Search Images Maps Play YouTube News Gmail Drive More »
Sign in
Screen reader users: click this link for accessible mode. Accessible mode has the same essential features but works better with your reader.

Patents

  1. Advanced Patent Search
Publication numberUS6807447 B2
Publication typeGrant
Application numberUS 09/977,165
Publication dateOct 19, 2004
Filing dateOct 15, 2001
Priority dateSep 25, 1998
Fee statusPaid
Also published asUS20020019651
Publication number09977165, 977165, US 6807447 B2, US 6807447B2, US-B2-6807447, US6807447 B2, US6807447B2
InventorsJoseph C. Griffin, III
Original AssigneeEp Medsystems, Inc.
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Triple array defibrillation catheter and method of using the same
US 6807447 B2
Abstract
A catheter for facilitating intracardiac atrial defibrillation that includes an elongated flexible member that has a proximal end and a distal end is disclosed. Three spaced apart electrode arrays are secured around the periphery of the flexible member in a predetermined pattern so that a first electrode array is positioned within the superior vena cava, a second electrode array is positioned within the right atrium, and a third electrode array is positioned within the coronary sinus. Alternatively, the third electrode array may be positioned in the right ventricle rather than the coronary sinus. Electrical leads extend through the proximal end of the flexible member to supply electrical current to the electrode arrays, thereby defibrillating or cardioverting the heart. In other embodiments, a balloon envelope is also secured to the periphery of the flexible member adjacent the distal end.
Images(5)
Previous page
Next page
Claims(10)
I claim:
1. A catheter for facilitating intracardiac atrial defibrillation comprising: an elongated flexible member with a proximal end and a distal end, and first, second, and third spaced apart electrode arrays and a balloon envelope secured around the periphery of said flexible member, wherein said electrode arrays are arranged in a predetermined pattern and said first electrode array is adapted to be positioned within the superior vena cava, said second electrode array is adapted to be positioned within the right atrium, and said third electrode array is adapted to be positioned within the coronary sinus.
2. The catheter for facilitating intracardiac atrial defibrillation as claimed in claim 1 wherein said first electrode array is adapted to be positioned within the superior vena cava, said second electrode array is adapted to be positioned within the right atrium, and said third electrode array is adapted to be positioned within the right ventricle.
3. The catheter for facilitating intracardiac atrial defibrillation as claimed in claim 1 wherein each of said electrode arrays includes a plurality of electrodes.
4. The catheter for facilitating intracardiac atrial defibrillation as claimed in claim 3 wherein each of said electrodes has a length of approximately five millimeters.
5. The catheter for facilitating intracardiac atrial defibrillation as claimed in claim 1 further including an atrial pacing/sensing electrode and bi-polar pacing/sensing stimulation electrodes located on said flexible member.
6. The catheter for facilitating intracardiac atrial defibrillation as claimed in claim 5 wherein said atrial pacing/sensing electrode is located in the area of said second electrode array but is electrically isolated therefrom.
7. The catheter for facilitating intracardiac atrial defibrillation as claimed in claim 5 wherein said bi-polar pacing/sensing stimulation electrodes are located distal to said third electrode array and are electrically isolated therefrom.
8. A method for facilitating intracardiac atrial defibrillation in a patient comprising the steps of:
providing a unitary elongated flexible member with a proximal end and a distal end and first, second, and third spaced apart electrode arrays and a balloon envelope secured around the periphery of said flexible member wherein said electrode arrays are arranged in a predetermined pattern;
positioning said elongated flexible member within the patient's heart;
positioning said first electrode array within the superior vena cava, positioning said second electrode array within the right atrium, and positioning said third electrode array within the coronary sinus; and
applying electric shocks through said elongated flexible member in order to defibrillate the patient's heart.
9. The method for facilitating intracardiac atrial defibrillation in a patient as claimed in claim 8 wherein the step of positioning the electrode arrays includes positioning said first electrode array within the superior vena cava, positioning said second electrode array within the right atrium, and positioning said third electrode array within the right ventricle.
10. The method for facilitating intracardiac atrial defibrillation in a patient as claimed in claim 8 further including an atrial pacing/sensing electrode and bi-polar pacing/sensing stimulation electrodes located on said flexible member and which sense the occurrence of fibrillation.
Description
CROSS REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS

This application is a Continuation-In-Part of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 09/399,080 filed Sep. 17, 1999, now U.S. Pat. No. 6,385,489, which claims the benefit of U.S. Provisional Patent Application Ser. No. 60/101,865, filed Sep. 25, 1998.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

The present invention is directed toward a defibrillation catheter and more particularly, toward a method and apparatus for facilitating intracardiac atrial defibrillation.

