upper curve 62 of the eXtractors still be ing against the cartridge, but in such posi* tion that the rising column of cartridges may throw out the empty shell when the barrel releases the-shell on its next forward movement. The-elasticity of the extractorsl may be insured by springs, as 63, bearing against the frame and extraclors. When the barrel is moved back toinclose the cartridge, the head of the cartridge rests against the recoil shield'or abutment 12, 'where the cartridge may be fired by a blow of the hammer, The barrel is held back by the engagement of a locking shoulder' or boss l5 on the barrel with a complementary shoulder 16 on the casing. `The shoulder 16 is round or con-` caved, and the front'boss 15 is convex, as shown in thedrawings, Figs. 2 and 3. In the Vboss 15 there is a small spring-actuated catch 18, which closes into a notch 17 in the locking-shoulder of the casing under the impulse of the spring 19. Alminute opening in the barrel permits gas escape just in front of this catch 18, and the gas so escaping will force the catch 18 out of the notch 17.

The barrel B is inclosed in whole or inpartin the'casing'C, which casing is rigid'with the'istock. The barrel B may not only have a longitudinal movement in the casing, but may also have a slight rotary movement on its axis in the casing. The tendency of the barrel to fly forward under the impulse of the powder charge causes the engagement of the inclined surfaces 15.16 of the locking-shoulders to translate the forward movement of the barrel into a lpartial rotary movement until the boss 15 enters the longitudinal slot 20 in the casing, when the barrel may move forand casing. l A

For convenience in 4assembling the casing A Vfront ends curve inward.

ward, the slot 2O in the casing guiding the the barrel and casing bearing against ashoul der on each. By usual and well-known constructions the coiledspring 22 may be con- This return is induced by the nested to the barrel in such manner as to assist the rotation here shown` by turning the respective ends of thespring into the barrel is preferably made in two parts, the front part C beingmerely a tubular piece with auv internal shoulder' C and engaging the part C bya screw-thread. The shoulder C2 forms' the bearing for the spring 22, and the barrel neatly lits the tubular casing in front of this shoulder.

The front of the barrel may have a sleeve D att-ached by a screw-thread near the muzzle ofthe barrel and telescopingover the casing C in the barrel movement. The partlD forms a handle by which the barrel move ment may be effected by hand when it is undesirable to effect such movement by firing 'the-gun. The front sight S may be carried. by this sleeve or handle.

The casing C has an opening for the escape ciV thecartridge-shells, as usual in this general kind of automatic guns, and the shell is thrown out by the impulse of the follower bearing upon the column of cartridges. The extractors 10, as has been described, tend to close on and hold down the top cartridge-after the spent shell has been thrown out; but to avoid a possible escape of the top cartridge orof the Whole column of cartridges from the magazine when the barrel is forward li provide cartridge-detente` 30, which are in the form of crank-levers and project over the column of cartridges when the barrel is forward. (See Figs. 3 and 7.) These detente are pivoted to the frame or casing and their The detente may be elastic and borneinward by their elas ticity; but to give them a sudden and positive impulse to close over the cartridge I 'cause a nosepiece 33 on the hammer to engage the short arms 31 of the detent-levers 30 as the hammer is thrown back to its extreme position, which is a little back of the position' of full-cock. In Fig. 2 the nosepiece 33 is movable in the hammer and provided with a spring to retire it backward. By this means the detents are made elastic andquicker in operation,

-The hammer'32 is cocked by the sliding draw-piece 34, which connects with thehainmer below the hammer-pivot and at one side of the magazine. The draw-piece has a projection 35 in line of movement of a shoulder or abutment 36 on-the barrel. Thus when IOO IIO

' piece is used, in Fig.

