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Publication numberUS673470 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateMay 7, 1901
Filing dateMay 12, 1900
Priority dateMay 12, 1900
Publication numberUS 673470 A, US 673470A, US-A-673470, US673470 A, US673470A
InventorsJosiah Dow
Original AssigneeJosiah Dow
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Rotary engine.
US 673470 A
Abstract  available in
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

No. 673,470. Patented May 7, IQOI. J. DOW. ROTARY ENGINE. (Application flldmay 12, 1900.

5 Sheets-Sheet I.

(No Model.)

l l u Ame/Mm 35mm 910w No. 673,470. Patented May 7, M". J. DOW. I


(Application filed May 12 1900.)

5 shoots-Sheet 2.

(No Model.)

WW/am r 54 M THE cams PETERS co. PHOTO-LUNG WASHNGYON, a. c.

Patented May 7, mm.



' (Application filed May 12. 1900.

(No Model.)

5 Sheets-Sheei 3.

No. 673,470. Patented May 7, I90l.



(Applicatioz; filed May 12, 1900.) (No Model.) 5 Shoots-Sheet 4.




SPECIFICATION forming part Of Letters Patent N0. 673,470, dated May '7, 1901.

Application filed May 12, 1900. Serial No. 16,412. (No model.)

To all whmn it may concern:

Be it known that I, JOSIAH DOW, a citizen of the United States, and aresident of the city and county of Philadelphia, State of Pennsylvania, have invented certain new and useful Improvements in Rotary-Piston Engines, of which the following is a specification.

My invention relates to improvements in rotating-piston engines; and the object of my invention is to furnish an engine for the conversion of the direct and expansive force from steam, air, or other fluid into power by means of compounding and the utilization of a true cut-off operative at any part of the stroke of the pistons, as in the highest type of steamengine, fromwhich it differs by its pistons and valve-gear being entirely rotative instead of reciprocating and its cylinders annular, surrounding the main shaft, thus utilizing the persistance of inertia of the moving masses and avoiding the obstructive .force of such masses in reciprocation. The pistons are directly and firmly attached to the main shaft of the engine, with only the interposing of a cylindrical steam-chamber. The cylinders surround the pistons, and the valve-gear is carried in the steam-chamber, as hereinafter fully described.

For properly utilizing the expansive force of the steam or other fluid and to obtain a perfect balance of the several parts I place the cylinders side by side, the rotation of their.

throughout the several views, Figure l is a longitudinal central sectional elevation through my engine, the main shaft, the valves and valve-stems, and the yoke which secures the valve-stems in place being shown in elevation; Fig. 2, a section of Fig. 1 on line A B; Fig. 3,

a section of Fig. l on line C D; Fig. 4, a sectional view through the induction-valve and part of piston, showing port in latter; Fig. 5, a section of Fig. 1 on line E F; Fig. 6, a secview of the valve, valve-stem, and gearing;

Fig. 11, an isometrical view of front end of steam-passage connecting high and low pressure cylinders; Fig. 12, a side elevation of the low-pressure piston and its connected parts; Fig. 13, a front elevation of Fig. 12; Fig. 14., a section of Fig. 13 on line I J.

a 1), Figs. 1 and 3, are cylinders, the former at the front and the latter at the rear of the engine. These cylinders, which are the highpressure cylinders, receive steam directly from the steam-chest.

c d are pistons, the former in cylinder at and the latter in cylinder b.

cf, Figs. 1, 5, and 6, are the low-pressure cylinders, which are furnished, respectively, with pistons g h. The low-pressure cylinders are placed inside-4 e., betweenthe highpre'ssure cylinders and side by side, as shown in Fig. 1, the cylinder 6 receiving its steam from cylinder at, and the cylinderf from cylinder I). They both discharge their steam through opening 2' into a condenser or into the open air.

