|Publication number||US6922480 B2|
|Application number||US 10/208,735|
|Publication date||Jul 26, 2005|
|Filing date||Jul 29, 2002|
|Priority date||May 8, 1995|
|Also published as||CA2326565A1, CA2326565C, EP0961239A2, EP0961239A3, US6285776, US6427020, US6449377, US6567534, US6754377, US6771796, US7499566, US7991182, US20020021825, US20030026452, US20030035565, US20050254684, US20070047766, US20100054529|
|Publication number||10208735, 208735, US 6922480 B2, US 6922480B2, US-B2-6922480, US6922480 B2, US6922480B2|
|Inventors||Geoffrey B. Rhoads|
|Original Assignee||Digimarc Corporation|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (115), Non-Patent Citations (103), Referenced by (11), Classifications (81), Legal Events (7) |
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
Methods for encoding security documents
US 6922480 B2
Line art on a banknote or other security document is slightly changed to effect the encoding of plural-bit digital data (i.e. the banknote is digitally watermarked). When such a banknote is thereafter scanned, the resulting image data can be recognized as corresponding to a banknote by detection of the encoded data. (Alternatively, the image data can be recognized as corresponding to a banknote by machine detection of other forms of watermarking, or by reference to visible structures characteristic of banknotes.) In response to detection of a banknote, the detecting apparatus (e.g., a scanner, photocopier, or printer) can intervene so as to prevent or deter counterfeiting. For example, the apparatus can interrupt a copying operation, and display a message reminding the operator that it is illegal to reproduce currency. Another option is to dial a remote service and report the attempted reproduction of a banknote. Yet another option is to permit the copying, but to insert forensic tracer data (e.g. steganographically encoded binary data) in the resultant copy. The tracer data can memorialize the serial number of the machine that made the copy and/or the date and time the copy was made. To address privacy concerns, such tracer data is not normally inserted in photocopied output, but is so inserted only when the subject being photocopied is detected as being a banknote.
1. A method of marking a financial instrument to convey plural binary bits, thereby facilitating machine-recognition thereof, the financial instrument having a visible structure formed thereon, the method being characterized in that the marking is not apparent to human observers of the document, yet can be detected from image data generated by visible light scanning of the financial instrument.
2. The method of claim 1 wherein the visible structure comprises at least one of a seal and logo.
3. The method of claim 2 wherein the marking comprises a background pattern formed over at least a portion of the financial instrument.
4. The method of claim 1 wherein the financial instrument comprises a paper document.
5. The method of claim 1, wherein the financial instrument comprises legal tender.
6. The method of claim 1, wherein the financial instrument comprises at least one of a credit card, a debit card and an ATM card.
7. A method of marking a security document to convey plural bit information, thereby facilitating machine-recognition thereof through detection of image data generated by visible light scanning of the security document, the marking including a visible pattern formed over at least a portion of the security document, wherein the pattern does not betray the existence of the plural bit information to casual human observers of the document.
8. The method of claim 7, wherein the security document comprises a financial instrument.
9. The method of claim 7 wherein the visible pattern comprises a background pattern.
10. The method of claim 7 wherein the visible pattern comprises a noise-like pattern.
11. The method of claim 7 wherein the plural bit information is redundantly marked on the security document.
12. The method of claim 7 wherein the visible pattern comprises artwork.
RELATED APPLICATION DATA
This application is a continuation of application Ser. No. 09/293,601, filed Apr. 15, 1999, now U.S. Pat. No. 6,427,020, which is a divisional application of utility application Ser. No. 09/074,034, filed May 6, 1998, now U.S. Pat. No. 6,449,377, which is a continuation-in-part of application Ser. No. 08/438,159, filed May 8, 1995 (now U.S. Pat. No. 5,850,481), and copending provisional application 60/082,228, filed Apr. 16, 1998.
Application Ser. No. 09/293,601 is also a continuation-in-part of application Ser. No. 09/234,780, filed Jan. 20, 1999, now abandoned, which claims priority to provisional application 60/071,983, filed Jan. 20, 1998.
(The specification of application Ser. No. 08/438,159 is substantially identical to that of applicant's issued U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,636,292, 5,710,834, 5,748,763, 5,748,783. The specification of application 60/082,228 is attached hereto as Appendix A.)
Patent application Ser. No. 09/293,602, entitled Methods for Identifying Equipment Used in Counterfeiting, was filed as a sibling application of parent application Ser. No. 09/293,601.