the barrel moves forward the piece 35 is and the sleeve l), these passages being indistruck by the projection on the barrel. rihis contact of the barrel with the draw-piece or cooking-slide is preferably just before the barrel completes its forward movement, and the resistance of the hammer spring (arranged as usual in a gun) serves somewhat to check the forward movement ofthe barrel. The leverage on the hammer can be so proportioned that a very slightmovement of the cockingslideis snicient to cock the hammer. When the hammer falls to lire the cartridge, the cooking-slide ordrawpiece 34 is drawn back by the connections indicated from the position of Fig-2to that of Fig. l. The nosepiece 33, engaging the short arms 31 of the detents 30, throws those detens inward toward each other over the cartridge at the instant the barrelis about at its forward position. As the barrel moves hach under impulse of the spring 22 the conical end ot the `barrel spreads the detente apart and the-barrel enters and 'moves back between them. The noseoi' the hammer having moved back slightly beyond full-cool; position. moves forward a tritie as soon as the cooking-slide by the backward movement of the barrel permits it to do so, and the detent-s may then spread outlaterally. lVhen the spring noseit allows this with# out change in the position of the hammer. The front of the cart-ridge extending in front ot thedetents 30 will enter the barrel as the barrel moves back, and when so entered the barrel will hold the cartridge from rising. The conical rear end of the barrel also serves to push down the next lower cartridge.

The trigger i() has a slight beveled proiection 41, which may enter a recess or hollow in the barrel when the barrel is at its rearmost or closed and locked position, but will prevent the trigger being pulled when the barrel is partly forward by engaging the sido of said barrel. A push-pin 42 and sear i3, rocked hy the scar-spring 44, serve to hold the hammer cocked and to release the hammer by a pull on the trigger, operating to force hack the push pin. The trigger is made thin and elastic to allow oi its quick withdrawal from the hollow in the barrel without too great shock to the trigger-finger, and a vertical slot LOK in this trigger increases the elasticity. The trigger may he pulled so hard when the barrel is forward as to hold the barrel from coming baci; under impulse of the spring 22, the point atl being by the pull bronghttirmly against the barrel. When the barrel is almost at its rear-most or locking position, the pull of the trigger may project the point L1 into the inclined recess in the barrel and so force the barrel toloched position. The safety device G4 will be hereinafter explained. f

ln the modification shown in Fig. 8 the harrel B has apertures b extending iangentially through the barrel and communicating with reverse tangential passages c in the casing (3 cated oy dotted lines near themnzzle in Fig. l. The eifect oi' this zigzag or turbine arrangement of the passages is to canse the gas escaping through such passages to give a strong rotary impulse to the barrel at the instan t ol the gas escape. W hen the barrel has moved far enough, these passages will 'oe cnt off, the openings 'b being no longer in communication with the vopenings c, andthe rotary impulse ceases. v

Fig. 9 showsa modification wherein the locking-boss l5x is made with a substantially dat -front face to rest against the flat lockingshoolder 1Gx in the casing C'. In such modiication llhe catch 1S is omitted. The boss 15x is perforated into the here of the gun, the mouth of the vent being sidewise against a boss Cx on the fixed casini. Gas passing through the opening in the barrel will strike the boss or abutment Cx on the 'casing and cause the barrel to partially rotate, so that the boss 15X can move forward in slot 2O asthe barrel moves forward. A valve or piston pin p, cased in the above gas-opening, strikes the boss to turn the barrel without the escape of ln the modification of Fig. l0 the unlocking pressure of the gas is through a Vent 'n near he muzzle of the barrel i3. 'lhe gas from said vent n impinges against a pin p in the ven t, the ou ter end of said pin bearing against the lever il, which lever is pivoted to the casing C'. 'lhe other end of lever L carries a spring-pin L', which bears against the boss iy. This lever and spring-pin L cause adelay action, so that the rotary 'movement ot' the barrel shall not take place 'until thel projectile has left the muzzle, the gas being taken t'rom near the muzzle and the lever acting to rst compress the spring at L' until the pressure of such spring overcomes the resistance ot` the boss Yl5y to side or rotary movement.

'lhe different modi iications are to provide for difference in ammunition. W'hen firing bullets, it is desirable not toA move the barrel unlil the bullet has loft the muzzle lest the aim he deranged. l-lcnce the provision for delay action, thc gas-pressure in the barrel being still strong enough to produce the forward movemcntoi' the barrel after the bullet leaves the muzzle with some ammunition. \Vith other ammunition and in shooting shot or blank cari ridges thel grraspressure to nieve the barrel may 'he obtained from the bore nearer the breech of the gun and iu other ways, as has been descrihed.

