|Publication number||US6914684 B1|
|Application number||US 09/899,632|
|Publication date||Jul 5, 2005|
|Filing date||Jul 5, 2001|
|Priority date||Jul 5, 2001|
|Publication number||09899632, 899632, US 6914684 B1, US 6914684B1, US-B1-6914684, US6914684 B1, US6914684B1|
|Inventors||John Philip Bolash, Mahesan Chelvayohan|
|Original Assignee||Lexmark International, Inc.|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (34), Referenced by (38), Classifications (11), Legal Events (3)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
1. Field of the Invention
The present invention relates to a method and apparatus for detecting the media type of a media. More particularly, the present invention relates to a method and apparatus for detecting a type of media based on a glossiness of the media while adjusting for the nonlinear characteristics of sensors used for measuring the glossiness.
2. Description of the Related Art
Typically, media manipulation or sensing apparatuses operate in different modes based on the presence of different types of media. A media manipulation or sensing apparatus may operate in a different mode if the media type is of a high glossy type, like a transparency media type, compared to when the media type is of a low glossy type, like plain paper. For example, in a printing environment, certain parameters of printing onto a media are adjusted based upon the media type determination. Typically, in the printing environment, a user must manually indicate to a printing apparatus what type of media is present. Alternatively, some printing systems “pick,” or grab, the media and advance it through the printing system, and then determine the type of media, format the parameters for printing thereon, and proceed with printing onto the media. However, these systems are not usually desirable as the printing system cannot know what type of media is being picked until after advancing the media, which reduces the throughput of media in the printing system.
Optical methods and apparatuses previously implemented for such media type detection have included media type detectors having multiple sensors detecting an amount of light reflected off a media. For example, Minerd et al., U.S. Pat. No. 4,540,887, illustrates a media presence detector and Courtney et al., U.S. Pat. No. 5,139,339, utilizes diffusely and specularly arranged sensors in a media type detector. Courtney et al. specifically sets forth discriminating a media type, though the media type discrimination is not based on a ratio of the specular and diffuse light intensities, as done in the present invention. In addition, the following references briefly discuss the non-lineararities of sensors used in such media detection applications: Borton et al., U.S. Pat. No. 5,751,443, Whitehouse et al., U.S. Pat. No. 4,218,144, and Watanabe et al., U.S. Pat. No. 5,109,236.
In one media type detector, as illustrated in
The glossiness of media 5 may be determined by measuring the ratio of the detected diffuse I(D) and specular I(S) light intensities via typical transducers, such as photo transistors. These transducers or sensors convert the light intensities I(D) and I(S) to output signals i(D) and i(S), respectively, with i(D) and i(S) typically being current signals, which vary proportionally to the input light intensities input to them (I(D) and I(S) respectively). Glossier papers tend to reflect specularly more than diffusely, thus a media detecting ratio i(S)/i(D) can be used to determine the glossiness of media 5, from which the type of media can be determined. Typically, before measuring the media detecting ratio i(S)/i(D), a ratio table is developed, wherein media detecting i(S)/i(D) ratios are stored for a corresponding multitude of different types of media By referencing back to this ratio table after measuring media detecting ratio i(S)/i(D), corresponding types of media can be differentiated. Typically the determination of a media type according to the media detecting ratio i(S)/i(D) can be accomplished in a determining portion of an overall system by hard wiring or software in a processing unit.
As illustrated in
Corresponding to the different media types in
In the illustrations of
Therefore, to overcome these non-linear operating point problems, the present invention sets forth an operating point adjusting method and apparatus to keep the operating points of diffuse sensor signal i(D) and specular sensor signal i(S) in the linear region, and thus produce accurate media detecting ratios of i(S)/i(D). In addition, in solving these aforementioned problems, the present invention allows for the use of a wider variety of sensors and thus achieve lower sensor cost due either to higher yields of a particular sensor part from a single supplier or the ability to use different sensor parts from different suppliers.
An object of the present invention is to provide a media type detector which adjusts for the non-linear characteristics of sensors used for measuring a glossiness of the media.
Another object of the present invention is to provide a media manipulation apparatus, having a media type detector including, a light source to illuminate a media, a specular light sensor, and a first light sensor, wherein the first light sensor has a higher light flux capability compared to the specular light sensor. The media manipulation apparatus further includes a determination unit to determine a media type of the media based on a signal ratio of a detected specular light sensor intensity and a detected first light sensor intensity.
