|Publication number||US6841393 B2|
|Application number||US 10/160,575|
|Publication date||Jan 11, 2005|
|Filing date||May 31, 2002|
|Priority date||Oct 19, 1999|
|Also published as||EP1509196A1, US20030007942, WO2003101416A1|
|Publication number||10160575, 160575, US 6841393 B2, US 6841393B2, US-B2-6841393, US6841393 B2, US6841393B2|
|Inventors||David W. Koenig|
|Original Assignee||Kimberly-Clark Worldwide, Inc.|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (43), Non-Patent Citations (28), Referenced by (4), Classifications (35), Legal Events (6)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
This application is a continuation-in-part of Ser. No. 09/420,472, filed on Oct. 19, 1999 now U.S. Pat. 6,503,761.
The present invention is directed to a system and method whereby contaminants may be selectively bound to colored particles and removed from skin using magnets.
Humans have vast amounts of debris and microbes existing in their bodily fluids and on their skin. Many of the microbes are beneficial to the health and well-being of the individual. However, many of these microbes are contaminants which are not beneficial. Many of these non-beneficial microbes exist in body fluids which contact the skin, such as tears, perspiration, oils, nasal secretions, and bodily waste. The microbes may also exist in wounds. These microbes, along with debris contaminants, may irritate the skin causing a variety of skin problems such as rashes, breakouts, clogged pores, or discoloration of the skin or, in the case of wounds, may slow down the rate at which the wound will heal.
Many different products have been produced to help eliminate the problems associated with debris and non-beneficial microbes. Various cleaning products include detergents which effectively remove excess oils and fluids, thereby reducing the number of both beneficial and non-beneficial microbes. However, the cleaning products that simply reduce the number of microbes leave behind some of the non-beneficial microbes such that the non-beneficial microbes still exist on the skin, just in lower numbers. Additionally, if too much oil is removed from the skin, then dryness of the skin could result.
Other products have introduced microbiocides which are effective at killing all microbes on the skin. However, since these microbiocides eliminate beneficial microbes as well as non-beneficial microbes, these products destroy beneficial skin ecology and thus have a negative impact on skin health.
Accordingly, what is needed is a system and method of removing debris and non-beneficial microbes from skin without removing beneficial microbes to help reduce the occurrence of skin problems associated with non-beneficial microbes while maintaining skin health.
The present invention is directed to a system and method of removing microbial contaminants from skin. The system utilizes receptor materials which selectively bind to the microbe or microbes of interest. The receptor materials are placed on the surface of the skin wherein they attach to and bind the microbes. Then, the receptor material and bound microbes are removed from the skin. This allows non-beneficial microbes, such as bacteria, yeast, toxins, enzymes, and/or debris, to be removed while beneficial microbes remain, thereby maintaining skin health or expediting the healing of wounds.
The system includes particles having a magnetic element, such as iron or cerium, suitably up to 90% by weight of the magnetic element, and receptor materials for selectively binding a microbial contaminant on the skin surface. The particles should be relatively small in size, suitably having a diameter of less than about 25 microns. These particles are designed to be placed on the skin wherein the receptor materials, such as ligands, may bind to the desired contaminants. Alternatively, the particles may electrostatically interact with the surface contaminants, thereby binding the contaminants to the particles. Then, means are provided which remove the particles and the accompanying receptor material and microbial contaminants from the surface of the skin.
Means for removing the particles, the accompanying receptor material, and microbial contaminants suitably include magnets. More specifically, after the microbial contaminants are bound to the magnetic particles, articles having magnets contained therein or thereon may be used to remove the magnetic particles from the skin. Examples of suitable magnet-containing articles include nonwoven fabrics, woven materials, bandages, diapers, adhesive strips, facial tissues, personal care products, wipes, and feminine articles.
The particles may be applied to the skin within a lotion, a cream, a spray, a solution, a non-magnetic cellulose wipe, a non-magnetic polymeric wipe, or using any other suitable carrier.
In one embodiment of the invention, the particle may also include a dye, thus making the particles more visible. By using colored particles, the cleaning action on the surface can be seen.
With the foregoing in mind, it is a feature and advantage of the invention to provide a system that can selectively attach and remove desired microbes while permitting beneficial microbes to remain on the skin.
The present invention is directed to a system and method for removing contaminants from skin. The system may be used to remove a wide range of microbial contaminants, such as bacteria, yeast, toxins, enzymes, and/or debris.