j, Figs. 1 and 2, is an extension of the steamchest, which is bolted to the head is of the cylinder at. This extension is connected with the supply steam-pipe land carries the valvegear with its regulating apparatus. The steam-chest proper, m, surrounds the main shaft n of the engine and is interposed between the hubs 0 on this shaft and the inner circumference of the cylinders 10 10 19 19 to which the pistons c d g h are secured or of which they form part. The steam-chest is open from end to end, except for the radial arms '1", Figs. 3, 5, and 6, which connect the cylinderp (which is made up of the several cylinders 19 19 19 19 with hub 0. The outer periphery of the cylinder 13 rotates in contact with an abutment-cylinder 8, Figs. 1, 3, 5, and 6, and, together with the abutment-cylinder, closes off at one point the cylinders a, b ef, forming a stop against which the propelling fluid may react in order to move the pistons forward in their rotation. The abutment-cylinder has its axis of rotation parallel with that 'of the main shaft n, its bearings being parallel in axis with the main-shaft bearings and its shaft 1) being caused to ro tate synchronously with the main shaft by means of gears in, Fig. 1, carried upon these shafts, the gears being of equal diameter and pitch. 'Io permit the pistons to pass the abutment-cylinder on completion of their stroke, which is equal to the outward and inward stroke of a reciprocating piston, this cylinder, which may-be made inone' piece, as shown in Fig. 1, or in separate pieces, one for each piston, is furnished with 'cut-away'portions or ports w. In Figs. 1, 3, and 5 the high pressure piston d is shown passing through its port w in the cylinder 3. In orde'r to'reduce its weight, the'abutment oylinder is made hollow, as shown.

'- The gears t u, before referred tojdrive the pistons and the abutment-cylinder at the same speed and insure each' piston meeting and leaving its port in'the abutment-cylinder at exactly the pro per time.

ti'rely inclosed bya shield w,throu'gh 'whichthe' The gears are enshafts 'n i; may pass, which isdust-p'roof, pre- "vents da'nger'in handling, and Whichmakes 'of oil easy to accomplish.

perfect lubrication without radial 'spattering The oiling of all the moving parts, which are entirely inclosed, is effected not on'ly'by means of the usual lubricator (not shown)' upon the entering steam-pipe l,"but'also by -means of apassage 1 in the center of the main shaft 11., which has its outer'openingby removal of aplug or screw 2 at the outercenter of the steam and valve chest j, a charge of oil or a continuous; supply thereof being injected 'into opening 1 and being carried thereby, assisted by the steam or actuating fluid, to all the bearingparts" through suitable channels or openi g 3 3 bored through the shaft, as indicated by dotted lines in Fig. 1. 4, Figs. 1 and 10, is the valve for control ling-admission of steam to high-pressure oyl= inder a; 5, Fig. 1, a valve for 'controllingadmission of steam to high-pressure cylinder 5. These valves are precisely alike; butasthe valve 4 controls the admission of steam to 'c'yllnder'ct, which is at front end of theengine, its stem 6 is shorter than the stem 7-of valve 5, which co-ntrolsadmission-of steam Thevalves,valvestems,andthe gear-pieces 8, 9, 10,and 11, carried on the outer ends of the valve-stems, the purpose and operation of which will be presently described, are made by preference all in one piece.

12 is'a yoke which issecured by bolts 13,

p of the'pis- 14 represents hearings in yoke 12, through which then'ecks of the valve-stems6 7 pass.

The bearings 14 are openat one end and are arc-shaped, being struck from center of shaft "nfwhich passes through center of yoke. The

'in Fig. 3.

the cylinder.

yoke engages a shoulder formed 'by an enlargement from the stem to the body of the valve itself and prevents the valves from being moved in or out. In order to engage or disengage the yoke with the stems, the bolts 13 are removed, permitting the yoke to be turned around on shaft 12, a turning in one direction engaging the stems with the-slots 14 and atn'rning in the other disengaging them.