A further object of the present invention is to provide a media sensing apparatus, having a media type detector including, a light source to illuminate a media, a specular light sensor, and a first light sensor, wherein the first light sensor has a higher light flux capability compared to the specular light sensor. The media sensing apparatus further includes a determination unit to determine a media type of the media based on a signal ratio of a detected specular light sensor intensity and a detected first light sensor intensity.
Another object of the present invention is to provide a media type detector, including a specular light sensor, and a first light sensor, wherein the first light sensor has a higher light flux capability compared to the specular light sensor, such that, upon an illumination of a media, a signal ratio of a detected specular light sensor intensity and a detected first light sensor intensity is determinative of a media type of the media
Another object of the present invention is to provide a media type detector, including a specular light sensor, and a first light sensor, wherein the first light sensor has a higher light flux capability compared to the specular light sensor, such that, upon an illumination of a media, when a signal of a detected first light sensor intensity falls within a linear characteristic range of the first light sensor, a signal ratio of a detected specular light sensor intensity and the detected first light sensor signal is determinative of a media type of the media.
Another object of the present invention is to provide a media type detection method, including measuring a plurality of light intensities radiating off of a media, including a specular light sensor intensity by a specular light sensor, where the specular light sensor has a smaller light flux capability than a first light sensor measuring one of the plurality of light intensities other than the specular light sensor intensity, and determining a media type of the media based on a signal ratio of the specular light sensor intensity and at least the first light sensor intensity.
A further object of the present invention is to provide a media type detection method, including measuring at least first and second light intensities radiating off of a media, determining if one of the first and second light intensities does not fall within a linear region of a characteristic curve of a light sensor, and determining a media type of the media based on a signal ratio of at least the first and second light intensities if it is determined that at least both of the first and second light intensities falls within the linear region of the characteristic curve of a light sensor. Otherwise, the media type detection method includes determining a media type of the media by extrapolating one of the first or second light intensities, which does not fall within the linear region of the characteristic curve of a light sensor, by projecting the one of the first or second light intensities onto a linear curve and then determining the media type based on a signal ratio of the one of the first or second light intensities that was not projected and the projected one of the first or second light intensities.
Advantages of the invention will become apparent and more readily appreciated for the following description of the preferred embodiments, taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawings of which:
FIG 10 is a flow chart showing the operations for implementing a linear extrapolation algorithm in accordance with embodiments of the present invention; and
Reference will now be made in detail to the preferred embodiments, examples of which are illustrated in the accompanying drawings. In accordance with the preferred embodiments, there is provided a method and apparatus for providing accurate media type detection.
As noted above, in the traditional sensor configuration for a media type detector, the values of diffuse sensor signal i(D) and/or specular sensor signal i(S) may fall along non-linear operating points of a corresponding sensor curve, thereby preventing accurate media detecting ratio measurements and accurate media type determinations.
Through research and experimentation, it has been determined that the above non-linear operating point problem may be overcome by moving the diffuse sensor signal i(D) operational point, shown in
In this embodiment, the incidence angle a has been chosen to be 65°. The incidence angle has been chosen so that it is large enough to increase the glossiness resolution and small enough to keep specular sensor 130 from the direct view of light source 100.
As noted above, when the diameter of the aperture of diffuse sensor 120 is the same as the aperture of specular sensor 130, the diffuse sensor signal i(D) operational point may lie in a non-linear region of the sensor characteristic curve.
In the above embodiment, although specific incidence angles and aperture dimensions have been discussed, the present invention is not limited thereto. Based on the application and the desired amount of resolution, the incidence angle and aperture dimensions could be adjusted further as long as sufficient amounts of light can be detected by diffuse sensor 120 and specular sensor 130 and the sensors do not see direct light from the light source.
Although the above embodiments have set forth a solution of previous non-linear problems by increasing the diffuse flux amount, when very reflective media are present in the media type detector path the amount of specular light detected may be so substantial that the diffuse sensor signal i(D) may still be in a non-linear region of the sensor characteristic curve. Typically, as noted above, when the sensors and corresponding components are limited in their maximum detected value amount, the strength of the light source is adjusted to keep the sensor signals, usually the specular sensor signal i(S), below the maximum value allowed by the detection circuitry. However, when the media is very reflective, e.g., when several transparencies are stacked back to back, the light source may be adjusted to such a low strength that the operational point of diffuse sensor signal i(D) is moved sufficiently into the non-linear value region of the sensor characteristic curve that even the aforementioned increase in diffuse flux capability of the diffuse sensor cannot fully move the operational point back into a linear region of the sensor characteristic curve.
