|Publication number||US6889347 B1|
|Application number||US 09/881,951|
|Publication date||May 3, 2005|
|Filing date||Jun 15, 2001|
|Priority date||Jun 15, 2001|
|Publication number||09881951, 881951, US 6889347 B1, US 6889347B1, US-B1-6889347, US6889347 B1, US6889347B1|
|Inventors||Laura Ellen Adams, John Paul Mattia, Jonathan P. King|
|Original Assignee||Big Bear Networks, Inc.|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (6), Referenced by (18), Classifications (11), Legal Events (4)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
This invention pertains to the field of digital optical communications, in particular, to the configuration and optimization of optical and electrical components of an optical transmission system.
A typical digital optical communications system includes a transmitter, an optical channel (e.g., optical fibre), and a receiver. Light, generated and modulated by the transmitter, travels through the optical channel and is detected by the receiver. The receiver demodulates the received light to recover the original transmitted data signal.
The quality of a data transmission system is expressed as a ratio of the number of incorrectly received bits to the number of corrected received bits, also known as the bit error rate (BER). Modern data transmission systems typically require a BER of less than 10−12 to be considered commercially viable.
Optical transmission systems are inherently lossy. Physical phenomena degrade the transmitted signal, limiting its integrity at the receiver, causing the incorrect detection of one or more bits. Some of these phenomena are statistical in nature, while others are bulk effects. Generally, the higher the data transmission rate, the higher the BER—other factors being held constant. Many techniques of improving the BER while increasing the data rate are known.
One well-known technique is forward error correction (FEC). One example of an FEC coding scheme used ‘block codes’. This technique operates by dividing the transmitted data into blocks. Additional bits, known as check bits, are generated by processing the bits of the block and added to the block before transmission. The receiver detects the bits of the augmented block, processing the received original data bits to generate a local version of the check bits. Differences in the generated and received check bits indicate and permit correction of errors in the transmitted data. As the ratio of check bits to original data bits increases, the ability of the system to detect and correct single- and multiple-bit errors increases, decreasing the overall system BER. Check bit generation schemes are well known in the art, examples of some techniques can be found in ‘A common sense approach to the theory of error correction codes’, by Benjamin Arazi (ISBN 0-262-01098-4), incorporated herein by reference.
Systems with FEC are said to have two bit error rates. The first is the error rate of the data transmission system before the corrective effects of FEC, which is known as the raw bit error rate (raw BER). The second is the error rate of the data transmission system after the corrective effects of FEC, which is known as the system bit error rate (system BER) or, sometimes, simply as the bit error rate (BER). The difference between the raw BER and the system BER is determined by the effectiveness of the actual error correction code. Commonly used FEC coding techniques provide approximately a 108 reduction in BER with approximately a 7% increase in transmitted data rate requirements. In a typical system, this translates into the tolerance of up to a 10−4 raw BER for the physical transmission system while the system BER is still below the 10−12 market requirement.
Phenomenon in an optical transmission system occur that degrade the quality of the transmitted signal, reducing the signal to noise ratio (SNR) at the receiver and leading to an increase in the BER. Techniques have been developed to compensate for these effects including: chromatic dispersion compensation, polarization mode dispersion compensation, optical filtering, electrical filtering, decision threshold adjustment, and optical gain adjustment. Each of these compensation techniques counteracts or ameliorates one or more of the phenomena to increase the SNR, decreasing the BER.
Higher transmitted bit rates may require additional compensation as compared to lower bit rate systems. For example, at 2.5 Gigabits/second (Gbs), optical signals are relatively unaffected by chromatic dispersion for distances of up to several hundred kilometers. However at 10 Gbs (i.e., four times the data rate), chromatic dispersion is 16 times as severe, requiring dispersion management via dispersion compensating fibre, low dispersion fibre, active dispersion compensation or other methods.
Similarly, increasing the data rate to 40 Gbs increases the chromatic dispersion effects by an additional factor of 16 so that dispersion compensation has to be accurate within tens of picoseconds per nanometer.
Some of the compensation techniques require tuning or adjustment to operate. Compensation techniques that have been applied to lower bit-rate systems have required only static tuning. For these systems, tuning is performed once during installation by skilled personnel and may not need to be repeated thereafter.