The system includes one or more particles that bind to contaminants of interest. The particles may include ligands, electrostatic charge, or any other suitable means for selectively binding a contaminant on the skin surface. The term “selectively bind,” as used herein, refers to the ability of particles to adhere to certain intended contaminants and not adhere to certain other non-intended materials. The particles also include magnetic properties. Once the selected microbial contaminants are bound to the particles, the particles and the bound contaminants can be removed from the skin using a magnetic force to attract the magnetic properties of the particle while leaving behind beneficial microbes on the skin to maintain skin health.
The particles in the system are suitably non-toxic and, desirably, are capable of binding a ligand thereto. Suitable particles include those made from natural polymers, random copolymers, and/or plastics. Representative examples include natural polymers such as cellulose; random copolymers such as polybutylene copolymer, polyethylene, polypropylene copolymers, polyethylene elastomers; and plastics such as polystyrene, polyethylene, polypropylene, rayon, nylon, polyvinylidine chloride, and polyesters; chitin; starch; dextran; and modified-starch. Silica could be used as an inorganic particle. Other inorganic particles might include clays. The type of particle used may vary depending on several considerations, including the intended use or the contaminant to be removed. The size of the particle may also vary depending on the intended use or the product in which the particle is to be used. However, if the particle is too large, it may aggravate the skin as it is applied. Therefore, in general, the particles are relatively small in size. Suitably, the particles are less than about 25 microns in diameter, or between about 0.01 and about 20 microns in diameter, or between about 0.01 and about 10 microns in diameter, with “diameter” referring generally to a thickness or width of the particles since the particles may be irregularly shaped, or otherwise not necessarily spherical.
The particles may be rendered magnetic through the inclusion of a magnetic metal element, such as iron or cerium. Other suitable magnetic materials that may magnetize the particles include Neodymium Iron Boron (NdFeB or NIB), Samarium Cobalt (SmCo), Alnico, and ceramic materials. The amount of iron or cerium, or other magnetic material, contained within each particle may vary depending on the amount of charge desired, the overall size of the particle, the carrier within which the particles will be applied to the skin, if any, and the location and number of magnets used to remove the particle. However, in general, the particles may include from about 10% to about 90%, or from about 20% to about 80%, magnetic material by weight of the particle. Thus, each particle may have a magnetic mass susceptibility of from about 50,000,000 to about 200,000,000 m3/kg.
Once the desired particle type, size and magnetic content have been selected, the particle may be modified to include means for selectively binding a contaminant on the skin surface. Such modification may be in the form of attaching a ligand to the particle, or charging the particle to obtain the desired polarity to attract the selected contaminant through electrostatic interaction. The choice of ligand or charge depends upon the type of contaminant to be removed and, for further consideration, may affect the composition of the particle. If a charge is used, the charge may either be a positive charge or a negative charge. If a ligand is used, it may be selected from a wide variety of useful ligands.
A positively charged particle is capable of being used to bind and remove yeast and bacteria (negatively charged) and virtually any negatively charged molecule. Examples of particles useful as positively charged particles include, but are not limited to, chitin, diethylaminoethyl, ciethyl[2-hydroxypropyl]aminoethyl, polyethyleneimine, triethylaminohydroxypropyl, quaternary ammonium, quaternary alkylamine, quaternary alkylanolamine, trimethylbenzylammonium, dimethylethanolbenzylammonium, polyamine, alkylamine, dimethylethanolamine, octadecyldimethyltrimethoxylsilpropylammonium chloride, and kymene.
A negatively charged molecule may be used to bind and remove protein and other biological contaminates, not including yeast or bacteria. Examples of particles useful as negatively charged particles include, but are not limited to, carboxymethyl cellulose, sulfopropyl cellulose, cellulose phosphate, DOWEX®, DUOLITE®, AMBERLITE®, and bentonite.
A positive or negative charge may be given to the particle by at least two methods. One would be to use material that already has the appropriate charge. For example, cellulose could be used to impart an overall negative charge to the particle. Conversely, chitin could be used to impart an overall positive charge to the particle. The second method would be to modify the materials by chemical means to change the charge characteristic of the surface. For example, addition of amines would impart a positive charge, while addition of carboxyl groups would impart a negative charge. Native silanol groups on the surface of silica microspheres are readily reacted with aqueous or solvent-based silane coupling agents to yield preactivated silica microspheres with a large variety of surface functional groups. Examples include chloromethyl, carboxyl, and amino groups. Oligonucleotides can be covalently bound to surface-modified silica via the 5′-amino end. Lipids can be bound via the carboxyl group on the fatty acid chain and propylamine surface groups on the silica.
As indicated, the use of ligands is another appropriate means for selectively binding a contaminant. In one embodiment, the particles are reactive superparamagnetic monodispersed microspheres (SMM) that are coated with ligands to specifically bind the target microbes.
