US 679973 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Patented Aug. 6. |901.
D. LANCE, B. L. E. DE BOURGADE 8|. L. SCHMITZ.
(Application filed Man-28, 1899,
2 Sheets Sheet l.
No. 679,973. Paented Aug. 6, l90l. D. LANCE, H. L. E. DE BUBGADE &. L. SCHMITZ.
(Application filed Mar. 28, 1899.)
' UNITED STATES lATENT OFFICE.
DENISYLANCE, RAPHAEL LOUIS EMMANUEL DE BoURGADE, AND SCHMITZ, oF rARIsEEANoE.
lLEON ELECTRIC Fua-NCEYL i.
sPEcIFIcATIoN' forming part -of- Letters Patent No. 679,973, dated August, 6," y1901 f v Application filed March 2s, 1399. Serin Nw/10,822. uit man.) Y
To all whom, it may concern:
[Be it known that we, DENIS LANCE, doctor of sciences, RAPHAEL LOUIS EMMANUEL DE. BOURGADE, doctor of medicine, and LEON SCHMITZ, engineer, citizens of the Republic of France, and residents of Paris, France,
have invented new and useful Improvements in Electric Furnaces, of which the-following is a specification.
Our improvement has a twofold objectfirst, to obtain an internal temperature sensibly uniform in all parts of the furnace and capable of being regulated as desired, and, second, to insure the uniform distribution 15., ishrough the furnace ofl gases admitted to it for fany reaction and bring them to the same pressure on the substancesin the furnace on which they have to act, and, further, to provide that the gaseous products of reaction escape as soon as the reaction is completed, so as to avoid secondary objectionable reactions, this being a most important point. We thus produce a continuously-acting electric furnace providing the best conditions, even in respect of economical heating, for effecting reactions requiring well-regulated temperatures,and,on
. the other hand, producing bodies which would furnish new combinations and so compromise the result of the operation were the gases left t On the other hand, all parts of the length are equally heated.
In order to attain the second object mentioned above, we admit the gases to the furnace under the following' conditions: The' gases are admitted at the top, and before they reach the substances on which they are to react they become diffused in the part of the furnace above these substances, this part containing fragments of porcelain or other bott-emilia more or less thick layer, accordingto the operation to be performed and the time during which the l chemical substances placed onfthe'bottoinv Iof the'furnaceand the gas admitted to the latter by the upper opening must remain together.. An opening at lthe bottom allows the gaseous products to escape.
Figure 1 of the annexed drawings is avertical section of an improved furnace, in annular form,.in whichthe heating is understood' to` befobtained by meansof two wire coils arranged near the external surfaces of the two furnace-Walls. Fig. 2 isa horizontal section 'on the line A B of Fig.- 1. Fig. 3 is a view like Fig. 1, on a reduced scale, provided With a distributer which sends the current successively through the parallelwiresV or strips arranged against the furnace-walls.. Fig. 4 is a side View of the distributer; Fig. 5 is a transverse section, to the same scale as Fig. 3, of our furnace in straight-form furnished with a current-distributer, as in Figs. 3 and 4.
In all the figures like letters denote like parts.
A and B are the two walls, which are at a very small distance apart and made of porcelain or other suitable material.
C is the gas-admission tube.
D is the outlet for gas.
The upper part E of the space between the walls A and Bis filled with fragments of porcelain or other material for the purpose stated above and constitutes the gas supplying chamber. vThe lower part F of this space is the reaction chamber, containing the sub* stances on which the gases are to act. If, for instance, cyanides are to be produced, this chamber contains either fragments of carbon or small perforated plates or rods of carbon.
G, Figs. 1 and 3, is an envelop of refractory material containing sand and asbestos or other suitable material.
When the furnace is of the straight kind, as shown in`Fig. 5, a similar lining G G is Ico applied to both walls, unless several furnaces 4are arranged side by side, in which case they give heat to oneanether and no lining is required except on the two outer walls. In the furnaces shownin Figs. 3, 4, and 5 the reactioncham ber F is heated over all itssurface and thetwo sides by a set of wires or strips I'I, conductors of electricity, all ixed at one, end to a conducting-bar I, towhich the cur` rent is conducted by a conductor J, and each of themisattached to a posting-respectively` i continuously through all the wires H, in which` case the distributerwould .of course-be dis- 'pensed Withf' *I l, theheat i's obtained In the furnace, Fig. from two conducting-coils N N, which are in connection with each other and with the source of electricity, with a rheostat O interposed, as in theformer case.
I" indicates low walls or other suitable supports on which the furnace is mounted.
lupper pai-tof said chamber for subdividing the gases therein, resistan ce-Wires adjacent to the Walls of said chamber, and electrical connections with the said Wires, substantially as hereindescribed.
' 2. In an electric furnace, an annular reaction-chamber the Walls of which are composed of refractory material which is a non-cond uctor of electricity, a resistanceeoil adjacent to the outer Vwall of said chamber, a resistance-coil adjacent to the inner wall of said chamber, and electric connections with the two coils, substantially as herein described.
In testimony that Wev claim the foregoing as-eur invention We have signed our names, in presence of two Witnesses, this th day of March, 1899.
DENIS LANCE. Ri'tPHAL LOUIS EMMANUEL DE BOURGADE. LEON SCHMITZ.
EDWARD P. MACLEAN, ALCIDE FARE.