As described above, higher data rates place an additional burden on the existing compensation techniques and, in some cases, require additional techniques to ameliorate phenomena that were previously inconsequential. Some of the phenomena that are being compensated for are inherently time varying in nature. Previous, static, tuning strategies are often no longer sufficient; dynamic self-tuning strategies are required.
Even at higher data rates, some of the compensation techniques can continue to use static tuning strategies if the associated phenomenon has the appropriate characteristics. However, economic considerations make a self-tuning system desirable as it avoids the need for skilled personnel to perform the tuning process.
Some mechanisms are already known in the art to provide self-tuning. U.S. Pat. No. 6,081,360, herein included by reference, discloses a system in which dispersion compensation is automatically adjusted by monitoring the power level of a particular frequency component of an optical signal sent from the transmitter to the receiver. However, the power level of an optical signal is at best an indirect indicator of the proper setting for a dispersion compensator.
A goal of the invention is to provide a self-tuning optical communications system using direct tuning indications.
The bit error rate of received data, prior to forward error correction, is measured. This measurement is used in a closed-loop feedback control system that tunes an optical communication system. In a first initialization phase, for example at system switch on, compensator elements in the system are set either to default values, or swept across their tuning range, while the bit error rate of received data is monitored. In a second ‘in-service’ phase, compensator elements in the system are tuned dynamically to optimize system performance.
In a preferred embodiment, one or more control signals modulate compensators. The raw bit error rate is measured and correlated with the control signals to determine the optimum nominal setting for each compensator.
A method and system for providing automatic set-up and dynamic optimization of an optical link, including optical and electronic components in the optical transmitter, receiver or in the optical transmission path. The objective is to provide automatic optimization of optical system performance at switch-on and during operational life, based on a direct measure of system bit error rate, while maintaining a very low output error rate.
In the following descriptions, numerous specific details are set forth, such as the specific rendering of the implementation, in order to provide a thorough understanding of the present invention. It will be apparent, however, to one skilled in the art that the present invention may be practiced without these specific details. In other instances, well-known circuits, control logic and coding techniques have not been shown in detail, in order to avoid unnecessarily obscuring the description of the present invention.
The receiver processes incoming modulated light, extracting the transmitted data as follows. Incoming modulated light 198 is detected by photodiode 199, generating an electrical signal according to the incident light. Decision control circuit 190 converts the incoming electrical signal into a serial bit stream. Data multiplexer 180 converts the serial bit stream into blocks of received data. FEC decoder 170 processes each block of received data producing a copy of digital data 160.
Decision control circuit 190 operates by comparing the incoming electrical signal to a reference 191, yielding one bit of the received data. Well known techniques allow the generation of a clocking signal to time the data recovery operation.
Correlator 220 and raw BER monitor 200 provide closed-loop control of the system. Well known control techniques could be used including: proportional, integrative, root mean square, root sum of squares, and others. Care must be taken in the design of the control system that its response time horizon is compatible with the rate of change of the phenomenon for which it is compensating. Another constraint is that the response time horizon must be compatible with the raw BER.
Control signal generator 210 generates a control signal that modulates the reference voltage for decision circuit 190. In the preferred embodiment, the generated signal is a sine wave with a frequency compatible with the response time horizon of the control system. The amplitude of the control signal modulation is carefully selected. The minimum amplitude of the control signal must induce meaningful variation in the raw BER, since this is the source of the feedback control. The maximum amplitude of the control signal should not increase the raw BER beyond the ability of the FEC algorithm to maintain the desired system BER. Other waveforms for the generated signal would be equally applicable including: square wave, control code, pseudo-random and others.
The invention in
The embodiments described above adjust only a single compensator. This was done for simplicity of explanation and is not a limitation of the invention. The invention is capable of simultaneously adjusting a plurality of compensators. One embodiment is to replicate control signal generator 310, correlator 320, reference generator 330, and reference modulator 340 for each compensator. Each correlator 320 correlates the output of raw BER monitor 300 with its corresponding control signal generator 310 to perform the optimization process. The requirement that each correlator 320 be able to distinguish BER changes due to reference modulation associated with the corresponding control signal generator 310 is simplified by having the outputs of the plurality of control signal generators 310 uncorrelated. Further, as understood herein, an electronic equalizer is equivalent to an electronic filter. Additionally, it is contemplated herein that error correction is an optional function to accomplish the present invention.
