|Publication number||US6836330 B2|
|Application number||US 10/112,985|
|Publication date||Dec 28, 2004|
|Filing date||Mar 28, 2002|
|Priority date||Sep 19, 2000|
|Also published as||CN1469993A, EP1322926A2, US6738140, US20020093657, US20020126288, WO2002025232A2, WO2002025232A3|
|Publication number||10112985, 112985, US 6836330 B2, US 6836330B2, US-B2-6836330, US6836330 B2, US6836330B2|
|Inventors||Stephen R. Friberg, Charles C. Harb|
|Original Assignee||Lambda Control, Inc.|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (23), Classifications (7), Legal Events (6)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
This application is a continuation-in-part of application Ser. No. 09/954,086 filed Sep. 17, 2001, which application claims priority to Provisional Application Ser. No. 60/233,836 filed Sep. 19, 2000.
This invention relates generally to a wavelength detector and a polarization sensor that can be used to measure the wavelength or the polarization state of a monochromatic optical signal. Specifically, it provides a means to adjust the properties of a beamsplitter so that it is better suited to either one or the other task. This invention can be used in the fields of optics, telecommunications, and laser spectroscopy.
Wavelength measurement devices that are used to detect, monitor and control a laser's wavelength and polarization are emerging as integral components of laser optical systems. There are growing demands for wavelength and polarization measurement devices because the telecommunications, spectroscopic, and analytical chemistry industries have grown to the point where accurate management of these properties is essential. The development of dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) systems in telecommunications, and high sensitivity spectroscopic systems in analytical chemistry has led to a demand for wavelength and polarization measurement and control systems that are fast, accurate, give real time wavelength readouts, and are inexpensive.
In optical telecommunications systems, for example, the laser light sources have to be held to a wavelength that moves by less than 1 GHz and at a constant polarization if they are to operate in DWDM systems that have wavelength spacings of 100 GHz or less. This process is achieved using wavelength and polarization measurement devices that samples the output of a laser and provide a signal that can be used to adjust the laser's properties to the correct value and limit its deviation from that value. Additionally, wavelength measurement devices are used to accurately switch the laser wavelength from one telecommunications channel (ITU channel) to another while maintaining the polarization state. Rapid and accurate wavelength switching (microseconds to nanosecond switching times) over a wide wavelength range (40 nm at 1550 nm) is emerging as a new, and essential requirement for DWDM systems.
In spectroscopy and analytical chemistry, concentrations of chemical constituents or molecular and atomic components can be easily and inexpensively measured with tunable diode lasers provided there exists an accurate and reasonably rapid means to tune the laser to the required wavelength.
Furthermore, the polarization of the laser light on entrance and exit of an optical system needs to be monitored and controlled so that its trajectory through the system can be optimized.
Historically, wavelength measurements have been performed in several ways.
1. A prism or diffraction grating is used to disperse different wavelengths into different directions, each direction corresponding to a unique wavelength. By scanning the directions with a slit and a detector sensitive to light intensity, the wavelength properties of an optical signal can be determined.
2. Alternatively, a scanning optical interferometer can be employed, typically a Michelson interferometer. The wavelength of an optical signal is determined by changing the length of the interferometer by a known amount, and counting the number of interference fringes (a narrow bandwidth optical signal is assumed).
To determine the wavelength of an optical signal with very high accuracy, these measurement techniques must be augmented by a calibration measurement where:
a) the unknown wavelength is compared to a spectroscopic signal; or
b) the unknown wavelength is compared to stabilized laser signal.
Both measurement methods required mechanical movement. Therefore, considerable time is required for the measurement to be performed, typically on the order of seconds. Also, due to requirements for stable mechanical accuracies at micron dimensions, expensive and bulky mechanical components are required. With accurate calibration, great accuracies can be achieved with these techniques, better than 1*10−13 meter resolution, however the time to take the measurements limited their usage in many applications. The need for mechanical stability and repeatability, combined with the complexity of calibration measurements, ensures that the measurement devices are bulky and costly, restricting their usage.