Atrial defibrillation is a common arrhythmia that afflicts more than 1.5 million patients in the U.S. alone. It is by far the most prevalent cardiac rhythm disorder associated with hospitalization. Symptoms associated with chronic atrial fibrillation include: awareness of irregularity, palpitations, fatigue, and diminished exercise tolerance. Atrial fibrillation has also been recognized as one of the main contributing factors of embolic strokes.

The risks and symptoms associated with atrial fibrillation confirm the necessity for restoration of sinus rhythm. Two commonly employed methods for performing an intracardiac atrial defibrillation procedure are drug therapy and external cardioversion. With regard to drug therapy, studies have shown that there is a risk for proarrhythmic effects, especially in patients with atrial fibrillation and a history of congestive heart failure, which may outweigh the potential benefit of restoring sinus rhythm.

There are also risks associated with external cardioversion. Such risks result form the fact that high energy shocks (50 to 360 Joules) are used during the procedure. The high energy shocks can cause heavy muscular contractions with a potential risk of spine or bone fractures, potential pronounced increase in muscle enzymes, induction of ventricular arrhythmias, and overall negative influence on myocardial function. Further, the high energy shocks require the administration of a general anesthetic.

In recognition of the foregoing, a method involving internal cardioversion using percutaneous transvenous catheter electrodes has been developed. Internal cardioversion can be performed with energies of less than 12 Joules. However, existing multi-electrode catheters typically do not have the proper arrangement of electrodes to provide the necessary electroshocks to the appropriate locations.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

The present invention is designed to overcome the deficiencies of the prior art discussed above. It is an object of the present invention to provide a catheter for facilitating atrial defibrillation that uses three electrode arrays on a single catheter.

It is a further object of the present invention to provide a method of performing intracardiac atrial defibrillation.

In accordance with the illustrative embodiments demonstrating features and advantages of the present invention, there is provided a catheter for facilitating intracardiac atrial defibrillation that includes an elongated flexible member that has a proximal end and a distal end. Three spaced apart electrode arrays are secured around the periphery of the flexible member in a predetermined pattern so that a first electrode array is adapted to positioned within the superior vena cava, a second electrode array is adapted to be positioned within the right atrium, and a third electrode array is adapted to be positioned within the coronary sinus. Alternatively, the third electrode array may be positioned in the right ventricle rather than the coronary sinus. Electrical leads extend through the flexible member to supply electrical current to the electrode arrays. In other embodiments, a balloon envelope is also secured to the periphery of the flexible member adjacent the distal end of the flexible member.

Other objects, features, and advantages of the invention will be readily apparent from the following detailed description of preferred embodiments thereof taken in conjunction with the drawings.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

For the purpose of illustrating the invention, there is shown in the accompanying drawings forms which are presently preferred, it being understood that the invention is not intended to be limited to the precise arrangements and instrumentalities shown.

FIG. 1 is a partial plan view of the first embodiment of the catheter of the present invention inserted into a heart;

FIG. 2 is a partial plan view of the second embodiment of the catheter of the present invention inserted into a heart;

FIG. 3 is a partial plan view of the third embodiment of the catheter of the present invention with a balloon located thereon, the catheter being inserted into a heart; and

FIG. 4 is a partial plan view of the fourth embodiment of the catheter of the present invention with a balloon located thereon, the catheter being inserted into a heart.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS

Referring now to the drawings in detail wherein like reference numerals have been used throughout the various figures to designate like elements, there is shown in FIG. 1 a catheter constructed in accordance with the principles of the present invention and designated generally as 10.

In a first embodiment of the present invention, as shown in FIG. 1, the catheter 10 essentially includes an elongated flexible member 12 which may be made of polyurethane. However, the flexible member 12 may be made from a variety of materials such as silicone rubber or plasticized PVC. The flexible member 12 is preferably approximately 110 centimeters long with an outside diameter of approximately 2.5 millimeters. As should be readily apparent to those skilled in the art, only the working portion of the catheter 10 is shown in the drawings.