The subject matter of this application is also related to that of the present assignee's other applications, namely Ser. No. 08/508,083 (now U.S. Pat. No. 5,841,978), Ser. No. 08/534,005 (now U.S. Pat. No. 5,832,119), Ser. No. 08/637,531 (now U.S. Pat. No. 5,822,436), Ser. No. 08/649,419 (now U.S. Pat. No. 5,862,260), Ser. No. 08/746,613 (now U.S. Pat. No. 6,122,403), Ser. No. 08/951,858 (now U.S. Pat. No. 6,026,193), and Ser. No. 08/969,072 (now U.S. Pat. No. 5,809,160), and the allowed applications referenced below.
FIELD OF THE INVENTION
The present invention relates to methods and devices for recognizing banknotes and responding accordingly (e.g., by intervening to prevent attempted banknote counterfeiting).
BACKGROUND AND SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
Watermarking is a quickly growing field of endeavor, with several different approaches. The present assignee's work is reflected in U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,710,834, 5,636,292, 5,721,788, 5,748,763, 5,748,783, and 5,745,604, in allowed U.S. applications Ser. No. 08/327,426 (now U.S. Pat. No. 5,768,426), Ser. No. 08/508,083 (now U.S. Pat. No. 5,841,978), Ser. No. 08/438,159 (now U.S. Pat. No. 5,850,481), and in laid-open PCT application WO97/43736. Other work is illustrated by U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,734,752, 5,646,997, 5,659,726, 5,664,018, 5,671,277, 5,687,191, 5,687,236, 5,689,587, 5,568,570, 5,572,247, 5,574,962, 5,579,124, 5,581,500, 5,613,004, 5,629,770, 5,461,426, 5,743,631, 5,488,664, 5,530,759, 5,539,735, 4,943,973, 5,337,361, 5,404,160, 5,404,377, 5,315,098, 5,319,735, 5,337,362, 4,972,471, 5,161,210, 5,243,423, 5,091,966, 5,113,437, 4,939,515, 5,374,976, 4,855,827, 4,876,617, 4,939,515, 4,963,998, 4,969,041, and published foreign applications WO 98/02864, EP 822,550, WO 97/39410, WO 96/36163, GB 2,196,167, EP 777,197, EP 736,860, EP 705,025, EP 766,468, EP 782,322, WO 95/20291, WO 96/26494, WO 96/36935, WO 96/42151, WO 97/22206, WO 97/26733. Some of the foregoing patents relate to visible watermarking techniques. Other visible watermarking techniques (e.g. data glyphs) are described in U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,706,364, 5,689,620, 5,684,885, 5,680,223, 5,668,636, 5,640,647, 5,594,809.
Most of the work in watermarking, however, is not in the patent literature but rather in published research. In addition to the patentees of the foregoing patents, some of the other workers in this field (whose watermark-related writings can by found by an author search in the INSPEC database) include I. Pitas, Eckhard Koch, Jian Zhao, Norishige Morimoto, Laurence Boney, Kineo Matsui, A. Z. Tirkel, Fred Mintzer, B. Macq, Ahmed H. Tewfik, Frederic Jordan, Naohisa Komatsu, and Lawrence O'Gorman.
The artisan is assumed to be familiar with the foregoing prior art.
In the following disclosure it should be understood that references to watermarking encompass not only the assignee's watermarking technology, but can likewise be practiced with any other watermarking technology, such as those indicated above.
Watermarking can be applied to myriad forms of information. The present disclosure focuses on its applications to line art imagery, of the sort typically employed in banknotes, travelers checks, passports, stock certificates, and the like (hereafter collectively referred to as “banknotes”). However, it should be recognized that the principles discussed below can also be applied outside this particular field.
Most of the prior art in image watermarking has focused on pixelated imagery (e.g. bit-mapped images, JPEG/MPEG imagery, VGA/SVGA display devices, etc.). In most watermarking techniques, the luminance or color values of component pixels are slightly changed to effect subliminal encoding of binary data through the image. (This encoding can be done directly in the pixel domain, or in another domain, such as the DCT domain.) In some systems, isolated pixels are changed in accordance with one or more bits of the binary data; in others, plural domain-related groupings of pixels (e.g. locally adjoining, or corresponding to a given DCT component) are so changed. In all cases, however, pixels have served as the ultimate carriers of the embedded data.
While pixelated imagery is a relatively recent development, line art goes back centuries. One familiar example is U.S. paper currency. On the one dollar banknote, for example, line art is used in several different ways. One is to form intricate webbing patterns around the margin of the note (generally comprised of light lines on dark background). Another is so form grayscale imagery, such as the portrait of George Washington (generally comprised of dark lines on a light background).