Methods have been developed that partially solve some of these problems. If measurements are to be performed on a monochromatic signal (i.e., one where the bandwidth is very small compared to the center frequency) at a specific wavelength, a dielectric bandpass filter or a Fabry-Perot etalon can be used in place of a wavelength reference. When an optical signal is incident on a dielectric filter or a Fabry-Perot etalon at or near a resonance, transmission through (or reflection from) the filter or etalon is determined by the wavelength of the optical signal and the resonant characteristics of the dielectric filter or etalon. This is illustrated in FIGS. 1 and 2 which show a dielectric filter 11 a, FIG. 1, and an etalon 11 b, FIG. 2, in a wavelength measurement system. The light beam is applied to a beamsplitter 12. Light from the beamsplitter is applied directly to photodiode 13 and to a second photodiode 14 after it has been transmitted (or reflected) by the dielectric filter 11 a or etalon 11 b. The outputs of the photodiodes are then compared. The use of a beamsplitter and photodiodes eliminates any error due to changes in beam intensity. A measurement of the transmission (or reflection) therefore determines the wavelength of the light, except that the same transmission (or reflection) can correspond to different wavelengths. When the wavelength of the source is approximately known, as is sometimes the case, this is not a problem. More generally, it means that the wavelength has been determined to be one of several values. For the case of a dielectric bandpass filter with a single transmission peak, the wavelength is determined to be one of two values. In the case of a Fabry-Perot etalon with multiple resonances, the wavelength can be one of multiple values.
These methods make possible wavelength locking of a monochromatic laser light source to a desired wavelength. When the wavelength of the source differs from the desired wavelength, that selected by the filter or etalon, the transmission of the light through the filter or etalon differs from the desired transmission as determined by the output of the two photodiodes. The difference is used to provide an error correction signal that can be used to adjust the wavelength of the laser source to the correct value.
If a bandpass dielectric filter is used for wavelength measurement or wavelength locking, the disadvantage is that it works over a limited wavelength range (typically <2 nm). This means that it cannot be used for applications such a tunable telecommunications lasers where wide wavelength tunability is an important requirement. It also has the disadvantage that the wavelength resolution is dependent on the quality of the thin film coating, which often has ripple or etalon effects that limit the accuracy with which the transmission can be measured.
If a Fabry-Perot etalon is used for wavelength measurement or wavelength locking, it allows wavelength measurement and wavelength locking at a number of different wavelengths corresponding to different resonances of the Fabry-Perot. A disadvantage is that measurement accuracies are restricted by mechanical and thermal stability. Another disadvantage is that Fabry-Perot etalon have multiple resonant transmission peaks and therefore multiple wavelengths that give the same transmission. Thus, the absolute wavelength of the measurement cannot be determined. An additional disadvantage is that the measurement accuracy obtainable with an etalon is very poor at wavelengths situated halfway between its resonances. For telecommunications systems, Fabry-Perot etalon dimensions are inversely proportional to channel spacings.
Polarization sensors have been either devices that preferentially direct one polarization of light along one trajectory and the other polarization along a second path, or devices that only allow one polarization to pass and destroy the other. Both of these devices are susceptible to laser intensity noise, as they both determine the best orientation of the laser polarization with respect to the device by measuring the intensity of the field that is transmitted.
Objects and Advantages of the Invention
It is an object of the present invention to provide an apparatus and method that overcomes many of the foregoing problems. One set of advantages of the present invention is that the wavelength readout signal is monotonically related to the wavelength of the incident beam over ranges that can be in excess of 40 nm, is stable to better than ±7 pm over this range, and with minor improvements could reach <±3 pm without altering the optical path length, and the speed at which wavelengths are read is only limited to the speed of the photodetection system.
Other objects of the present invention are:
a) to provide an inexpensive apparatus and method for measuring the wavelength or the polarization of light,
(b) to provide apparatus for measuring the wavelength or the polarization of light that can be readily miniaturized,
(c) to measure the wavelength or the polarization of light without knowing the approximate wavelength or the polarization in advance,
(d) to provide a feedback signal that can be used to lock the wavelength output or the polarization state of an optical light source such as a single-mode laser or optical parametric oscillator,
(e) to provide an inexpensive means for measuring the wavelength or the polarization of optical signals from spectroscopic sources used in environmental and chemical analysis,
(f) to provide a means for measuring the wavelength or the polarization fluctuations of a light source, and
(g) to provide a means for measuring the wavelength irrespective of the polarization of the laser light that is incident on the unit,
(h) to provide a means for measuring the polarization of a light field irrespective of the wavelength of the laser light that is incident on the unit.
The objectives and advantages of the invention are achieved by an optical measurement system that directs the laser light into two predetermined paths that travel through a beamsplitter configuration that is optimized for wavelength monitoring or polarization monitoring. The light in each of the paths is detected by a photodetector that provides photocurrent that is received by log amplifiers which provide the logarithm of the photocurrent intensity. A subtractor receives the log outputs of the two photocurrents and provides a signal indicative of wavelength or polarization of the laser, depending on the beamsplitter characteristics.