Figs. 5 and 6 show the positions, relations, and action of the pistons with their steampassages and valves. Each piston is mounted upon a section of the internal cylinder 17, 'whicli'forms theinner periphery of the separated annular cylinders ab of, and are united one to the other-by means of overlapping tight slip-joints 15, Fig. 1, and'formtogether the continuous steam-ohestm.

' l6'r'epresents metallicpacking-rings placed in-seats'in' the periphery of'cylinderpwhich insure tight joints between this cylinder and its hearings in the partitions between the cyl- "inders a 1) cf. These rings, running always in the sa'ine'track ahdout of contact with the steam or other actuating flnid,'=areeasilylubricated andcause' but a very'sm'allamount of friction.

The' 'pistons c d gh, the cylinder 10, and the valves 4 55mm allcarried into rotation'with the shaft n.

The mannerof 'thepasfsage of the""'p'istons through'the'ports of the abiltuient cylinder s and the closing of the abutment-cylinder against the internal'cylin'der '1) is made clear Thepacking' to prevent'pa'ssage of steam past sides of piston and enclsof cylinder is-also here shown. It has been'ffound that the outer'ends ofthepistons require no packingto prevent passage of "steam'during rotation; except ta series of capillary grooves 17, out acros'sthern at right angles to 'the'plane These grooves pick upen'o'ugh moisture when passing the abutment-cylin- 'der to" effect a" perfect packing without the piston end havifng a frictional contact with The stroke of each piston begins at the time of firstcontact between the abutment and internal cylinderspat'ter' its passage through the abutment-port, and when the' piston reaches=itsseat againstthe periphery ofits inclosing cylinder. The pistons are made with the contourshown in the drawings that they may'fillas nearly as possible the abutment-port w,-and thusreduee the initial clearance.

. 18 represents grooves formed in the seat of the abutment cylinder, which'permit steam to pass down and around this'seat, except at .the :side' contiguous to the exhaust-port t. This arrangement, while wasting' no steam, because its action'began while the piston'was partly inclo'sed'withintheabutment port,-insures not-only full useful expansion of the steam contained in that port through the stroke, but also the important'requisite of an outer pressurein'unison with the progress of expansion against theabut'ment-cylinder in such direction as to secu re its perfect contact with the internal cylinder 10 even though wear takes place in the bearings. It has been found that such close rolling contact, passing always toward the pressure side, and with the included moisture which is deposited from the exhaust side, not only insures a perfectly steam tight joint, but produces no wear.

The peculiar relative positions of the pistons in the high and'low pressure cylinders are caused by the necessity that incom pounding the cylinders for continuation of expansive action from the high pressure to the low pressure the high-pressure piston goes out of action at the end of its stroke at the moment contact between the cylindersp sis broken to permit it to pass through its port in the cylinder 8. Therefore the low-pressure piston is so placed that at this same moment it shall have the con: tact with its internal and abutment cylinders made perfect and also its own complete seating for the beginning of a new stroke. only outlet from the high to the low pressure cylinder is through a passage 19, formed in the advancing face of the high-pressure piston, which leads direct to a similar passage 20 in the back of the low-pressure piston, and as the high and low pressure cylinders lie in different planes and are otherwise completely closed to each other it will be seen that no steam can pass from the high to the low pressure cylinder for a new stroke until the highpressure cylinder is opened to the advancing of its piston primarily by the opening of its abutment-port, from which time all the contained steam before that piston can pass through the passage 19 into the low-pressure cylinder behind its piston up to the end of the stroke of the high-pressure piston; but it is evident that the low-pressurepiston must have attained its seat after passing the abutment .9 and the abutment s and internal cylinder 10 be again in perfect peripheral contact before this can be permitted. In this manner the abutment and its port belonging to the high-pressure cylinder, combined with the relative positions of the two pistons and the abutment and port of the low-pressure cylinder, effect a valve action which always admits the partly expanded steam of the high-pressure cylinder, beginning only at the end of its piston-stroke and just as the lowpressure piston is safely ready for action, while the actuating part of the high-pressure cylinder is always shut off from the low-pressure cylinder and the exhausting portion of the low-pressure cylinder is always shut off from communication with the high-pressure cylinder. The expansion begun in the highprcssnrc cylinder is thus completed in the low-pressure cylinder without the disadvantages accompanying an intervening receiver and a second series of valves with their attendant gear.