The operation has been general ly described; but a brief resume may he given. 'lhe magazine is charged by turning the stock over, re4 moving the hol tom plate and Iilling the magazine with cartrigdes, and then pressing the follower upon the column ot' cartridges, when the springoi' the follower will he compressed. When the catches have grasped ,thc'end or cover olt the magazineahe magaz/.inc is charged and may be turned hack to iiring position.


by hand, when the top cartridge will be raised by the follower and prevented by the extracs tor-ngers and detente from rising beyond the line of the bore. The forward movement of the barrel also cocks the hammer. The spring 22 will close the barrel back over the cartridge.

A pnll of .the trigger may then fire the car-` tridge, and the gasfpressure developed nnlocks theV barrel in either of the ways de'- scribed. The forward pressure of the gas or the movement of the charge then carries the barrel forward, and the loading is thereafter effected automatically as long as there are cartridges, the firing being all the time under control oi' the trigger. The hammer may be let down, as inother guns, and cocked just before firing.

As will be understood by an expert in this art, the construction may be modified invarrious Ways withontdeparting from the spirit of the invention, which isbclievedto be fairly set forth in the following claims.

A loop or slide pieceif, (see 'i and 2,) resting in grooves in the rear arm ef the trigger Il, is free to move up and down in, said grooves, its length being greater than the trigger-arm. The `lower end of this slide, which is inclined, will engagetbe pnslrpin 42 when the topof said elide'is against the barrel, andthns push on the' said push-pin; but when the barrel is forward, as shown in Fig. .2,it cannot hold down this slide 64, and the incline at its end will canse the piece 6e to rise above the pnslrpin-.ft'fiand so not cpe-rate the same.

I claiml. In a magazinegnn, theA magazine having a follower in position to feed a column of cartridges upwardly, the barrel and recoil-shield above said magazine, means forv moving the barrel forward, and a'pair of vertically-vibrating arms pivoted to tbe frame' in. iront of the breech cf V tice barrel and closing toward each other onto the bead of the topcartridge to prevent the escape of the column of cartridges when `the barrel moves forward, all combined substantially described.

2. Ina magazine-pistol, the hollow stock opening at the bottom and having a magazine at the ends approximating the shape of a cartridge and an enlarged center, the cover baving a fol-lower provided with a coil-spring of greater diameter than the cartridge and adapted to enter said enlarged opening of the maga zine and be guided thereby, the magazinecover andthe detaining-catches,sulostantiallyy as described.

3. In a magazinegun, a magazine-tube, a spiral spring, and a follower pressed forward by such spring, and a telescopic guide-tube connected to said follower, all combined sub stantially as described.

- 4t. In a magazine-gumtble combination ci the magazine-tube, the spring-pressed follower, and the licor-piece pivoted to the follower and having flattened knuckle-piece 'berne on scribed.

ceases the spring, whereby the licor-piece is held at the proper elastic inclination to pressonthe cartridges, all combined substantially as described.

5. ln a magazine-gun, the magazine and its follower feeding cartridges upward toward the liring position, the barrel having a longitudinal movement to close on the top car tridge, the pivoted detente closing inward from the sides over the upper live cartridge, and a moving part connected to the barrel and acting on said vdetente to close them as described and thus prevent the rise of the column of cartridges, all combined substantially as described.. f

6. in a magazine-gun, a magazine and follower adapted to 'feed the cartridges upward,

rel7 all combined substantially as described.

7. ln a magazinegnn, 'the fixed reccileabnta ment, the conc-.aire ing, the extractor-anus pivoted to said g, and tbe forwardly moving barrel having conta,ctpieces cngag ing the extractorarms to lift tliem as the barrel moves forward, said arms closing toward each other as they lift by engagement with the concave casing,substantiall as described.