The working portion of the flexible member 12 has a proximal end 14 and a distal end 16. Carried on the working portion of the flexible member 12 of the catheter 10 are first, second, and third spaced apart electrode arrays, the details of which will be described hereinafter. Electrical wires (not shown) from the electrode arrays pass through the interior of the flexible member 12 to a manifold secured to the remote end of the flexible member 12 for connecting the catheter 10 to appropriate electronic equipment.

Located adjacent the proximal end 14 is the first electrode array. The array includes approximately ten electrodes 18 a-18 j where each electrode has an approximate length of five millimeters and each electrode is spaced approximately five millimeters away from each adjacent electrode. The second electrode array, located distal to the first array, consists of approximately twelve electrodes 20 a-20 l. The length of each of these electrodes is also approximately five millimeters and each electrode is spaced approximately five millimeters away from each adjacent electrode. The third electrode array, located adjacent the distal end 16 consists of approximately seven electrodes 22 a-22 g. The length of each of these electrode is approximately five millimeters and each is spaced approximately ten millimeters away from each adjacent electrode.

Located within the second array of electrodes 20 a-20 l is an atrial pacing/sensing electrode 24. Also, located at the distal end 16 of the flexible member 12 are bi-polar pacing/sensing stimulation electrodes 26 a and 26 b. A steering arrangement known in the art may be associated with the catheter 10 in order to direct the placement of the electrode arrays.

In order to perform a defibrillation procedure, the flexible member 12 is introduced into the vascular system from the jugular area in a manner known in the art. The flexible member 12 is then guided into the patient's heart 28 until it is placed in the desired position. The flexible member 12 is positioned so that the first electrode array 18 a-18 j is positioned within the superior vena cava 30, the second electrode array 20 a-20 l is positioned within the right atrium 32, and the distal end 16 with the third electrode array 22 a-22 g is positioned within the coronary sinus 34.

With the flexible member 12 properly in place, electric shocks are applied through the catheter in order to defibrillate the patient's heart 28. This is accomplished by connecting the contact pin (not shown) at the proximal end of the proximal lead (not shown) attached to the first and second electrode arrays and the contact pin (not shown) of the distal lead of the third electrode array to an appropriate power source. Thereafter, low energy electrical current is supplied through the electrical leads to the corresponding electrode arrays in order to achieve a normal sinus rhythm in the patient.

More specifically, the atrial pacing/sensing electrode 24 and the bi-polar pacing/sensing stimulation electrodes 26 a and 26 b, sense the occurrence, if any, of fibrillation. If fibrillation is sensed, the heart 28 is defibrillated or cardioverted by the application of at least one electrical shock between the first and second arrays of electrodes 18 a-18 j and 20 a-20 l, respectively, which are connected to the proximal electrical lead and the third array of electrodes 22 a-22 g which is connected to the distal electrical lead. The two proximal common arrays 18 a-18 j and 20 a-20 l on the catheter are coupled together as an anode and the single array 22 a-22 g on the distal end 16 of the catheter is a cathode. The polarity of the arrays can be reversed to attempt lower defibrillation thresholds in certain patients. Approximately 1-50 Joules of energy are discharged through the sinoatrial node and the atrioventricular node to terminate atrial fibrillation.

In a second embodiment of the present invention, as shown in FIG. 2, the catheter 110, similar to the catheter of the first embodiment, includes an elongated flexible member 112 which may be made of the same types of materials and have the same dimensions as discussed above. Again, only the working portion of the catheter 110 is shown.

The working portion of the flexible member 112 has a proximal end 114 and a distal end 116. Carried on the working portion of the flexible member 112 of the catheter 110 are first, second, and third spaced apart electrode arrays, the details of which will be described hereinafter. Electrical wires (not shown) from the electrode arrays pass through the interior of the flexible member 112 to a manifold secured to the remote end of the flexible member 112 for connecting the catheter 110 to appropriate electronic equipment.