A large number of ligands may be used in the invention, including plant lectins and antibodies, among others. Furthermore, extracts of plants and natural products may also be used.
Plant lectins useful in the invention include, but are not limited to, lentil lectin, wheat germ lectin, dolichos biflorus, galanthus nivalis, glycine max, heli pomatia, lens culinaris, phaseolus vulgaris, phytolacca americana, ulex europaeus, and vicia villosa. These lectins are effective at removing microbial materials, particularly any cells with mannopyranosyl or glucopyranosyl residues on the membrane surface. These lectins may also help in the removal of proteins or skin debris with similar characteristics. Other microbes which may be removed by plant lectins include those having glucose, mannose, or n-acetyl-glucosaminyl residues in the microbe cell wall and other skin debris material.
Other ligands which may be used in the invention include dolichos biflorus, galanthus nivalis, glycine max, hell pomatia, lens culinaris, phaseolus vulgaris, phytolacca americana, ulex europaeus, and vicia villosa.
Antibodies useful in the present invention include those having specific antibodies for any microbe-associated cell wall or membrane component. Other ligands useful in the present invention include those that use cell surface receptors specific for microbes. These include, but are not limited to, Staphylococcus, Steptococcus, Candida, and Propionibacterium. All of these are specific for cell surface receptors which bind glycosides. Such glycosides could be attached to the magnetic particle.
If a ligand is used as the means for binding the contaminant, then the ligand must be attached to the particle such that when the particle is applied to the skin, the ligand is able to bind with the contaminant or contaminants of choice and remove these contaminants when the particle is removed from the skin. There are a plurality of known methods which may be used to attach the ligand to the particle, most notably direct adsorption and covalent attachment.
Direct adsorption involves adsorbing the ligand onto the surface of the particle. Simply adsorbing protein, especially polyclonal IgG, on the surface of polystyrene microspheres is successful more than 95% of the time. For maximum surface coverage (up to a monolayer), buffer pH should be at, or slightly more basic than, IgG's isoelectric point (that is, pH 8), where the protein is in its most relaxed, compact form. Tris buffer (pH 8.0) and phosphate buffer (pH 7.4) work well. The Fc and Fab portions of IgG adsorb differently in response to pH changes. A slightly alkaline pH optimizes adsorption of the Fe portion and ensures relative suppression of Fab adsorption.
As an alternative to simple adsorption, IgG and serum albumin (human or bovine) can be mixed and then adsorbed simultaneously. One commercial protocol calls for a weight ratio of 1 IgG to 10 albumin in the coadsorption mixture. Adsorption can be followed by glutaraldehyde cross-linking of the mixed proteins on the microsphere surface.
In covalent bonding, the ligand is covalently bonded to the particle. For example, haptens and other low-molecular-weight labels, which on their own might not adsorb well or remain attached, can be covalently bound to proteins (such as BSA), dextran, polylysine, or other polymers that adsorb well. Another alternative is to adsorb the polymer on the particles and then couple the hapten or other label. These polyhaptens are used commercially. Another embodiment is to adsorb peptide onto the microspheres and then covalently link more peptide onto the surface.
Also, any polyclonal antibody (PoAb) may also be used to attach the ligand to the particle, such as those from mouse, goat, rabbit, pig, or bovine. These polyclonal antibodies adsorb well and attach to microspheres to form generic microspheres. These then capture any of several poorly adsorbing monoclonal antibodies (MoAb). In theory, a manufacturer can make a series of tests (or assays) from one PoAb preparation.
Some evidence indicates that one can attach 10-40% more protein covalently than by adsorption. When the desired protein coverage is low, covalent coupling may provide more precise control of the coating level. Covalent coupling binds protein more securely, which is an asset in production of tests or assays that are so sensitive that they would be influenced by minute quantities of IgG that might leach off the particles over time. The covalent bond is more thermally stable.
Native silanol groups on the surface of silica microspheres are readily reacted with aqueous or solvent-based silane coupling agents to yield preactivated silica microspheres with a large variety of surface functional groups. Examples include chloromethyl, carboxyl, and amino groups. DNA and RNA are isolated from serum by adsorption onto silica in the presence of chaotropic agents. Oligonucleotides can be covalently bound to surface-modified silica via the 5-amino end. Lipids can be bound via the carboxyl group on the fatty acid chain and propylamine surface groups on the silica.
