|Publication number||US6882216 B2|
|Application number||US 10/604,037|
|Publication date||Apr 19, 2005|
|Filing date||Jun 24, 2003|
|Priority date||Jun 24, 2003|
|Also published as||DE102004027298A1, DE102004027298B4, US20040263211|
|Publication number||10604037, 604037, US 6882216 B2, US 6882216B2, US-B2-6882216, US6882216 B2, US6882216B2|
|Original Assignee||Realtek Semiconductor Corp.|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (5), Referenced by (21), Classifications (5), Legal Events (4)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
1. Field of the Invention
The invention relates to a high-pass filter, and more particularly, to an on-chip high-pass filter with a large time constant.
2. Description of the Prior Art
In order to remove the DC component of a signal or to eliminate the DC offset, many circuits call for the use of a high-pass filter. A DC voltage blocking capacitor, DC voltage level shifter, and DC servo loop are all the example circuits implemented as high-pass filters.
In a device using two separate supply voltages, it may not be possible to directly connect signals from one power supply domain to another due to different DC voltage levels. In order to connect signals between the two domains, a DC voltage level shifter can be used to shift the voltage from the first domain to that of the second domain. However, due to improvements in the IC and device fabrication process, the on-chip working voltage has been greatly reduced and is actually too low for a DC voltage level shifter to meet its original performance requirements. In this situation, a high-pass filter can be used to block the DC voltage but still pass the desired signal. If the corner frequency of the high-pass filter is low enough, there will be no adverse effect on the system by using a high-pass filter.
DC offset voltage is always a concern when implementing zero intermediate frequency (IF) receivers, mixers, and low pass filters. If not removed, this unwanted DC offset voltage could saturate sensitive devices, such as ADC converters, causing them to malfunction. A normal solution to this problem is to add a DC servo loop. A DC servo circuit uses feedback to hold the output DC voltage level constant, however, the smaller the feedback window is (meaning a very low corner frequency), the longer the settling time will be. When the corner frequency is very low, not only are the resistance of the resistor and the capacitance of the capacitor of the required filter very large but also the settling time is often too long. By using a simple high-pass filter, the same function as a DC servo circuit can be achieved without the added problem of the closed loop settling time being too long.
It is therefore a primary objective of the claimed invention to provide an on-chip high-pass filter having a low corner frequency and a large time constant to solve the above-mentioned problem.
According to the claimed invention, an on-chip high-pass filter with large time constant comprising a capacitor, a first transistor having a first terminal connected to a first voltage source and a second terminal connected to the capacitor, and a second transistor having a first terminal connected to the second terminal of the first transistor and a second terminal connected to ground, wherein the first transistor and the second transistor are for operating as a large-resistance resistor. The electrical equivalent large-resistance resistor and the capacitor together form a high-pass filter between the input port and the output port.
These and other objectives of the claimed invention will no doubt become obvious to those of ordinary skill in the art after reading the following detailed description of the preferred embodiment that is illustrated in the various figures and drawings.
Please refer to
The magnitude of the drain current of a transistor is determined by deciding the length (L) and the width (W) of the channel during the manufacturing process. When the transistor operates in the saturation mode, the magnitude of the drain current ID is constant after the length (L) and the width (W) of the channel are decided. However, in practical circuits, the magnitude of the drain current ID is slightly changed by changing the magnitude of the drain-to-source voltage VDS because of the channel length modulation effect. The output resistor RO of the transistor is 1/(ID*Î<<) regardless of the magnitude of ID, wherein the Parameter Î<< is relating to the linear dependence of drain current on drain-source voltage in the saturation region. VDS=1/Î<<, which is called the early voltage. Therefore, if the transistor is operated in the saturation mode, it can be regarded as a resistor whose resistance is determined by the drain voltage ID Since both the p-type transistor and the n-type transistor together can be electrically equivalent to a resistor, the equivalent resistor and the capacitor 26 together form a high-pass filter between the input port 22 and the output port 24.
The typical magnitude range of Î<< is between 0.01 and 0.03 V−1, and that of the drain current ID is between uA˜mA. In this manner, the output resistor RO can be hundreds of Mohms. It is therefore easy to implement an on-chip high-pass filter with a large time constant by operating the transistors to be a large-resistance resistor.