As the engine is to be carefully balanced in all its running parts and as the adjacent The high and low pressure pistons cannot be balanced against each otherthat is, placed upon opposing radii-I have found it advantageous to construct the engine with two sets of high and two sets of low pressure pistons, each working in its own cylinder, as shown, which sets of pistons I oppose in radial position. It will be understood that the cylinders may be arranged, as shown, with the high pressure outside and the low pressure inside, or that this arrangement may be reversed, so that the low pressure will be outside and the high inside.

The induction-valves 4 5, which are shown in position in Fig. 1, in section in Fig. 4, and in perspective in Fig. 10, and the inductionport 21 in the back of the high-pressure pistons (shown in section in Fig. 4) are arranged for action at the bases of the high-pressure pistons only, with which they rotate about the main axis of the engine, and they have in addition to this motion of rotation a rotation upon their own axes caused by the gearing carried on the outer ends of their valvestems and the mating gear carried upon the bearing in center of the outside steam-chamberj, which motion of rotation admits steam to the ports 21, formed in the rear faces of the high-pressure pistons. The inductionvalves 4 5 are cylindrical and have cut through them radial ports or slots 22 of such number as may be most convenientin the present construction three, all meeting in the axis of the valve-and of such dimensions as shall have when admitting steam an ample opening from the steam-chest to the piston-port. As the body of the valve containing these slots is entirely open to the steam-chest m, with the exception only of the bearing upon the seatat the piston-port, it follows that its partial rotation upon its own axis-one-sixth of a full rotation with the present constructionwill close or open the port to the full pressure of the steam-chest. With the port 21 open one of the openings 22 in the valve will be continuous with it and steam will be freely admitted through the other ports 22. A one-sixth rotation of the valve will close port 21, as shown in Fig. 4, and theflow of steam to this port will be stopped. As the valve rotates upon its axis always in one direction, a complete rotation of it takes place oncein three rotations or strokes of the pistonthat is, three openings and three closings of the piston-portare effected in that time. The opening of the port, as has been seen in describing the piston-stroke, must always be effected at one definite part of that stroke or rotation1l. e., just as the piston is in position to begin a new stroke--while the closing may take place at any portion of the stroke, provided it be eifected before its completion, and thus prevent full pressure of steam from entering while the piston is passing the abutment-port and its two sides are open to each other.

The valve-gearing is all within the outer ITO steam-chest j and is designed to accomplish the opening and closing of the valves for each stroke of the high-pressure pistons. It consists of an actuating part resting upon the bearing, into which the outside end of the main shaft n fits, and of an actuated part carried by the ends of the valve-stems. tuating part has two separate divisions 23 24, Fig. 1, the first so placed that it may be rotated to the radial position needed to effect the desired point of cut-off and the second in a firmly-fixed position.

8, 9, 10, and 11, Figs. 1 and 10, are pieces upon the end of the valve-stem forming the actuated part of the gearing. 8 and 9 operate in connection and plane with the movable part 23 of the actuatorand 10 and 11 in connection and plane with the stationary part 24 of the actuator.