In an illustrative embodiment of the present invention, the line art on a banknote or other security document is slightly changed to effect the encoding of plural-bit digital data (i.e. the banknote is digitally watermarked). When such a banknote is thereafter scanned, the resulting image data can be recognized as corresponding to a banknote by detection of the encoded data. (Alternatively, the image data can be recognized as corresponding to a banknote by machine detection of other forms of watermarking, or by reference to visible structures characteristic of banknotes.)
In response to detection of a banknote, the detecting apparatus (e.g., a scanner, photocopier, or printer) can intervene so as to prevent or deter counterfeiting. For example, the apparatus can interrupt a copying operation, and display a message reminding the operator that it is illegal to reproduce currency. Another option is to dial a remote service and report the attempted reproduction of a banknote. Yet another option is to permit the copying, but to insert forensic tracer data (e.g. steganographically encoded binary data) in the resultant copy. The tracer data can memorialize the serial number of the machine that made the copy and/or the date and time the copy was made. To address privacy concerns, such tracer data is not normally inserted in photocopied output, but is so inserted only when the subject being photocopied is detected as being a banknote.
The foregoing features and advantages of the invention will be more readily apparent from the following detailed description, which proceeds with reference to the accompanying drawings.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
FIGS. 1A and 1B show prior art techniques for achieving grayscale effects using line art.
FIG. 2 shows a virtual array of grid points that can be imposed on an image according to one embodiment of the present invention.
FIG. 3 shows a virtual array of regions that can be imposed on an image according to the FIG. 2 embodiment.
FIG. 4 shows an excerpt of FIG. 3 with a line from a line art image passing therethrough.
FIG. 5 shows changes to the width of the line of FIG. 3 to effect watermark encoding according to one embodiment of the present invention.
FIG. 6 shows changes to the position of the line of FIG. 3 to effect watermark encoding according to another embodiment of the present invention.
FIG. 7 is a block diagram of a photocopier according to another embodiment of the invention.
Referring to FIG. 2, an illustrative form of the invention employs a grid 10 of imaginary reference points arrayed over a line art image. The spacing between points is 250 μm in the illustrated arrangement, but greater or lesser spacings can of course be used.
Associated with each grid point is a surrounding region 12, shown in FIG. 3. As described below, the luminosity (or reflectance) of each of these regions 12 is slightly changed to effect the subliminal encoding of binary data.
Region 12 can take various shapes; the illustrated rounded-rectangular shape is representative only. (The illustrated shape has the advantage of encompassing a fairly large area while introducing fewer visual artifacts than, e.g., square regions.) In other embodiments, squares, rectangles, circles, ellipses, etc., can alternatively be employed.
FIG. 4 is a magnified view of an excerpt of FIG. 3, showing a line 14 passing through the grid of points. The width of the line, of course, depends on the particular image of which it is a part. The illustrated line is about 25 μm in width; greater or lesser widths can naturally be used.
In a first embodiment of the invention, shown in FIG. 5, the width of the line is controllably varied so as to change the luminosity of the regions through which it passes. To increase the luminosity (or reflectance), the line is made narrower (i.e. less ink in the region). To decrease the luminosity, the line is made wider (i.e. more ink).
Whether the luminance in a given region should be increased or decreased depends on the particular watermarking algorithm used. Any algorithm can be used, by changing the luminosity of regions 12 as the algorithm would otherwise change the luminance or colors of pixels in a pixelated image.
In an exemplary algorithm, the binary data is represented as a sequence of −1s and 1s, instead of 0s and 1s. (The binary data can comprise a single datum, but more typically comprises several. In an illustrative embodiment, the data comprises 100 bits.)
Each element of the binary data sequence is then multiplied by a corresponding element of a pseudo-random number sequence, comprised of −1s and 1s, to yield an intermediate data signal. Each element of this intermediate data signal is mapped to a corresponding sub-part of the image, such as a region 12. The image in (and optionally around) this region is analyzed to determine its relative capability to conceal embedded data, and a corresponding scale factor is produced. Exemplary scale factors may range from 0 to 3. The scale factor for the region is then multiplied by the element of the intermediate data signal mapped to the region in order to yield a “tweak” value for the region. In the illustrated case, the resulting tweaks can range from −3 to 3. The luminosity of the region is then adjusted in accordance with the tweak value. A tweak value of −3 may correspond to a −5% change in luminosity; −2 may correspond to −2% change; −1 may correspond to −1% change; 0 may correspond to no change; 1 may correspond to +1% change; 2 may correspond to +2% change, and 3 may correspond to +5% change. (This example follows the basic techniques described in the Real Time Encoder embodiment disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 5,710,834.)