Located adjacent the proximal end 114 is the first electrode array. The array includes approximately ten electrodes 118 a-118 j where each electrode has an approximate length of five millimeters and each electrode is spaced approximately five millimeters away from each adjacent electrode. The second electrode array, located distal to the first array, consists of approximately twelve electrodes 120 a-120 l. The length of each of these electrodes is also approximately five millimeters and each electrode is spaced approximately five millimeters away from each adjacent electrode. The third electrode, located adjacent the distal end 116 consists of approximately seven electrodes 122 a-122 g. The length of each of these electrode is approximately five millimeters and each is spaced approximately ten millimeters away from each adjacent electrode.

Located within the second array of electrodes 120 a-120 l is an atrial pacing/sensing electrode 124. Also, located at the distal end 116 of the flexible member 112 are bi-polar pacing/sensing stimulation electrodes 126 a and 126 b. A steering arrangement known in the art may be associated with the catheter 110 in order to direct the placement of the electrode arrays.

In order to perform a defibrillation procedure, the flexible member 112 is introduced into the vascular system from the jugular area in a manner known in the art. The flexible member 112 is then guided into the patient's heart 128 until it is placed in the desired position. The flexible member 112 is positioned so that the first electrode array 118 a-118 j is positioned within the superior vena cava 130, the second electrode array 120 a-120 l is positioned within the right atrium 132, and the distal end 116 with the third electrode array 122 a-122 g is positioned within the right ventricle 134 instead of the coronary sinus, as in the first embodiment, in an attempt to obtain lower defibrillation thresholds.

With the flexible member 112 properly in place, electric shocks are applied through the catheter in order to defibrillate the patient's heart. This is accomplished by connecting the contact pin (not shown) at the proximal end of the proximal lead (not shown) attached to the first and second electrode arrays 118 a-118 j and 120 a-120 l, respectively, and the contact pin (not shown) of the distal lead of the third electrode array 122 a-122 g to an appropriate power source. Thereafter, low energy electrical current is supplied through the electrical leads to the corresponding electrode arrays in order to achieve a normal sinus rhythm in the patient.

More specifically, the atrial pacing/sensing electrode 124 and the bi-polar pacing/sensing stimulation electrodes 126 a and 126 b, sense the occurrence, if any, of fibrillation. If fibrillation is sensed, the heart 128 is defibrillated or cardioverted by the application of at least one electrical shock between the first and second arrays of electrodes 118 a-118 j and 120 a-120 l, respectively, which are connected to the proximal electrical lead and the third array of electrodes 122 a-122 g which is connected to the distal electrical lead. The two proximal common arrays 118 a-118 j and 120 a-120 l on the catheter are coupled together as an anode and the single array 122 a-122 g on the distal end 116 of the flexible member 112 is a cathode. The polarity of the arrays can be reversed to attempt lower defibrillation thresholds in certain patients. As in the first embodiment, approximately 1-50 Joules of energy are discharged through the sinoatrial node and the atrioventricular node to terminate atrial fibrillation.

In a third embodiment of the present invention, as shown in FIG. 3, the catheter 210, similar to the catheter of the first two embodiments, includes an elongated flexible member 212 which may be made of the same types of materials and have the same dimensions as discussed above. Again, only the working portion of the catheter 210 is shown.

The working portion of the flexible member 212 has a proximal end 214 and a distal end 216. Carried on the working portion of the flexible member 212 of the catheter 210 are first, second, and third spaced apart electrode arrays, the details of which will be described hereinafter. Electrical wires (not shown) from the electrode arrays pass through the interior of the flexible member 212 to a manifold secured to the remote end of the flexible member 212 for connecting the catheter 210 to appropriate electronic equipment.

Located adjacent the proximal end 214 is the first electrode array. The array includes approximately ten electrodes 218 a-218 j where each electrode has an approximate length of five millimeters and each electrode is spaced approximately five millimeters away from each adjacent electrode. The second electrode array, located distal to the first array, consists of approximately twelve electrodes 220 a-220 l. The length of each of these electrodes is also approximately five millimeters and each electrode is spaced approximately five millimeters away from each adjacent electrode. The third electrode, located adjacent the distal end 216 consists of approximately seven electrodes 222 a-222 g. The length of each of these electrode is approximately five millimeters and each is spaced approximately ten millimeters away from each adjacent electrode.

Located within the second array of electrodes 220 a-220 l is an atrial pacing/sensing electrode 224. Also, located at the distal end 216 of the flexible member 212 are bi-polar pacing/sensing stimulation electrodes 226 a and 226 b. A steering arrangement known in the art may be associated with the catheter 210 in order to direct the placement of the electrode arrays.

