Search Images Maps Play YouTube News Gmail Drive More »
Sign in
Screen reader users: click this link for accessible mode. Accessible mode has the same essential features but works better with your reader.

Patents

  1. Advanced Patent Search
Publication numberUS6833766 B2
Publication typeGrant
Application numberUS 10/410,829
Publication dateDec 21, 2004
Filing dateApr 9, 2003
Priority dateApr 19, 2002
Fee statusLapsed
Also published asUS20030197570
Publication number10410829, 410829, US 6833766 B2, US 6833766B2, US-B2-6833766, US6833766 B2, US6833766B2
InventorsKwi-dong Kim, Jong-Kee Kwon, Hee-Bum Jung, Kyung-Soo Kim
Original AssigneeElectronics And Telecommunications Research Institute
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Adaptive loop gain control circuit for voltage controlled oscillator
US 6833766 B2
Abstract
There is provided an adaptive loop gain control circuit for a voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO). The adaptive loop gain control circuit for a voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO) includes a detected voltage generating unit which generates a detected voltage signal according to changes in an operating voltage and an operating temperature, and a control circuit unit which outputs an oscillation control current signal according to the detected voltage signal and an input control voltage signal. The adaptive loop gain control circuit for a voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO) compensates for an oscillation control current according to changes in operating voltage and temperature and compensates for the gain of a phase locked loop (PLL) system, thereby ensuring high operating stability in the PLL circuit.
Images(3)
Previous page
Next page
Claims(5)
What is claimed is:
1. An adaptive loop gain control circuit comprising:
a detected voltage generating unit which generates a detected voltage signal in response to changes in the operating voltage and operating temperature; and
a control circuit unit which outputs an oscillation control current signal according to the detected voltage signal and an input control voltage signal,
wherein the detected voltage generating unit comprises a filter which eliminates noise of the detected voltage signal.
2. The adaptive loop gain control circuit of claim 1, wherein the filter is an RC filter comprising a resistor and a capacitor.
3. The adaptive loop gain control circuit of claim 1, wherein the detected voltage generating unit comprises:
a first MOS transistor which has a gate and a drain that are connected to a first supply voltage and a source that outputs the detected voltage; and
a second MOS transistor which has a gate and a drain that are connected to a second supply voltage and a source that is connected the source of the first MOS transistor.
4. The adaptive loop gain control circuit of claim 1, wherein the control circuit unit comprises:
a first operational amplifier where the input control voltage signal is inputted to a non-inverting terminal and an inverting terminal is connected to an output terminal;
a second operational amplifier where the detected voltage signal is inputted to a non-inverting terminal, an inverting terminal is connected to the output terminal of the first operational amplifier, the second operational amplifier amplifying a difference between output voltages of the detected voltage and the first operational amplifier and outputting the current control voltage signal; and
a third MOS transistor which has a gate connected to the output terminal of the second operational amplifier and a source connected to the first supply voltage and outputs the control current signal to the first supply voltage.
5. The adaptive loop gain control circuit of claim 4, wherein the adaptive loop gain control circuit further comprises a filter comprising a capacitor and a resistor connected with each other in parallel between the inverting terminal and the output terminal of the second operational amplifier.
Description
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

This application claims the priority of Korean Patent Application No. 2002-21644, filed on Apr. 19, 2002, in the Korean Intellectual Property Office, the disclosure of which is incorporated herein in its entirety by reference.

1. Field of the Invention

The present invention relates to an adaptive loop gain control circuit for a voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO), and more particularly, to an adaptive loop gain control circuit which compensates for a loop gain according to changes in an operating voltage and changes in temperature of a voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO) used in a phase locked loop (PLL) system.

2. Description of the Related Art

A phase locked loop (PLL) circuit synchronizes the phase of a received signal, where an oscillator or a periodic signal generator is controlled to operate at in-phase, synchronizes with respect to a reference signal. The PLL circuit has been used in various applications, including synchronous demodulation of a digital modulated wave, coherent carrier tracking, extension of a threshold, synchronization of a bit, and synchronization of a symbol.

FIG. 1 is a block diagram of a general phase locked loop (PLL) system.