In FIG. 5, the watermarking algorithm determined that the luminance of region A should be reduced by a certain percentage, while the luminance of regions C and D should be increased by certain percentages.
In region A, the luminance is reduced by increasing the line width. In region D, the luminance is increased by reducing the line width; similarly in region C (but to a lesser extent).
No line passes through region B, so there is no opportunity to change the region's luminance. This is not fatal to the method, however, since the watermarking algorithm redundantly encodes each bit of data in sub-parts spaced throughout the line art image.
The changes to line widths in regions A and D of FIG. 5 are exaggerated for purposes of illustration. While the illustrated variance is possible, most implementations will modulate the line width 3-50% (increase or decrease).
(Many watermarking algorithms routinely operate within a signal margin of about +/−1% changes in luminosity to effect encoding. That is, the “noise” added by the encoding amounts to just 1% or so of the underlying signal. Lines typically don't occupy the full area of a region, so a 10% change to line width may only effect a 1% change to region luminosity, etc. Banknotes are different from photographs in that the art need not convey photorealism. Thus, banknotes can be encoded with higher energy than is used in watermarking photographs, provided the result is still aesthetically satisfactory. To illustrate, localized luminance changes on the order of 10% are possible in banknotes, while such a level of watermark energy in photographs would generally be considered unacceptable. In some contexts, localized luminance changes of 20, 30, 50 or even 100% are acceptable.)
In the illustrated embodiment, the change to line width is a function solely of the tweak to be applied to a single region. Thus, if a line passes through any part of a region to which a tweak of 2% is to be applied, the line width in that region is changed to effect the 2% luminance difference. In variant embodiments, the change in line width is a function of the line's position in the region. In particular, the change in line width is a function of the distance between the region's center grid point and the line's closest approach to that point. If the line passes through the grid point, the full 2% change is effected. At successively greater distances, successively less change is applied. The manner in which the magnitude of the tweak changes as a function of line position within the region can be determined by applying one of various interpolation algorithms, such as the bi-linear, bi-cubic, cubic splines, custom curve, etc.
In other variant embodiments, the change in line width in a given region is a weighted function of the tweaks for adjoining or surrounding regions. Thus, the line width in one region may be increased or decreased in accordance with a tweak value corresponding to one or more adjoining regions.
Combinations of the foregoing embodiments can also be employed.
In the foregoing embodiments, it is sometimes necessary to trade-off the tweak values of adjoining regions. For example, a line may pass along a border between regions, or pass through the point equidistant from four grid points (“equidistant zones”). In such cases, the line may be subject to conflicting tweak values—one region may want to increase the line width, while another may want to decrease the line width. (Or both may want to increase the line width, but differing amounts.) Similarly in cases where the line does not pass through an equidistant zone, but the change in line width is a function of a neighborhood of regions whose tweaks are of different values. Again, known interpolation functions can be employed to determine the weight to be given the tweak from each region in determining what change is to be made to the line width in any given region.
In the exemplary watermarking algorithm, the average change in luminosity across the image is zero, so no generalized lightening or darkening of the image is apparent. The localized changes in luminosity are so minute in magnitude, and localized in position, that they are essentially invisible (e.g. inconspicuous/subliminal) to human viewers.
An alternative embodiment is shown in FIG. 6, in which line position is changed rather than line width.
In FIG. 6 the original position of the line is shown in dashed form, and the changed position of the line is shown in solid form. To decrease a region's luminosity, the line is moved slightly closer to the center of the grid point; to increase a region's luminosity, the line is moved slightly away. Thus, in region A, the line is moved towards the center grid point, while in region D it is moved away.
It will be noted that the line on the left edge of region A does not return to its nominal (dashed) position as it exits the region. This is because the region to the left of region A also is to have decreased luminosity. Where possible, it is generally preferable not to return a line to its nominal position, but instead permit shifted lines to remain shifted as they enter adjoining regions. So doing permits a greater net line movement within a region, increasing the embedded signal level.
Again, the line shifts in FIG. 6 are somewhat exaggerated. More typical line shifts are on the order of 3-50 μm.