Upon a bearing formed for the purpose about the outer end of the main shaft n are placed the two rings or cylindrical. pieces 23 24, each having in protrusion from its surface a cam-shaped tooth 26, Figs. 2, 7, 8, and 9, at the side of which is a depression 27 in the ring upon a different plane. The ring 24 is firmly fixed upon the bearing at its inner end and actuates the valve-opening gear and forms a guard which keeps the other ring 23 in posi: tion. The ring 23 has rotation upon'its bearing, controlled from the outside of the engine by suitable means, in the present case a wormgear 28, with its stem 29 passing upward and outward through a gland 30 in the chestj. The actuated gear upon the valve-stem for each division-that is, one gyrating'in plane with the actuator which opens and the other-with that which closes the valve--has two parts, one in plane with and to fit over the cam-shaped tooth 26, which is its actuator, and the other in plane with and to fit into the depression 27 atthe side of the actuating-tooth. As there are six partial rotations to complete one full rotation of the valve-three for opening and three for closingeach section of the actuating-gear is formed with three double radial parts in plane with the double parts of the opening-actuator and three with those of the closing-actuator. These are formed for each division upon the stem with three are depressions 31, rounded at the ends, in plane with and to fit over the tooth 26 of the actuator and three rounded spurs 32 of a little longer radius in plane with and to fit into the depression 27 at center side of the tooth 26. The are depressions 31, which in their turn fit over the tooth 26, and the accompanying spurs for the opening-actuator alternate in radial position upon the valve -stem with those which are to fit upon the closing-actuator. Consequently first one division 10 11 is used to open the valve, and on further gyration of the valve-stems the other division 89 reaches its actuator and closes it. Between these actions the spur which has just completed the partial rotation of the valve by passing out of its depression throws the spur Theac mam-o .of the other division down upon the contin+ uous peripheral surface 33, uponwhich it runs until it is ready for entrance into its own depression, while it itself passes onto and runs upon its own continuous peripheral surface. Thusa locking of the revolution of the valve about its own axis is effected until the forward spur can pass againinto its fitting depression. It will be seen that the beginning of each onesixth rotation of the valve is effected by a smooth and gently-increasing motion through the spur which forms one outward end of the depression into which the actuating-tooth fits, the one which is behind the tooth in direction of motion riding easily and without jar upon the reverse arc of that side of the tooth, and thus turning the valve until the depression and tooth fit center to center, while the spur upon the plane bytheir side fits into its corresponding depression and on passingout completes the movement with the same de= gree of smoothness in action. The valve-stems being held in the bearings in the yoke 12 close to the seat of this action, it is eifected smoothly and without any straining of the parts.

Figs. 7, 8, and 9 show the operation of the valve, as described.

No valve is needed to control the passage of steam betwee'n the high and low pressure cylinders except such as has been described, effected through action of the abutment-cylinder and its piston ports. This passage is freely through the port 19 at the forward face of the high-pressure piston c, (it being understood that the operation and arrangement of the ports for both sets of high and low pressure cylinders are identical,) as that piston and its cylinder are on a different plane from the low-pressure piston g, through the back of which the induction-port 20 for that cylinder is placed. A lateral passage 34 is placed beneath the base of the pistons within the internal cylinder p and in line with the passage between two of its supportingarms. As this internal cylinder is made in sections, one to each piston, and as the required passage for the partly-expanded steam shouldnot be in any way open to the initial steam in the central steam-chest m, this passage has a peculiar formation and inclosing, which will be made clear from Figs. 1, 3, 5, 6, 12, 13, and 14:. It is formed directly in and cast with the section of the internal cylinderp supporting the low-pressure piston.

It has about it an inclosed space 35, empty or filled with non-conducting material and guarded on its sides next the steam-chest by outer walls supported against the internalcylinder arms. From this section of the cylinder p it passes out through its end, as at 36, Figs. 12, 13, 14, and fits intosimilarlyguarded outer walls cast in section 19 of the internal cylinder, where it fits tightly against the exhaust-port 19 of the high-pressure piston and is prevented from springing out of contact with that port by the protuberance 37, formed upon its end and which fits into a socket in the sec ion p. In this manner a free continuous passage is provided leading from the exhausting side of the high-pressu re piston to the actuating side of the low-pressure piston, which passage is guarded from a transfer of the heat of the initial steam hy the insulating-spaces surrounding it and the outer wall surrounding those spaces. The space before the exhaust side of the lo w-pressure pistons is always open to the free exhaust-ports t", which ports join together in the exhaust-port 4;. The actuating sides of these pistons are entirely closed off from the exhaust-ports of their cylinders through the whole stroke by means of the abutment-cylinder s and because of the relative positions of the high and low pressure pistons and the valve action of the abutment during the passage of the pistons through the abutmentports at any time from the high-pressure cylinder to the low-pressure exhaust-ports.