In this embodiment a balloon envelope 236 is formed at the distal end 216 of the catheter 210 adjacent electrode 226 a. The balloon 236 can be inflated or deflated through the use of an air supply that passes through an additional lumen in the flexible member and that communicates with the interior of the balloon through an opening formed in the outer wall of the flexible member and which communicates with the lumen. The details of the use of such a balloon and the manner in which it functions are more fully described in Applicant's U.S. Pat. No. 5,697,965. When used with the present invention, however, the primary purpose of the balloon is to help guide the catheter into its proper position through the use of the blood flowing through the vessels as opposed to utilizing the balloon to anchor the catheter in any particular position.

In order to perform a defibrillation procedure, the flexible member 212 is introduced into the vascular system from the jugular area in a manner known in the art. The flexible member 212 is then guided into the patient's heart 228 until it is placed in the desired position. The flexible member 212 is positioned so that the first electrode array 118 a-118 j is positioned within the superior vena cava 230, the second electrode array 220 a-220 l is positioned within the right atrium 232, and the distal end 216 with the third electrode array 222 a-222 g is positioned within the coronary sinus 234.

With the flexible member 212 properly in place, electric shocks are applied through the catheter in order to defibrillate the patient's heart. This is accomplished by connecting the contact pin (not shown) at the proximal end of the proximal lead (not shown) attached to the first and second electrode arrays 218 a-218 j and 220 a-220 l, respectively, and the contact pin (not shown) of the distal lead of the third electrode array 222 a-222 g to an appropriate power source. Thereafter, low energy electrical current is supplied through the electrical leads to the corresponding electrode arrays in order to achieve a normal sinus rhythm in the patient.

More specifically, the atrial pacing/sensing electrode 224 and the bi-polar pacing/sensing stimulation electrodes 226 a and 226 b, sense the occurrence, if any, of fibrillation. If fibrillation is sensed, the heart 228 is defibrillated or cardioverted by the application of at least one electrical shock between the first and second arrays of electrodes 218 a-218 j and 220 a-220 l, respectively, which are connected to the proximal electrical lead and the third array of electrodes 222 a-222 g which is connected to the distal electrical lead. The two proximal common arrays 218 a-218 j and 220 a-220 l on the catheter are coupled together as an anode and the single array 222 a-222 g on the distal end 216 of the flexible member 212 is a cathode. The polarity of the arrays can be reversed to attempt lower defibrillation thresholds in certain patients. As in the first embodiment, approximately 1-50 Joules of energy are discharged through the sinoatrial node and the atrioventricular node to terminate atrial fibrillation.

In a fourth embodiment of the present invention, as shown in FIG. 4, the catheter 310, similar to the catheter of the first embodiment, includes an elongated flexible member 312 which may be made of the same types of materials and have the same dimensions as discussed above. Again, only the working portion of the catheter 310 is shown.

The working portion of the flexible member 312 has a proximal end 314 and a distal end 316. Carried on the working portion of the flexible member 312 of the catheter 310 are first, second, and third spaced apart electrode arrays, the details of which will be described hereinafter. Electrical wires (not shown) from the electrode arrays pass through the interior of the flexible member 312 to a manifold secured to the remote end of the flexible member 312 for connecting the catheter 310 to appropriate electronic equipment.

Located adjacent the proximal end 314 is the first electrode array. The array includes approximately ten electrodes 318 a-318 j where each electrode has an approximate length of five millimeters and each electrode is spaced approximately five millimeters away from each adjacent electrode. The second electrode array, located distal to the first array, consists of approximately twelve electrodes 320 a-320 l. The length of each of these electrodes is also approximately five millimeters and each electrode is spaced approximately five millimeters away from each adjacent electrode. The third electrode, located adjacent the distal end 316 consists of approximately seven electrodes 322 a-322 g. The length of each of these electrode is approximately five millimeters and each is spaced approximately ten millimeters away from each adjacent electrode.

Located within the second array of electrodes 320 a-320 l is an atrial pacing/sensing electrode 324. Also, located at the distal end 316 of the flexible member 312 are bi-polar pacing/sensing stimulation electrodes 326 a and 326 b. A steering arrangement known in the art may be associated with the catheter 310 in order to direct the placement of the electrode arrays.