8. in a magazinegnn, the upwardly-feed ing magazine, the forwardemovng barrel, the pivoted cartridge-detects, and the hammer engaging said detentel to inrnthem into the line of movement oi the cartridges as the hammer moves backward, and a spring to give elasticity to the detente, substantially as dev 9. in a magazine-grin, tbe casing, longitudinally-moving barrel, cartridge-tieten t levers IOO pivoted in the casing and having inwardlyprojecting arms, and the hammer having a nosepiece in position to engage said arms and turn the dei-ents inward by the extreme backward movement of the hammer, substantially as described.

l0. in a magazine-gun, the magazine and follower, the cartridge-detects, the hammer cnc-a inv' the nctents to turn them in the way s g e of tbe column. of cartridges, the forwardly? movi g barrel, and. mechanism connecting tlie barre and hammer so that-the barrel movement cocks the-hammer, substantially as descr-iced. x

'11. ln 'an automatic gun, the casing and recoil-abutment, the longitudinally-movable barrel, the loclri:1g-shoeldersotu said parts engagging- 2; by a partial rotation of the barrel, and a gas-pressure device in the barrel operating toanply a rotative `force to the barrel to ifi ill ISO

nected to the barrel and closing over the cas- -ing, in position to serve as a handle, substanof the casing, substantially as described.

14. In an automatic gun, the casing in sections conhected by a screw-th read, the barrel and coiled spring inclosed in the casing substantially as described, and the sleeve or handie connected to the barrel by a screw-thread and closing over the casing, described.

15. In a magazine-gun, the longitudinallymoving barrel, the cooking-slide engaged by said barrel, the hammer cockedy by said slide,A

and the cartridge-detents actuated by the backward movement of said hammer, substantially as described.

16. In a magazine-gun, movable barrel having a notch therein, the trigger and firing connections, said` trigger having a projection which may enter the notch in the barrel when the barrel is closed and locked but is otherwise held against movement, substantially as described.

17. In an automatic gun, the barrel, the trigger,

the longitudinallyas described, said trigger having an elastic substantially as and tiring connections substantially finger-piece, and a connection of the trigger arranged to engage with inclined bearing in a depression in the barrel. 5

18.. In a magazine-gun, the upwardly-feeding magazine having narrow ends and an enlarged central recess, spring-clasps at the sides of said recess, and the magazine-cover in position to be cover having a telescopic tube connected thereto, a cyiindricalfoliower connected to the tube, and a spiral spring between the. cover and follower, all substantially asv described. l

19. In an automatic gun, the frame, the forwardly-movable barrel and means to return it to closed position., and the trigger hung in the frame and having an arm in position to bear on the 'barrel and retard the closing movement, substantially as described.

20. Thecombination of the barrel, the trigger, a movable pieceon the trigger held down by the barrel when the barrel is in locked position butotherwise free to move, and the push-pi'nandrsear, said push-pin rendered op- I erative to release the sear when thebarrel is closed, but otherwise inoperative, substantially as described. i

In testimony whereof I affix my signature in presence of tivo witnesses.



engaged by said clasps, said Ass ANDREW BURGESS.

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2701504 *Jan 17, 1951Feb 8, 1955Schaich Wilbur AFeeding mechanism for automatic firearms
US3039366 *Dec 14, 1959Jun 19, 1962Imthurn Elmer RTarget pistol with breech bolt locking mechanism
US4817496 *Dec 17, 1987Apr 4, 1989Steyr-Daimler-Puch AgFirearm
US5939659 *Oct 29, 1997Aug 17, 1999Dobbins; Elbert L.Gas operated forward actuating pistol
US8061255Jan 26, 2009Nov 22, 2011Arne Bengt BobergFirearm with cartridge pick-and-place mechanism
US8910561Oct 6, 2011Dec 16, 2014Salvador Plaxats OllerSemi-automatic pistol with a sliding barrel
WO2012049072A1 *Oct 6, 2011Apr 19, 2012Oller Salvador PlaxatsSemi-automatic pistol with sliding barrel
International ClassificationF41A5/16, F41A3/26, F41A5/24, F41A3/16, F41A5/30
Cooperative ClassificationF41A3/26, F41A5/24, F41A5/16, F41A5/30, F41A3/16
European ClassificationF41A5/16, F41A3/26, F41A5/24, F41A3/16, F41A5/30