Referring to FIG. 1, the PLL system includes a phase detector (PD) 110, a low pass filter (LPF) 120, and a voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO) 130 connected such that an output frequency signal of the voltage-controlled oscillator 130 is sent to the phase detector 110. The voltage-controlled oscillator 130 includes a voltage-to-current converter 131 and a ring oscillator 132. The voltage-to-current converter 131 converts an input control voltage VCON developed by an impedance of the low pass filter 120 into a control current ICON used to control an oscillation frequency corresponding to the input control voltage VCON and supplies the control current ICON to the ring oscillator 132. The ring oscillator 132 includes a plurality of current switches S1 through SN that are connected in a ring-like arrangement where an input is connected to an output having an opposite polarity to that of the input to convert the control current ICON into the oscillation frequency. An oscillation frequency fVCO proportional to the control current ICON in the ring oscillator 132 having the plurality of current switches S1 through SN is calculated as follows, f VCO = N I CON C V O ( 1 )

where C denotes a capacitive load of the current switches, and VO denotes the strength of the oscillation signal.

A frequency gain KVCO of the voltage-controlled oscillator 130, which converts an input control voltage signal into an output frequency signal, can be defined as follows. K VCO = f VCO V CON ( 2 )

Therefore, the frequency gain KVCO of the voltage-controlled oscillator 130 with respect to the control current ICON can be expressed as follows. K VCO = I CON C V O ( 3 )

In addition, the gain A of the PLL system can be expressed as follows, A = K φ K VCO Z ( S ) S ( 4 )

where Kφ denotes a phase difference gain of the phase detector 110, Z(S) denotes an impedance of the low pass filter 120, and S denotes a frequency domain.

According to equation 4, the gain A of the PLL system is primarily proportional to the frequency gain KVCO of the voltage-controlled oscillator 130.

However, if there is a change in the operating environment such as a decrease in operating voltage or an increase in operating temperature, the frequency gain KVCO of the voltage-controlled oscillator 130 decreases. Therefore, the gain A of the PLL system decreases in proportion to the decrease in the frequency gain KVCO of the voltage-controlled oscillator 130. Thus, the input control voltage VCON has to be increased in order to maintain a predetermined oscillation frequency. The voltage-controlled oscillator 130 of the PLL system is sensitive to changes in the gain A of the PLL system under certain operating environments.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

The present invention provides an adaptive loop gain control circuit for a voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO), which is capable of maximizing a linear region of an input control voltage and compensating for a gain of the PLL system in response to changes in the operating environment, in order to ensure wide operating stability of a phase locked loop (PLL) system.

According to an aspect of the present invention, there is provided a adaptive loop gain control circuit comprising a detected voltage generating unit which generates a detected voltage signal in response to changes in the operating voltage and operating temperature; and a control circuit unit which outputs an oscillation control current signal according to the detected voltage signal and an input control voltage signal.

It is preferable that the detected voltage generating unit comprises a filter which eliminates noise of the detected voltage signal. The filter is an RC filter comprising a resistor and a capacitor.

The detected voltage generating unit comprises a first MOS transistor which has a gate and a drain that are connected to a first supply voltage and a source that outputs the detected voltage; and a second MOS transistor which has a gate and a drain that are connected to a second supply voltage and a source that is connected the source of the first MOS transistor.

It is preferable that the control circuit unit comprises a first operational amplifier where the input control voltage signal is inputted to a non-inverting terminal and an inverting terminal is connected to an output terminal; a second operation amplifier where the detected voltage signal is input to a non-inverting terminal, an inverting terminal is connected to the output terminal of the first operation amplifier, the second operation amplifier amplifying a difference between output voltages of the detected voltage and the first operational amplifier and outputting the current control voltage signal; and a third MOS transistor which has a gate connected to the output terminal of the second operational amplifier and a source connected to the first supply voltage and outputs the control current signal to the first supply voltage. Here, it is preferable that the adaptive loop gain control circuit further comprises a filter comprising a capacitor and a resistor connected each other in parallel between the inverting terminal and the output terminal of the second operational amplifier.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

The above and other features and advantages of the present invention will become more apparent by describing in a detail exemplary embodiment thereof with reference to the attached drawings in which:

FIG. 1 is a block diagram of a general phase locked loop (PLL) system;

FIG. 2 is a circuit diagram of an adaptive loop gain control circuit according to the present invention; and

FIG. 3 is a graph showing changes in a detected voltage with respect to changes in the operating voltage and temperature of the adaptive loop gain control circuit of FIG. 2.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

The present invention now will be described more fully with reference to the accompanying drawings, in which a preferred embodiment of the invention are shown.