More particularly, the apparatus includes an optical system comprising an optical beamsplitter that divides the incident laser beam into two beams; one spectral filter that acts to reflect the longer laser wavelengths more strongly than the shorter wavelengths, or a mirror that reflects all of the light of the first beam; one spectral filter that acts to reflect the shorter laser wavelengths more strongly than the longer wavelengths, or a mirror that reflects all the light of the second beam; photodetectors to capture the light from the two beam paths and generate photocurrents; log-amplifiers for receiving said photocurrents and providing the logarithm of the two photocurrents; and a subtractor for subtracting the logarithm of the two photocurrents and provide an output signal indicative of wavelength.
The analog electronic system may be comprised of one photodetector preamplifier for each of the photodetectors; one logarithmic amplifier for each of the photodetected signals; and a difference amplifier for subtracting the two logarithmic signals. A digital signal processing system can be used to replace the analog electronics, if the functionality is maintained.
The present invention will be better understood by reading the following detailed description in conjunction with the accompanying drawings in which:
FIG. 1 is a schematic diagram of a prior art apparatus for measuring the wavelength of an optical signal.
FIG. 2 is a schematic diagram of another prior art apparatus for measuring the wavelength of an optical signal.
FIG. 3 is a schematic diagram of a detector for measuring the wavelength of an optical signal or beam in accordance with an embodiment of the invention.
FIG. 4 is a schematic diagram of a detector for measuring the wavelength of an optical signal or beam in accordance with another embodiment of the invention.
FIG. 5 is a schematic diagram of a detector for measuring wavelength including a wedged beamsplitter.
FIG. 6 is a schematic diagram of another detector for measuring wavelength including a wedge beamsplitter.
FIG. 7 shows the output signal as a function of wavelength for a detector using two filters having characteristics which vary with wavelength.
FIG. 8 shows the wedge angle to choose as a function of incident signal angle to a wavelength sensor or a polarization sensor.
FIGS. 9 and 10 are schematic diagrams of detectors in which two beamsplitters replace the wedge beamsplitters of FIGS. 5 and 6.
FIG. 3 shows the basic optical and electrical components of a wavelength detector in accordance with one embodiment of the present invention. The detector is positioned to receive an optical signal (beam) Iin. The detector includes a beamsplitter 22 whose transmission varies with wavelength to form two beams 23 and 24. The beams are received by photodetectors 26 and 27. Analog log-amplifier circuits 28 and 29 receive the output of the photodetectors and provide the log of the current received from the photodetectors. The two log outputs are subtracted by subtractor or difference amplifier 31 to provide a signal representative of wavelength of the optical signal. This signal can then be used with a look-up table or the like to provide a measurement of wavelength.
FIG. 4 illustrates another embodiment of the invention where like parts have been given like reference numbers. In this embodiment, the beamsplitter 33 merely splits the input beam Iin into two beams 34 and 36. The beams then impinge upon reflective filters 37 and 38 which are short-wavelength pass (SWP) and long-wavelength pass (LWP) filters which have reflection characteristics which vary with wavelength. The same results can be achieved by filters in which the transmission of short and long wavelength light varies with wavelength. The photodetectors and analog circuits are the same as described above with reference to FIG. 3 and bear the same reference numbers.
If we assume that the laser beam Iin, is split into two fields or beams 34 and 36, with beam intensities (1−η)*Iin and η*Iin, where η is the splitting ratio and is approximately equal to 0.5, and each beam is modified by the appropriate spectral filters 37, 38, then the resulting photocurrents are:
where I1 and I2 are the intensity of the output from the photodiodes 26 and 27.
Each of the two photo-currents are amplified and then converted to a logarithm by a logarithmic amplifiers 28, 29. The resulting voltages are then subtracted in subtractor 31.
The output current Iwd is indicative of wavelength.
Note that the signal Iwd is independent of the laser intensity Iin. Also, Iwd is dependent on the beamsplitter ratio, η, as well as the spectral filters F1 and F2. Thus, if any of these components vary in magnitude as a function of wavelength the output signal is indicative of wavelength or polarization.
If the beamsplitter ratio is left constant, we can choose to vary the reflectance of the filters in the system as a function of wavelength in, for example, a Gaussian fashion. We can consider the case where 37 reflects the shorter wavelengths more strongly than the longer wavelengths, and 38 reflects the longer wavelengths more strongly than the shorter wavelengths. FIG. 7 shows the resulting wavelength detector signal Iwd for this situation. Under these conditions, the signal is linear over the usable range of the filters. Thus, this system maximizes the useable range of the detector.