Radiation and convection of heat from the engine and its parts where it could cause loss of energy are carefully guarded against by the provision of insulating-spaces 38, Fig. 1, filled with non-conducting material where necessary.

The high-pressure cylinders placed at either end of the engine are connected to its main casing in a peculiar manner, with the intervening space 39 and by flanges 40 to secure insulation for heat between the high and low pressure cylinders and to permit a ready assemblage of the respective parts. The internal cylinder-p, which supports the pistons and the outer wall of the steam-chest, is made and put together in sections 10 10 10 p, with the same purpose and to facilitate the ar rangement and placing of the packing-rings 16. These packing-rings are circumferential and sprung into position upon the internal and the abutment cylinders at every division between the annular cylinders, while at the high-pressure and low-pressure divisions at either end there are two for each dividingspace. For the outer ends of the hi gh-pressure cylinders the packings are difierent, having their pressure against a plane at right angles to the axis except at the actuating end of the main shaft and when needed for reverse motion at the corresponding end of the abutment-cylinder shaft. The main bearings for the shafts are closed at the outer end, which obviates necessity for glands and packing-boxes. At the actuating end of the engine these shafts have metallic rings 42 about them in pressure with the shafts and their bearings in the head of the case, which prevent a passage of steam at these bearings.

The gear-case is tightly closed and has at "its upper portion a reservoir 41, with a tight plug 43 to close the entrance for holding oil, which is distributed therefrom to the main bearings, preferably through connectingtubes 44.

Having thus described my invention, I

claim as new and desire to secure by Letters Patent 1. The combination in a rotating-piston engine of two or more sets of pistons, one set balanced against another set, rotating about a common axis, separated annular cylinders within which said pistons rotate, a cylindrical internal fluid-chamber, surrounding the main axis of the engine, upon which said pistons are secured and which is open from end to end, a central shaft to which said internal chamber is secured, cylindrical valves rotating within said chamber and, with exception of their seats surrounded by the fiuid within said chamber, by means of which the flow of the actuating fluid to the piston-cylinders is controlled, means for rotating said valves, and a rotating abutment-cylinder preventing the passage of the actuating fluid from one side to the other of said pistons.

2. In combination, a valve having a motion of rotation about a center and a motion of rotation upon its own axis, two sets of gearing, each set consisting of two parts, upon the stem of said valve, a cylindrical stationary bearing operating in connection with an ad.- j ustable bearing and parts of each set of gearing on said Valve-stem to firmly hold the valve from rotation on its own axis between the times necessary for the opening and closing of the ports while rotating about the common axis, an adjustable cylindrical bearing furnished with mating gearing operating in connection with one of the sets of gearing on said stem to rotate said stem on its own axis for closing the cut-off, and means whereby said adjustable hearing may be rotated in order to regulate the cut-off.

3. The combination with the cylindrical steam-chamber and the gyrating valves and valve-stems carried thereby, of a yoke adapted to be bolted to the end of the steam-chamber and furnished with slotted arms adapted to surround said valve-stems as and for the purposes set forth.

4. The described means for securing the induction-valves in place and for forming a bearing close to their actuators, consisting of a yoke furnished with arms having arc-shaped slots adapted to pass over the valve-stems, said yoke being adapted to rest upon a central bearing and to be engaged or disengaged with the stems by a partial revolution on its bearing, and being adapted to be held in place by bolts substantially as described.