FIG. 2 is a circuit diagram of an adaptive loop gain control circuit according to the present invention.

Referring to FIG. 2, an adaptive loop gain control circuit 200 according to the present invention includes a detected voltage generating unit 210 and a control circuit unit 220. The detected voltage generating unit 210 generates a detected voltage signal VS which has information on an operating voltage and an operating temperature. The control circuit unit 220 controls an oscillation frequency of a voltage-controlled oscillator in response to the detected voltage signal VS and an input control voltage signal.

The detected voltage generating unit 210 includes an n-channel MOS transistor NMOS, a first p-channel MOS transistor PMOS1, a first resistor 211, a second resistor 212, and a first capacitor 213. The gate of the n-channel MOS transistor NMOS is connected to a supply voltage VCC, and the drain of the n-channel MOS transistor NMOS is also connected to the supply voltage VCC. The source of the n-channel MOS transistor NMOS is connected to the source of the first p-channel MOS transistor PMOS1 and used as an input terminal of the control circuit unit 220. The gate and the drain of the first p-channel MOS transistor PMOS1 are connected to the supply voltage VSS, and the source of the first p-channel MOS transistor PMOS1 is connected to the source of the n-channel MOS transistor NMOS. The first resistor 211 and the second resistor 212 are connected with each other in series. One end of the first resistor 211 is connected to the supply voltage VSS, and one end of the second resistor 212 is connected to the supply voltage VCC. The first capacitor 213 is disposed between a first node n1 and a second node n2. The first node n1 is disposed between the first resistor 211 and the second resistor 212. The second node n2 is disposed between the source of the n-channel MOS transistor NMOS and the source of the first p-channel MOS transistor PMOS1.

The control circuit unit 220 includes a first amplifier 221, a second amplifier 222, and a second p-channel MOS transistor PMOS2. The first amplifier 221 and the second amplifier 222 each include an operational amplifier. An input control signal VCON is input to the non-inverting terminal (+) of the first amplifier 221, and the output terminal of the first amplifier 221 is connected to the inverting terminal (−) of the first amplifier 221. The non-inverting terminal (+) of the second amplifier 222 is connected to the source of the n-channel MOS transistor NMOS and the source of the first p-channel MOS transistor (PMOS1) of the detected voltage generating unit 210. The detected voltage signal VS at the second node n2 of the detected voltage generating unit 210 is input to the non-inverting terminal (+) of the second amplifier 222. The inverting terminal (−) of the second amplifier 222 passes through a third resistor 223 and is connected to the output terminal of the first amplifier 221. The inverting terminal (−) of the second amplifier 222 is connected to one side of a circuit in which a fourth resistor 224 and a second capacitor 225 are connected in parallel and the other side of the circuit is connected to the output terminal of the second amplifier 222. The output terminal of the second amplifier 222 is connected to the gate of a second p-channel MOS transistor PMOS2. The source of the second p-channel MOS transistor PMOS2 is connected to the supply voltage VCC, and a drain of the second p-channel MOS transistor PMOS2 is connected to an output terminal of an oscillation control current ICON.

The adaptive loop gain control circuit operates as follows.

Since the supply voltages VCC and VSS are connected to gates and sources of the n-channel MOS transistor NMOS and the first p-channel MOS transistor PMOS1, the n-channel MOS transistor NMOS and the first p-channel MOS transistor PMOS1 operate in a saturation region all the time. The strength of the detected voltage signal VS at the second node n2 of the detected voltage generating unit 210 can be expressed as follows by using a relationship between currents of the n-channel MOS transistor NMOS and the first p-channel MOS transistor PMOS1, V S = V SS + V CC K N K P 1 + K N K P ( 5 )

where KN denotes the operating temperature coefficient of the n-channel MOS transistor NMOS, KP denotes the operating temperature coefficient of the first p-channel MOS transistor PMOS1. In general, KP is greater than KN.