However, the beamsplitter ratio tends to be dependent on the polarization of the laser field. Thus, η tend to be different for the s and p polarizations of the laser field and has values ηs and ηp. The resulting wavelength detector signal becomes Iwds and Iwdp, shown in FIG. 7. Thin film reflective coatings can be developed that maximize the difference between ηs and ηp, but this is usually only possible over a small wavelength range.
Fresnel's laws of reflection precisely describe amplitude and phase relationships between reflected and incident light at a boundary between two dielectric media. It is convenient to think of incident radiation as the superposition of two plane-polarized beams, one with its electric field parallel to the plane of incidence (p-polarized) and the other with its electric field perpendicular to the plane of incidence (s-polarized). Fresnel's laws can be summarized in the following two equations which give the reflectance of the s- and p-polarized components:
Where θi is the angle of incidence of the laser field to the boundary and θt is the angle of transmission through the boundary. The relationship between θi and θt can be calculated using Snell's law. For an air/glass interface with the glass having a refractive index of 1.52, and at normal incident, the intensity of the reflected light will be 4% of the incident light. However, at all other incidence angles, the reflected s- and p-polarizations have different values. The conservation of energy also indicates that the transmitted s- and p-polarizations will also have different values. Therefore, a single dielectric interface cannot be used as a beamsplitter that produces a constant split ratio for all polarization states unless the field is incidence normal to the boundary.
This polarization disparity may seem to be a problem, but it can be controlled. FIGS. 5 and 6 show two optical configurations for a wedged beamsplitter having a reflective back surface 42 in which the beamsplit ratio for s- and p- polarizations can be controlled or adjusted. The angle of the back surface 42 of the beamsplitter 41 with respect to the front surface can be used to either minimize or maximize the disparity between the split ratios. When the angle of the wedge on the back face 42 of the beamsplitter is adjusted to minimize the disparity, the device can be used as a wavelength sensor. This is achieved by using 37 to reflect the shorter laser wavelengths more strongly than the longer wavelengths, and 38 to reflect the longer wavelengths more strongly than the shorter wavelengths. In FIG. 5, the reflectors 37 and 38 reflected light 43 from the front surface to the reflector 38 and from the angled back surface 42 to the reflector 37. The light reflected by the reflectors 37 and 38 are received by photodetectors 27 and 26, respectively. The log amplifiers 28 and 29 receive the output of the detectors and provide a log of the current received from the photodetector. The outputs of the log amplifiers is applied to difference amplifier 31. When the angle of the wedge on the back face of the beamsplitter is adjusted to maximize the disparity, the device can be used as a polarization sensor. This is achieved by using 37 and 38 to reflect all the laser wavelengths equally.
FIG. 8 shows the wedge angle to choose as a function of incident angle that optimizes for either wavelength sensing or polarization sensing.
Rather than using a wedge beamsplitter, one can use two beamsplitters 92 and 93, FIGS. 9 and 10. The first surface of the beamsplitter 92 reflects the light 43 into reflector 38 and the front surface of the second beamsplitter 93 which is disposed at an angle reflects light onto the reflector 37. The reflected light is detected by photodetectors 26 and 27, log amplified by log amplifiers 28 and 29, and applied to difference amplifier 31. The back surfaces of the beamsplitters 92 and 93 are preferably coated with an anti-reflection coating. The difference between FIGS. 9 and 10 shows that the beamsplitter 93 can be rotated about a horizontal plane and give the same results.
Thus, there has been described an optical beamsplitter which is configurable in such as way as to produce an inexpensive wavelength sensor which can be miniaturized and which accurately measures wavelength without having to know the approximate wavelength in advance. The wavelength detector can be used to lock the wavelength output of an optical source and it can be used to measure wavelength fluctuations in an optical source. Also described is an inexpensive polarization sensor which can be miniaturized and which accurately measures the polarization field without having to destroy the field.