After the particles have been charged or attached with a ligand, they are then ready to be applied to the skin to remove contaminants therefrom. The particles may either be applied directly to the skin, or they may be coupled with a carrier designed to aid the application of the particles to the skin while reducing the number of particles needed to effectively remove the desired contaminants. The carrier may be any means that permits the effective distribution of the particles over the desired area of the skin. Suitable carriers include, but are not limited to, lotions, creams, sprays, or solutions. Other natural carriers may be used, such as alginate or chitosan. Additionally, the particles may be applied using a non-magnetic cellulosic wipe or a non-magnetic polymeric wipe which is wiped across the surface of the skin.
The amount of particles added to the carrier depends on several factors including the carrier used, the contaminants to be removed and the amount of contaminants, among other factors. In general, from about 0.001 to about 10 mg, or from about 0.1 to about 1.0 mg, of particles may be included per milliliter of carrier.
As a counterpart to the magnetic element included in the particles, the system includes a magnet to attract and remove the magnetized particles from the skin. The magnet or magnets are incorporated into a product, such as a personal care item. The type of product used to magnetically attract and remove the particles may vary, depending on the contaminant to be removed and the surface area to be treated.
The magnets used in the system are selected so as to be incorporated into the personal care product or other article in such a way that they can effectively remove the magnetic particles. The magnets may be incorporated into both woven and non-woven materials, depending on the product. Additionally, the woven and non-woven materials may be composed of natural or synthetic fibers, or a mixture of both. For example, in one embodiment, the magnets may be incorporated into facial tissues, which comprise plant fiber. In another embodiment, the magnets may be incorporated into a non-woven fabric and applied to a disposable article, such as a diaper or a wipe. The magnets may be incorporated into a wide variety of articles, such as bandages, adhesive strips, feminine articles, and adult incontinence products, to name a few more. However, since these various embodiments result in different contact of the product with the skin, the products must be designed accordingly. For facial tissues, the magnets may come into close contact with the skin. Therefore, the number, size and/or strength of the magnets may be different when compared to magnets placed inside a diaper, which do not directly contact the skin, yet must still be able to remove magnetic particles which may have been incorporated into lotion or powder applied to the skin before the diaper was put on.
In one embodiment of the invention, the particles in the system may be colored. By making the particles more visible, the cleaning action of the system can be observed as the particles are applied to the surface and subsequently wiped away. If all of the color is wiped away, there is a presumption that the targeted contaminants have also been wiped away, provided a sufficient amount of the particles had been applied. The color may be applied to the particles in the form of a dye that remains with the particles and does not transfer to other surfaces. The dye may mix with polymers in the particles to prevent the dye from transferring to other surfaces. The concentration of color in the polymer is dependent on the dye, but typically ranges from 0.1% to about 85%.
Examples of suitable types of dyes include acid, azo, basic, direct, disperse, solvent, mordant, reactive, pigment, sulfur, vat, organic, and natural dyes, and combinations of any of these. The most common types of natural dyes are acid or anionic dyes, such as indigo or Tyrian purple. A dye used in the particles may be virtually any color, and in particular, may be either fluorescent or non-fluorescent. Examples of suitable FDC dyes include tartrazine (Yellow #5—lemon yellow), sunset yellow (Yellow #6—orange), erythrosine (Red #3—cherry red), allura red AC (Red #40—orange red), brilliant blue FCF (Blue #1—bright blue), indigotine (Blue #2—royal blue), and fast green FCF (Green #3—sea green). Examples of commercially available fluorescent pigments are found in the line of Fluorescent Pigments 800P Series, available from Chempon Dyes P Ltd of Chicago, Ill. These fluorescent pigments are thermoset fluorescent pigments having a resistance to strong solvents. These pigments are available in a wide range of colors. Examples of commercially available fiber reactive dyes include CIBACRON F and REACTONE, both available from CIBA-Geigy Ltd. of Basle, Switzerland; PROCION MX and PROCION H, both available from ICI of Great Britain; LEVAFIX, available from Bayer Aktiengesellschaft of Germany; DRIMARENE, available from Sandoz Inc. of New York; CAVALITE, available from E. I. Du Pont de Nemours Co. of Wilmington, Del.; PRIMAZIN, available from BASF of Germany; and REMAZOL, available from Hoechst Aktiengesellschaft of Germany.
The present invention also includes methods of removing contaminants from skin using the system of the invention. While it is expected that the system is capable of removing contaminants, such as debris or microbes, from a skin surface, it is also contemplated that the mechanisms described below may also permit the system to be used to remove contaminants from a wide variety of surfaces including, but not limited to, skin, floors, windows, pets, automobiles, watercraft, and counter tops.