In this situation, it may be necessary to also implement an algorithm technique to calculate the appropriate media defining ratio. By using a relationship between the duty cycle of the PWM, controlling the light source, when only one sensor signal operational point is in a linear region of the sensor characteristic curve and the duty cycle necessary to move the other non-linear region operational point into a linear region, an appropriate media defining ratio can be calculated. For example, if the operational point for the diffuse sensor signal i(D) were in the non-linear region for a light source duty cycle DO, the duty cycle for the light source could be changed from DO to D1, for example, to move the corresponding operational point of the diffuse sensor signal i(D) into a linear region. The new operational point of the diffuse sensor signal i(D)* is detected and multiplied by the ratio of DO to D1 to derive an extrapolated diffuse sensor signal i(D) for use in the media detecting ratio i(S)/i(D). By multiplying the diffuse sensor signal i(D)* by the ratio of the PWM duty cycles, DO/D1, an operational point for diffuse sensor signal i(D) can be extrapolated to a position on the sensor characteristic curve by projecting where the operational point would be if the sensor did not have such a non-linear region, thereby ignoring the non-linear region of the sensor characteristic. The change in the duty cycle may also be increased to a maximum amount and the algorithm initiated even if the diffuse sensor signal i(D) is not in a linear region. As recited herein, the use of DO and D1 to represent duty cycles is not limited thereto, as DO and D1 may be merely indicative of any two differing levels of light source intensity. The above algorithm is not limited to utilizing the ratio of duty cycle, but rather is descriptive of extrapolating the non-linear operational point to a projected operational point and utilizing that projected operational point in the media detecting ratio. Of course, in the above algorithm technique, measurement of the sensor corresponding to the higher of the two sensor values will be ceased while the smaller value is increased into the linear region of the curve. Otherwise, the components of the media type detector circuitry may be pushed into a saturation level or overload overall system components.
Although the above algorithm technique has been set forth by extrapolating the non-linear operational point for i(D) to a projected operational point, and utilizing that projected operational point in the media detecting ratio, alternatively, the non-linear operational point for i(D) can be moved into a linear region of the characteristic curve to operating point i(D)*, using the same change of DO to D1, but now i(S), after such a change from DO to D1, can be also be projected onto a continuing linear curve of the characteristic curve at the upper range of the characteristic curve by multiplying i(S) by D1/DO.
Thus, the media detecting ratio can be defined as R=[i(S)]/[i*(D)×DO/D1] or R=[i(S)×D1/DO]/[i*(D)], or to encompass both aforementioned alternative methods R=[i(S)i*(D)]×[D1/DO].
This algorithm method may be used independently of the aforementioned increase in diffuse flux capability, or alternately the algorithm may be implemented in conjunction therewith.
The above disclosed media type detector has been described as being able to detect a type of media, even when a sensor's signal value falls into a non-linear region of a corresponding sensor curve. This media type detector has a multitude of different applications and may be bodily incorporated into a number of different media manipulating or sensing apparatuses.
Thus, although a few preferred embodiments of the present invention have been shown and described, it would be appreciated by those skilled in the art that changes may be made in these embodiments without departing from the principles and spirit of the invention, the scope of which is defined in the claims and their embodiments.
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|U.S. Classification||356/600, 347/105, 250/559.4, 356/446, 356/73|
|International Classification||B41J11/00, G01N21/57|
|Cooperative Classification||B41J11/009, G01N21/57|
|European Classification||B41J11/00U, G01N21/57|
|Jul 5, 2001||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: LEXMARK INTERNATIONAL, INC., KENTUCKY
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:BOLASH, JOHN PHILIP;CHELVAYOHAN, MAHESAN;REEL/FRAME:011981/0334
Effective date: 20010705
|Jan 5, 2009||FPAY||Fee payment|
Year of fee payment: 4
|Dec 5, 2012||FPAY||Fee payment|
Year of fee payment: 8