In the foregoing specification, the invention has been described in its normal ‘in service’ mode. For some systems, the normal ‘in service’ mode may be used right from initial switch-on of the system. For other systems where the system effects to be compensated for are especially severe, there may be no measurable raw error rate available. In this latter case, there will need to be a system initialization mode, that sets the various compensators at nominal set-point values, and/or which steps or sweeps a set of compensators through their control range while measuring and recording raw error rate, and then sets the compensator at a point in its control range corresponding to best system operation. Alternatively the post FEC processor error rate could be monitored during the initialization mode. Alternatively, a secondary characteristics of the received signal could be monitored during the initialization mode, such as the high frequency content of the received data. Alternatively the initialization mode can use a known transmitted data waveform (for example a predetermined sequence of ‘1’s and ‘0’s) containing both low and high frequency data modulation frequencies to provide a more gradual deterioration of raw error rate with link compensation error than there would be with random data. Alternatively, during the initialization mode the transmitter bit rate may be stepped from a lower rate up to the full bit rate, so that the systems raw error rate becomes increasingly critical to compensate setting as the bit rate is increased.
The purpose of the initialisation mode is to bring all the compensators to near optimum values, at which point the ‘in service’ mode can be engaged, to fine tune the compensators to fully optimum settings.
Some nominal set points might be setting decision threshold to nominal 50% of the received eye, for example by A.C. coupling the received signal into the decision circuit, and then switch to raw BER to fine tune, or setting internal clock to incoming transmitter rate and just performing a phase sweep. For electronic PMD compensation using a tapped-delay-line implementation (transversal filter), nominal set points might include setting the center tap to one, and the outer taps to zero, with those tap weightings to be more finely tuned using error information. For an optical PMD compensator, the nominal set-point might be to align the incoming states of polarization with the principle axes. The nominal chromatic dispersion compensator setting would depend on fiber link length. The chromatic compensator could be stepped through a reasonable range to determine the appropriate setting, where the step increment (in ps/nm) would be approximately proportional to the inverse square of the bit rate, so that at least one of its set points will fall within the dispersion tolerance window of the system.
In a preferred embodiment the initialization routine and the set points and sweeps for the compensators would be stored in a non-volatile memory. Alternatively the initialization routine and set points and sweeps can be transmitted to the optical transmitter and receiver by an external link management system.
Additionally, it is contemplated herein that an alternative approach for implementing one or more aspects of the present invention includes effectively operation without error correction, or optionally in an open-loop non-feedback mode. For example, after initialization adjustment step, operation may continue, whereupon adjustment is invoked only upon user or automated trigger or scheduled events or conditions, such as start-up or when pre-specified error rate is determined to drop below an acceptable threshold.
In the foregoing specification, the invention has been described with reference to a specific exemplary embodiment and alternative embodiments thereof. It will, however, be evident that various modifications and changes may be made thereto without departing from the broader spirit and scope of the invention as set forth in the appended claims. The specification and drawings are, accordingly, to be regarded in an illustrative rather than a restrictive sense.
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|U.S. Classification||714/704, 398/147, 398/81|
|International Classification||H04B10/08, H04B10/158, H04B10/02|
|Cooperative Classification||H04B10/69, H04B10/07953|
|European Classification||H04B10/00, H04B10/07953, H04B10/69|
|Jun 15, 2001||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: BIGBEAR NETWORKS, INC., CALIFORNIA
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:ADAMS, LAURA ELLEN;MATTIA, JOHN PAUL;KING, JONATHAN P.;REEL/FRAME:011909/0722
Effective date: 20010615
|Jan 24, 2006||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: FINISAR CORPORATION, CALIFORNIA
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:BIG BEAR NETWORKS, INC.;REEL/FRAME:017057/0222
Effective date: 20051115
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Year of fee payment: 4
|Nov 5, 2012||FPAY||Fee payment|
Year of fee payment: 8