In use, means for removing the contaminant are associated with a particle. As previously discussed, these means may involve the attachment of a ligand or generating a charge on the particle. After the means for removing the contaminant are associated with the particle, the particle is then applied to the surface. The particles may either be applied directly, such as using a wipe, or may be included in a carrier which is applied to the surface. After the particles have been applied, the contaminants to be removed bind to the means for removing the contaminant. The particles are then removed from the surface using means for accomplishing the same. When the particle is removed from the surface the contaminant is also removed.
This invention is further illustrated by the following embodiments, which are not to be construed in any way as imposing limitations upon the scope thereof. On the contrary, it is to be clearly understood that resort may be had to various other embodiments, modifications, and equivalents thereof which, after reading the description herein, may suggest themselves to those skilled in the art without departing from the spirit of the present invention and/or the scope of the appended claims.
In one embodiment, the magnetic particles may be placed in a carrier, such as a cream, lotion, spray or solution, and applied to an open wound. These particles could be associated with a ligand capable of removing bacteria from the wound. Magnets could be located in a piece of gauze or a bandage which is wrapped around the wound. Once the bandage contacts the wound, the magnets would pull the magnetic particles and contaminants from the wound. In a similar manner, the particles may be associated with a charge or another ligand and used to treat a variety of different rashes or infections.
In another embodiment, the magnetic particles may be associated with a ligand or charge that is capable of binding to microbes existing in bodily wastes. Such particles may be applied to a baby, for example, using a baby wipe, powder or lotion. The particles would bind with the microbes. A diaper having magnets contained therein may then be placed on the baby, wherein the magnets would remove the magnetic particles and contaminants from the skin of the baby, helping to prevent rashes. Similar embodiments may be used with feminine articles or adult incontinence devices.
In still another embodiment, the particles may be used to help clear pores and prevent breakouts of the skin. The particles could be associated with a ligand or charge that is capable of binding to debris or microbes existing on the skin surface. The particles may be included in a carrier such as a cream or lotion. The particles may be applied to the skin surface via the carrier whereupon they bind with the debris or microbes. An adhesive strip having magnets contained therein may then be applied to the skin. When the strip is removed, the magnetic particles and contaminants would also be removed, helping to clear the pores. Alternatively, a facial wipe may be used in lieu of the adhesive strip.
In still another embodiment, the particles may be used to relieve symptoms associated with sinus problems. Irritation of the skin around the nose may be associated with microbes in the mucous. To remove these microbes, particles having a suitable ligand or charge may be applied to the nose using a carrier such as cream, lotion, or facial tissue. The particles and the microbes bound thereto may then be removed using another facial tissue having magnets contained therein.
As can be seen, the particles of the present invention may be used in many different embodiments depending upon the contaminant to be removed, the surface being treated, the carrier used, and the means for removing the particles and contaminants. It should be understood, of course, that the foregoing embodiments relate only to some of the preferred embodiments of the present invention and that numerous modifications or alterations may be made therein without departing from the spirit and the scope of the invention as set forth in the appended claims.
In the Examples, ex-vivo skin test strips were prepared. These strips were then used to determine the effectiveness of the present invention at removing C. albicans or E. coli from skin.
Table 1 outlines the effectiveness of the present invention at magnetically removing C. albicans attached to skin.
% Removal of
ABS 405 nm
Magnet Covered with Plastic Film
Therefore, as these Examples indicate, the present invention offers a highly effective means for removing contaminants from a surface by utilizing a magnetic particle having means attached thereto to selectively remove the surface contaminant. Additionally, the present invention provides for methods of removing surface contaminants using these magnetic particles and means for removing the magnetic particles from the surface.
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|U.S. Classification||436/526, 424/447, 435/32, 424/490, 435/7.4, 424/449, 424/443, 510/134, 436/530, 424/489, 424/9.8, 436/518, 424/484, 436/72, 436/73, 435/7.2, 435/7.32, 435/7.1, 436/541, 436/806, 435/30, 436/531, 436/533, 436/532, 435/34|
|International Classification||G01N33/553, A61Q19/10, G01N33/536, A61K8/19|
|Cooperative Classification||Y10S436/806, A61K8/19, A61K2800/47, A61Q19/10|
|European Classification||A61K8/19, A61Q19/10|
|May 31, 2002||AS||Assignment|
|Aug 16, 2005||CC||Certificate of correction|
|Jul 11, 2008||FPAY||Fee payment|
Year of fee payment: 4
|Aug 27, 2012||REMI||Maintenance fee reminder mailed|
|Jan 11, 2013||LAPS||Lapse for failure to pay maintenance fees|
|Mar 5, 2013||FP||Expired due to failure to pay maintenance fee|
Effective date: 20130111