It should also be noted that although MOS transistors are used throughout the detailed description of the preferred embodiment, this is for example only and BJT transistors are also supported by the present invention.
The resistance of the output resistance formed by the p-type transistor 28 and the n-type transistor 30 is very sensitive to the voltage level of the gate terminal, which is produced by the voltage source generator 32. In theory, if there were no process variations between IC fabrications, the voltage source generator 32 would generate the same exact voltage signal regardless of fabrication and the resistance value and associated high-pass filter 20 corner frequency would be the same value for all ICs. In practice, there are always slight process variations in the transistor parameter values between IC fabrications and therefore the voltage source generator 32 must account for these variations in order to ensure a predictable resistance value is formed across all IC fabrications.
Please refer to
Because the sizes and layout of the p-type and n-type generator transistors 44, 46 are the same as the p-type and n-type transistor 28, 30 of the high-pass filter 40, the voltage signal generated at the voltage source node A by the bias replica voltage source generator 42 will account for the process variations between different IC fabrications. By adjusting the length (L) and the width (W) of the transistor channel for both the p-type and n-type transistors 28, 30 and choosing an appropriate sized capacitor 26, the time constant and corner frequency formed by the high-pass filter 40 can be directly controlled. The bias replica voltage source generator 42 ensures that each physical version of the circuit has the same corner frequency response regardless of process variations.
Please refer to
Please refer to
Similar to the bias replica voltage source generator 42 shown in
Please refer to
The operation of the differential high-pass filter 70 is very similar to the single ended version shown in
Please refer to
In contrast to the conventional art, the present invention uses a p-type transistor and an n-type transistor together to form a predetermined resistance value so that a high-pass filter with a low corner frequency can be implemented on an IC. The predetermined resistance value and a capacitor together form a high-pass filter from an input port to an output port so that no resistor needs to be fabricated on the IC and a much smaller capacitor value can be used while still maintaining a low corner frequency of the high-pass filter. By using the bias replica voltage source generator according to the present invention, a predictable resistance value is formed by the p-type and n-type transistors regardless of process variations between IC fabrications. By using the variable bias replica voltage source generator according to the present invention, the DC voltage offset at the output port of the high-pass filter can also be directly controlled in addition to maintaining a predictable resistance value regardless of process variations between IC fabrications.
Those skilled in the art will readily observe that numerous modifications and alterations of the device may be made while retaining the teachings of the invention. Accordingly, that above disclosure should be construed as limited only by the metes and bounds of the appended claims.
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|Citing Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US7184736 *||Mar 5, 2004||Feb 27, 2007||Orion Microelectronics Corporation||Apparatus and method for dynamic DC offset detection and cancellation using high pass filter with variable impedance and corner frequency|
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|US8503961||Oct 24, 2011||Aug 6, 2013||Marvell International Ltd.||Active resistive summer for a transformer hybrid|
|US8880017||Aug 5, 2013||Nov 4, 2014||Marvell International Ltd.||Active resistive summer for a transformer hybrid|
|US20050197089 *||Mar 5, 2004||Sep 8, 2005||Sining Zhou||Apparatus and method for dynamic DC offset detection and cancellation|
|US20070001755 *||Apr 13, 2005||Jan 4, 2007||Schroedinger Ing K||Switchable high-pass configuration and an optical receiver with a switchable high-pass configuration|
|US20150229293 *||Jan 26, 2015||Aug 13, 2015||Ricoh Company, Ltd.||High-pass filter circuit and band-pass filter circuit|
|USRE41831||Nov 21, 2005||Oct 19, 2010||Marvell International Ltd.||Class B driver|
|WO2005086682A2 *||Mar 4, 2005||Sep 22, 2005||Wionics Research||Apparatus and method for dynamic dc offset detection and cancellation|
|WO2005086682A3 *||Mar 4, 2005||Jun 15, 2006||Wionics Research||Apparatus and method for dynamic dc offset detection and cancellation|
|U.S. Classification||327/552, 327/559|
|Jun 24, 2003||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: REALTEK SEMICONDUCTOR CORP., TAIWAN
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:KANG, HAN-CHANG;REEL/FRAME:013750/0788
Effective date: 20030527
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