5. In a compound rotating-piston engine, in combination, two or more sets of high and low pressure cylinders placed side by side and upon a common axis, an open cylindrical steam-chest passing centrally about the axis upon which said cylinders are formed, a shaft axially central of said steam-chest and seen red thereto, pistons carried peripherally by said steam-chest, a cylindrical abutment engaging the cylinder forming said steam-chest peripherally, valves controlling the admission and cut-off of steam to the high-pressure cylin- "de'rs, and means for admitting the steam to the low-pressure cylinder directly from the high-pressure cylinder.

6. The combination in a rotating-piston en-' gine of two or more annular cylinders placed side by side upon a common axis, a steamchest Without said cylinders, a hub with arms carrying a hollow annular internal cylinder passing centrally through said cylinders forming when in place a con tin nation of said steamchest and carrying an'insulated passage for conducting the actuating fluid from the high to the low pressure cylinder, said hub, arms, and cylinder forming together a removable cylinder, said removable cylinder, pistons firmly fixed to said internal cylinder, a shaft to which said hubi s secured and whichforms its axis, an external rotating abutment, furnished with ports for the passage of said pistons, engaging said internal cylinder tangentially and'longitudinally, means for rotating said abutment and internal cylinders synchronously, and means for admitting the actuating fluid to and for exhausting it from said cylinders.

7. In a rotating-piston engine, in combination, a high and a low pressure cylinder-placed sideby side upon a common axis, an internal cylinder passing centrally about the axis upon which said cylinders are formed, pistons carried by said internal cylinder, means for admitting the actuating fluid to the high p'ressure cylinder, an abutment-cylinder engaging said internal cylinder peripherally and furnished with ports to permit the passage of the pistons carried by said internal cylinder,

means for rotating said internal and abutment cylinders at the same speed, and means for transferring the actuating fluid from the high to the low pressure cylinder during the passage of the high-pressure piston through its port in the abutment-cylinder and afterward throughout the stroke.

8. A compound rotating-piston engine consistingof two or more annular cylinders placed about the same axis upondifierentplanes, each cylinder containing a'rotating piston,

the high-pressure piston having an inlet-port upon its rear face'and an outlet-port'through whichthe actuating fluid'may pass, in exhaust, upon its advancing face, said latter opening being'connected by an insulated passage With an opening on therear face of the low-pressure piston, and a rotating ab utmentcylinderfurnishedwith ports'f'or the passage of said pistons.

9. The described means for conductingthe actuating fluid from the high to the low pressure cylinder consisting of a hollow protrusion formed upon one section of the internal hollow cylinder and a seat formed Within the contiguous section said seat being adapted to receive said protrusion, and means'for holding said protrusion firmly against its seat.

10. In combination, a valve having a motion of gyration around a center and a motion of rotation upon its own axis", a gearing upon the stem of said valve consisting of two parts eachof which 'issiibdivided 'intotwo parts, one subdivision of each part fo rmingsockets or interspacesadap'ted to*be engaged by a tooth upon an actuator having its bearingand axis upon the centerof gyration of the valvestem, and the other shbd'ivision having spaces the stemof said valve consisting of two'parts each of which is subdividedinto' two parts, one subdivision of each part formingsockets orinterspaces adapted to be engaged'by a tooth upon'au'actuator having its 'bearing and axis upon the c'eti terof gyrati-on' of-the valve-stem,and the othersubdivision' having "spurs equal in numberto the sockets onthe first subdivision, their centers being upon the same radius withthe1n,"adapted to engage a depression having its center upon the same radius with but upon a different plane from said tooth engaged by the other subdivision, and said actnator,the actuating and actuated parts alternating with each other in position and action for the opening'and closing of the valve, and the actuator forthe closing'of the valve being adjustable.

. JOSIAH DOW. Witnesses:


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