As expressed in equation 5, the detected voltage signal VS is a function between the supply voltage VCC and VSS and the operating temperature. That is, the detected voltage signal VS decreases at a rate of 1 + K N K P

in proportion to an increase in the operating temperature. The first capacitor 213, the first resistor 211, and the second resistor 212 are used as an RC filter which filters noise of the detected voltage signal VS.

FIG. 3 is a graph showing changes in a detected voltage according to changes in the operating voltage and a temperature in the adaptive loop gain control circuit of FIG. 2. In FIG. 3, the axis of abscissa indicates the strength of the operating voltage and the operating temperature, the left axis of ordinates indicates a detected voltage VS, and the right axis of ordinates indicates an oscillation control current ICON.

Referring to FIG. 3, as the strength of operating voltages VCC and VSS increases, the detected voltage VS increases (310). As the detected voltage VS increases, a current control voltage VCOM increases (320). In addition, as the operating temperature increases, the detected voltage VS is reduced (330). As the detected voltage VS decreases, the current control voltage VCOM is reduced (340). The increase or decrease in the current control voltage VCOM due to an increase in the supply voltages VCC and VSS and the operating temperature compensate for the oscillation control current ICON in response to changes in the strength of the operating voltage and the operating temperature. Thus, the gain of the PLL system with respect to changes in the operating voltage and temperature is compensated for by the input control voltage VCON corresponding to a predetermined frequency of an oscillator of the PLL circuit.

Referring to FIG. 2, when the gain of the first amplifier 221 of the detected voltage generating unit 210 is 1, the input control voltage VCON is output from the output terminal of the first amplifier 221 without changes in the strength of the input control voltage VCON. The detected voltage signal VS, which has information on changes in the operating voltage and the operating temperature, is inputted to the non-inverting terminal (+) of the second amplifier 222. A voltage signal V1 is input to the inverting terminal (−) of the second amplifier 222, and the voltage signal V1 can be expressed as follows, V 1 = R 3 V COM - V CON R 3 + R 4 ( 6 )

where R3 denotes a resistance of the third resistor 223, and R4 denotes a resistance of the fourth resistor 224. The difference of voltage VS and V1 is amplified by the second amplifier 222 and the current control voltage VCOM is output from the output terminal of the second amplifier 222. The current control voltage VCOM can be expressed as follows. V COM ( R 4 R 3 + 1 ) V S - V CON R 4 R 3 ( 7 )

As shown in equation 7, a range of changes in the input control voltage VCON and the current control voltage VCOM which makes it possible to control the oscillation control current ICON is from 0V to ( R 4 R 3 + 1 ) V S ,

and the input control voltage VCON and the current control voltage VCOM can be changed by adjusting the resistance R3 and R4 of the third resistor 223 and the fourth resistor 224. The second capacitor 225, which is connected between the non-inverting terminal (−) and the output terminal of the second amplifier 222, eliminates noise of the output terminal of the second amplifier 222 and fortifies a gain of the second amplifier 222. The current control voltage VCOM output from the second amplifier 222 is input to the gate of the second p-channel MOS transistor (PMOS2). If the second p-channel MOS transistor (PMOS2) operates in a saturation region, the oscillation control current ICON can be expressed as follows, I CON = K P3 [ V CC - ( R 4 R 3 + 1 ) V S + V CON R 4 R 3 - V TP2 ] 2 ( 8 )

where KP3 denotes a current coefficient of the second p-channel MOS transistor (PMOS2), and VTP2 denotes a threshold voltage of the second p-channel MOS transistor (PMOS2).

As shown in equation 8 defining the oscillation control current ICON and equation 5 defining the detected voltage VS, the gain of the PLL system, which is primarily proportional to the oscillation control current ICON output from the source of the second p-channel MOS transistor PMOS2 according to changes in the operating voltage and the operating temperature, is compensated for by changes in the detected voltage VS.

As described above, the adaptive loop gain control circuit for the voltage-controlled oscillator according to the present invention compensates for the oscillation control current in response to changes in the operating voltage and the operating temperature, and the gain of the PLL system is compensated for according to compensation of the oscillation control current, thereby ensuring high operating stability in the PLL circuit.

While the present invention has been particularly shown and described with reference to exemplary embodiments thereof, it will be understood by those of ordinary skill in the art that various changes in form and details may be made therein without departing from the spirit and scope of the present invention as defined by the following claims.

Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US5896068Mar 30, 1998Apr 20, 1999Cypress Semiconductor Corp.Voltage controlled oscillator (VCO) frequency gain compensation circuit
US5963101Nov 18, 1997Oct 5, 1999Vlsi Technology, Inc.VCO with local feedback for low power supply noise sensitivity
US5973573Nov 18, 1997Oct 26, 1999Vlsi Technology, Inc.VCO circuit having low gain variation over different processes and operating temperatures and having low power supply noise sensitivity
US6094104 *Mar 1, 1999Jul 25, 2000Micron Technology, Inc.Voltage and temperature compensated ring oscillator frequency stabilizer
US6229403Jul 28, 1999May 8, 2001Yamaha CorporationVoltage-controlled oscillator
US6466100 *Jan 8, 2001Oct 15, 2002International Business Machines CorporationLinear voltage controlled oscillator transconductor with gain compensation
US20020041215 *Feb 14, 2001Apr 11, 2002Masashi KiyosePhase-locked loop
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US7313057 *Jul 16, 2004Dec 25, 2007Via Technologies, Inc.Method for adjusting a control parameter and optical disc drive server system using the same
US7706474Nov 14, 2005Apr 27, 2010Ibiquity Digital CorporationCarrier tracking for AM in-band on-channel radio receivers
US9184498Mar 17, 2014Nov 10, 2015Gigoptix, Inc.Extending beamforming capability of a coupled voltage controlled oscillator (VCO) array during local oscillator (LO) signal generation through fine control of a tunable frequency of a tank circuit of a VCO thereof
US9275690May 30, 2012Mar 1, 2016Tahoe Rf Semiconductor, Inc.Power management in an electronic system through reducing energy usage of a battery and/or controlling an output power of an amplifier thereof
US9509351Jul 27, 2012Nov 29, 2016Tahoe Rf Semiconductor, Inc.Simultaneous accommodation of a low power signal and an interfering signal in a radio frequency (RF) receiver
US9531070Mar 17, 2014Dec 27, 2016Christopher T. SchillerExtending beamforming capability of a coupled voltage controlled oscillator (VCO) array during local oscillator (LO) signal generation through accommodating differential coupling between VCOs thereof
US20050013215 *Jul 16, 2004Jan 20, 2005Yi-Lin LaiMethod for adjusting a control parameter and optical disc drive server system using the same
US20070110186 *Nov 14, 2005May 17, 2007Ibiquity Digital CorporationCarrier tracking for AM in-band on-channel radio receivers
Classifications
U.S. Classification331/17, 331/74
International ClassificationH03L7/099, H03L1/00
Cooperative ClassificationH03L7/0995, H03L1/00
European ClassificationH03L1/00, H03L7/099C
Legal Events
DateCodeEventDescription
Apr 9, 2003ASAssignment
Owner name: ELECTRONICS AND TELECOMMUNICATIONS RESEARCH INSTIT
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:KIM, KWI DONG;KWON, JONG KEE;JUNG, HEE BUM;AND OTHERS;REEL/FRAME:013963/0539
Effective date: 20030319
Jun 6, 2008FPAYFee payment
Year of fee payment: 4
Nov 3, 2009ASAssignment
Owner name: IPG ELECTRONICS 502 LIMITED
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ONE HALF (1/2) OF ALL OF ASSIGNORS' RIGHT, TITLE AND INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:ELECTRONICS AND TELECOMMUNICATIONS RESEARCH INSTITUTE;REEL/FRAME:023456/0363
Effective date: 20081226
Jun 14, 2012FPAYFee payment
Year of fee payment: 8
Jul 23, 2012ASAssignment
Owner name: PENDRAGON ELECTRONICS AND TELECOMMUNICATIONS RESEA
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:IPG ELECTRONICS 502 LIMITED;ELECTRONICS AND TELECOMMUNICATIONS RESEARCH INSTITUTE;SIGNING DATES FROM 20120410 TO 20120515;REEL/FRAME:028611/0643
Jul 29, 2016REMIMaintenance fee reminder mailed
Dec 21, 2016LAPSLapse for failure to pay maintenance fees
Feb 7, 2017FPExpired due to failure to pay maintenance fee
Effective date: 20161221