The foregoing descriptions of specific embodiments of the present invention are presented for the purposes of illustration and description. They are not intended to be exhaustive or to limit the invention to the precise forms disclosed; obviously many modifications and variations are possible in view of the above teachings. The embodiments were chosen and described in order to best explain the principles of the invention and its practical applications, to thereby enable others skilled in the art to best utilize the invention and various embodiments with various modifications as are suited to the particular use contemplated. It is intended that the scope of the invention be defined by the following claims and their equivalents.
|Cited Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US4309604 *||Jul 24, 1979||Jan 5, 1982||Sharp Kabushiki Kaisha||Apparatus for sensing the wavelength and intensity of light|
|US4309671||Dec 18, 1980||Jan 5, 1982||The Post Office||Control apparatus|
|US4904088 *||Sep 13, 1988||Feb 27, 1990||U.S. Philips Corporation||Method and apparatus for determining radiation wavelengths and wavelength-corrected radiation power of monochromatic light sources|
|US5515169 *||Oct 13, 1993||May 7, 1996||Labintelligence Inc.||Spectral wavelength discrimination system and method for using|
|US5706301||Aug 16, 1995||Jan 6, 1998||Telefonaktiebolaget L M Ericsson||Laser wavelength control system|
|US5729347||Nov 8, 1996||Mar 17, 1998||So; Vincent||Optical wavelength measurement system|
|US5760419||Jul 31, 1996||Jun 2, 1998||The Board Of Trustees Of The Leland Stanford Junior University||Monolithic wavelength meter and photodetector using a wavelength dependent reflector|
|US5777763||Jan 16, 1996||Jul 7, 1998||Bell Communications Research, Inc.||In-line optical wavelength reference and control module|
|US5798859||Jun 20, 1996||Aug 25, 1998||Jds Fitel Inc.||Method and device for wavelength locking|
|US5825792||Jul 11, 1996||Oct 20, 1998||Northern Telecom Limited||Wavelength monitoring and control assembly for WDM optical transmission systems|
|US5850292||Nov 13, 1997||Dec 15, 1998||Hewlett-Packard Company||Wavelength monitor for optical signals|
|US5963686||Jun 24, 1997||Oct 5, 1999||Oplink Communications, Inc.||Low cost, easy to build precision wavelength locker|
|US6005995||Aug 1, 1997||Dec 21, 1999||Dicon Fiberoptics, Inc.||Frequency sorter, and frequency locker for monitoring frequency shift of radiation source|
|US6046813||Feb 4, 1999||Apr 4, 2000||Fujitsu Limilted||Wavelength detecting device|
|US6088142||Mar 13, 1997||Jul 11, 2000||Oplink Communications, Inc.||System and method for precision wavelength monitoring|
|US6094271||Jan 26, 1999||Jul 25, 2000||Ando Electric Co., Ltd.||Wavelength measuring system|
|US6122301||Jun 15, 1999||Sep 19, 2000||Santec Corporation||Laser light source apparatus|
|US6178002||Dec 3, 1998||Jan 23, 2001||Thomas Mueller-Wirts||Method and device for measuring and stabilization using signals from a Fabry-Perot|
|US6212210||Oct 21, 1998||Apr 3, 2001||Hitachi, Ltd.||Control method and apparatus for stabilizing optical wavelength|
|US6215801||Mar 5, 1999||Apr 10, 2001||Lucent Technologies, Inc.||Wavelength stabilized laser|
|US6233263||Jun 4, 1999||May 15, 2001||Bandwidth9||Monitoring and control assembly for wavelength stabilized optical system|
|US6243403||Jan 11, 1999||Jun 5, 2001||Agere Systems Optoelectronics Guardian Corp||Method and apparatus for integrated optical wavelength stabilization|
|EP0516318A2||May 18, 1992||Dec 2, 1992||Pioneer Electronic Corporation||Apparatus for controlling semiconductor laser operating temperature|
|U.S. Classification||356/419, 356/416, 250/226, 250/225|
|Mar 28, 2002||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: LAMBDA CONTROL, INC., CALIFORNIA
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:FRIBERG, STEPHEN R.;HARB, CHARLES C.;REEL/FRAME:012753/0699
Effective date: 20020325
|Feb 28, 2005||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: FRIBERG, STEPHEN R., CALIFORNIA
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:LAMBDA CONTROL, INC.;REEL/FRAME:016309/0633
Effective date: 20050129
|Apr 23, 2007||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: VERITAS OPERATING CORPORATION, CALIFORNIA
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:VERITAS SOFTWARE CORPORATION;REEL/FRAME:019214/0061
Effective date: 20050630
|Jul 7, 2008||REMI||Maintenance fee reminder mailed|
|Dec 28, 2008||LAPS||Lapse for failure to pay maintenance fees|
|Feb 17, 2009||FP||Expired due to failure to pay maintenance fee|
Effective date: 20081228