In this embodiment a balloon envelope 336 is formed at the distal end 316 of the catheter 310 adjacent electrode 326 a. The balloon 336 can be inflated or deflated through the use of an air supply that passes through an additional lumen in the flexible member and that communicates with the interior of the balloon through an opening formed in the outer wall of the flexible member and which communicates with the lumen. The details of the use of such a balloon and the manner in which it functions are more fully described in Applicant's U.S. Pat. No. 5,697,965, as discussed above.

In order to perform a defibrillation procedure, the flexible member 312 is introduced into the vascular system from the jugular area in a manner known in the art. The flexible member 312 is then guided into the patient's heart 328 until it is placed in the desired position. The flexible member 312 is positioned so that the first electrode array 318 a-318 j is positioned within the superior vena cava 330, the second electrode array 320 a-320 l is positioned within the right atrium 332, and the distal end 316 with the third electrode array 322 a-322 g is positioned within the right ventricle 334.

With the flexible member 312 properly in place, electric shocks are applied through the catheter in order to defibrillate the patient's heart. This is accomplished by connecting the contact pin (not shown) at the proximal end of the proximal lead (not shown) attached to the first and second electrode arrays 318 a-318 j and 320 a-320 l, respectively, and the contact pin (not shown) of the distal lead of the third electrode array 322 a-322 g to an appropriate power source. Thereafter, low energy electrical current is supplied through the electrical leads to the corresponding electrode arrays in order to achieve a normal sinus rhythm in the patient.

More specifically, the atrial pacing/sensing electrode 324 and the bi-polar pacing/sensing stimulation electrodes 326 a and 326 b, sense the occurrence, if any, of fibrillation. If fibrillation is sensed, the heart 328 is defibrillated or cardioverted by the application of at least one electrical shock between the first and second arrays of electrodes 318 a-318 j and 320 a-320 l, respectively, which are connected to the proximal electrical lead and the third array of electrodes 322 a-322 g which is connected to the distal electrical lead. The two proximal common arrays 318 a-318 j and 320 a-320 l on the catheter are coupled together as an anode and the single array 322 a-322 g on the distal end 316 of the flexible member 312 is a cathode. The polarity of the arrays can be reversed to attempt lower defibrillation thresholds in certain patients. As in the first embodiment, approximately 1-50 Joules of energy are discharged through the sinoatrial node and the atrioventricular node to terminate atrial fibrillation.

It should be noted that in all of the embodiments, a continuous flexible electrode may be substituted for any or all of the electrode arrays. This ensures that the electrode is sufficiently flexible so that the same can be easily bent and straightened, as desired, without causing damage to the same. Such an electrode is preferably formed by a process of ion-beam assisted deposition (IBAD). This technology is described in detail in each of U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,468,562; 5,474,797; and 5,492,763, the disclosures of which are incorporated herein by reference. The use of this technique for forming an electrode catheter is also described in co-pending application Ser. No. 08/751,436, filed on Nov. 20, 1996, entitled “Temporary Atrial Defibrillation Catheter with Improved Electrode Configuration and Method of Fabrication.” The subject matter of this co-pending application, commonly owned, is also incorporated herein by reference. The electrodes may also be applied by sputtering, vacuum deposition, printing, or spraying.

An advantage of the present system is that it is easy to use because only one catheter is needed. That is, the three electrode arrays are combined onto one single catheter. It is far easier and faster for physicians to place one catheter, as opposed to two separate devices, in a patient. Also, it is less traumatic and safer for the patient to have one catheter placed within his or her body as opposed to two or more devices.

Another advantage of the present system is that it is easier to use than pulmonary artery defibrillation catheters because electrophysiologists are more familiar with superior vena cava, right atrium, and coronary sinus catheter placement which is routinely used in their practice as opposed to pulmonary artery placement which is used more in pressure monitoring in critical care.

The present invention may be embodied in other forms without departing from the spirit or essential attributes thereof and accordingly, reference should be made to the claims rather than to the foregoing specification as indicating the scope thereof.

Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US5545205Feb 9, 1995Aug 13, 1996Cardiac Pacemakers, Inc.Unitary intravascular defibrillating catheter with bipolar sensing
US5697965Apr 1, 1996Dec 16, 1997Procath CorporationMethod of making an atrial defibrillation catheter
US6122553Sep 9, 1999Sep 19, 2000Uab Research FoundationMethod and apparatus for treating cardiac arrhythmia
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US8068920Jun 28, 2007Nov 29, 2011Vincent A GaudianiTranscoronary sinus pacing system, LV summit pacing, early mitral closure pacing, and methods therefor
US8634935Oct 20, 2011Jan 21, 2014Vincent A. GaudianiTranscoronary sinus pacing system, LV summit pacing, early mitral closure pacing, and methods therefor
Classifications
U.S. Classification607/122
International ClassificationA61N1/39
Cooperative ClassificationA61N1/395, A61N1/3918, A61N1/3956
European ClassificationA61N1/39M, A61N1/39B
Legal Events
DateCodeEventDescription
Oct 15, 2001ASAssignment
Owner name: EP MEDSYSTEMS, INC., NEW JERSEY
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:GRIFFIN, JOSEPH C. III;REEL/FRAME:012269/0184
Effective date: 20010930
Owner name: EP MEDSYSTEMS, INC. 1205 N. KINGS HWY.CHERRY HILL,
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:GRIFFIN, JOSEPH C. III /AR;REEL/FRAME:012269/0184
Owner name: EP MEDSYSTEMS, INC. 1205 N. KINGS HWY.CHERRY HILL,
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:GRIFFIN, JOSEPH C. III /AR;REEL/FRAME:012269/0184
Effective date: 20010930
Mar 5, 2008ASAssignment
Owner name: KELTIC FINANCIAL PARTNERS, LP, NEW YORK
Free format text: SECURITY AGREEMENT;ASSIGNOR:EP MEDSYSTEMS, INC.;REEL/FRAME:020599/0373
Effective date: 20080228
Owner name: KELTIC FINANCIAL PARTNERS, LP,NEW YORK
Free format text: SECURITY AGREEMENT;ASSIGNOR:EP MEDSYSTEMS, INC.;US-ASSIGNMENT DATABASE UPDATED:20100203;REEL/FRAME:20599/373
Owner name: KELTIC FINANCIAL PARTNERS, LP,NEW YORK
Free format text: SECURITY AGREEMENT;ASSIGNOR:EP MEDSYSTEMS, INC.;US-ASSIGNMENT DATABASE UPDATED:20100203;REEL/FRAME:20599/373
Effective date: 20080228
Owner name: KELTIC FINANCIAL PARTNERS, LP,NEW YORK
Free format text: SECURITY AGREEMENT;ASSIGNOR:EP MEDSYSTEMS, INC.;REEL/FRAME:020599/0373
Effective date: 20080228
Apr 1, 2008FPAYFee payment
Year of fee payment: 4
Jul 16, 2008ASAssignment
Owner name: KELTIC FINANCIAL PARTNERS, LP, NEW YORK
Free format text: RELEASE BY SECURED PARTY;ASSIGNOR:EP MEDSYSTEMS, INC.;REEL/FRAME:021243/0030
Effective date: 20080710
Owner name: KELTIC FINANCIAL PARTNERS, LP,NEW YORK
Free format text: RELEASE BY SECURED PARTY;ASSIGNOR:EP MEDSYSTEMS, INC.;US-ASSIGNMENT DATABASE UPDATED:20100203;REEL/FRAME:21243/30
Owner name: KELTIC FINANCIAL PARTNERS, LP,NEW YORK
Free format text: RELEASE BY SECURED PARTY;ASSIGNOR:EP MEDSYSTEMS, INC.;US-ASSIGNMENT DATABASE UPDATED:20100203;REEL/FRAME:21243/30
Effective date: 20080710
Owner name: KELTIC FINANCIAL PARTNERS, LP,NEW YORK
Free format text: RELEASE BY SECURED PARTY;ASSIGNOR:EP MEDSYSTEMS, INC.;REEL/FRAME:021243/0030
Effective date: 20080710
Oct 7, 2011ASAssignment
Owner name: DOT MEDICAL PRODUCTS LTD, UNITED KINGDOM
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:EPMEDSYSTEMS INC & PROCATH INC;REEL/FRAME:027033/0890
Effective date: 20080702
Apr 19, 2012FPAYFee payment
Year of fee payment: 8