One way to think of the FIG. 6 embodiment is to employ a magnetism analogy. The grid point in the center of each region can be thought of as a magnet. It either attracts or repels lines. A tweak value of −3, for example, may correspond to a strong-valued attraction force; a tweak value of +2 may correspond to a middle-valued repulsion force, etc. In FIG. 6, the grid point in region A exhibits an attraction force (i.e. a negative tweak value), and the grid point in region D exhibits a repulsion force (e.g. a positive tweak value).
The magnetic analogy is useful because the magnetic effect exerted on a line depends on the distance between the line and the grid point. Thus, a line passing near a grid point is shifted more in position than a line near the periphery of the region.
Each of the variants discussed above in connection with FIG. 5 is likewise applicable to FIG. 6.
Combinations of the embodiments of FIGS. 5 and 6 can of course be used, resulting in increased watermark energy, better signal-to-noise ratio and, in many cases, less noticeable changes.
In still a further embodiment, the luminance in each region is changed while leaving the line unchanged. This can be effected by sprinkling tiny dots of ink in the otherwise-vacant parts of the region. In high quality printing, of the type used with banknotes, droplets on the order of 3 μm in diameter can be deposited. (Still larger droplets are still beyond the perception threshold for most viewers.) Speckling a region with such droplets (either in a regular array, or random, or according to a desired profile such as Gaussian), can readily effect a 1% or so change in luminosity. (Usually dark droplets are added to a region, effecting a decrease in luminosity. Increases in luminosity can be effected by speckling with a light colored ink, or by forming light voids in line art otherwise present in a region.)
In a variant of the speckling technique, very thin mesh lines can be inserted in the artwork—again to slightly change the luminance of one or more regions.
Although not previously mentioned, it is contemplated that the banknote will include some manner of calibration information to facilitate registration of the image for decoding. This calibration information can be steganographic or overt. Several techniques for steganographically embedding calibration information are disclosed in my prior patents and applications. Other techniques can be found in others of the cited work.
To decode watermark data, the encoded line art image must be converted into electronic form for analysis. This conversion is typically performed by a scanner.
Scanners are well known, so a detailed description is not provided here. Suffice it to say that scanners conventionally employ a line of closely spaced photodetector cells that produce signals related to the amount of the light reflected from successive swaths of the image. Most inexpensive consumer scanners have a resolution of 300 dots per inch (dpi), or a center to center spacing of component photodetectors of about 84 μm. Higher quality scanners of the sort found in most professional imaging equipment and photocopiers have resolutions of 600 dpi (42 μm), 1200 dpi (21 μm), or better.
Taking the example of a 300 dpi scanner (84 μm photodetector spacing), each 250 μm region 12 on the banknote will correspond to about a 3×3 array of photodetector samples. Naturally, only in rare instances will a given region be physically registered with the scanner so that nine photodetector samples capture the luminance in that region, and nothing else. More commonly, the line art is skewed with respect to the scanner photodetectors, or is longitudinally misaligned (i.e. some photodetectors image sub-parts of two adjoining regions). However, since the scanner oversamples the regions, the luminance of each region can unambiguously be determined.
In one embodiment, the scanned data from the line art is collected in a two dimensional array and processed—according to one of the techniques disclosed in my prior patents and applications—to detect the embedded calibration information. The array is then processed to effect a virtual re-registration of the image data. A software program then analyzes the statistics of the re-registered data (using the techniques disclosed in my prior writings) to extract the bits of the embedded data.
(Again, the reference to my earlier watermark decoding techniques is exemplary only. Once scanning begins and the data is available in pixel form, it is straightforward to apply any other watermark decoding technique to extract a correspondingly-encoded watermark.)
In a variant embodiment, the scanned data is not assembled in a complete array prior to the processing. Instead, it is processed in real-time, as it is generated, in order to detect embedded watermark data without delay. (Depending on the parameters of the scanner, it may be necessary to scan a half-inch or so of the line art image before the statistics of the resulting data unambiguously indicate the presence of a watermark.)
In accordance with another aspect of the invention, various hardware devices are provided with the capability to recognize embedded watermark data in any line art images they process, and to respond accordingly.
One example is a color photocopier. Such devices employ a color scanner to generate sampled (pixel) data corresponding to an input media (e.g. a dollar bill). If watermark data associated with a banknote is detected, the photocopier can take one or more steps.
One option is simply to interrupt copying, and display a message reminding the operator that it is illegal to reproduce currency.
Another option is to dial a remote service and report the attempted reproduction of a banknote. Photocopiers with dial-out capabilities are known in the art (e.g. U.S. Pat. No. 5,305,199) and are readily adapted to this purpose. The remote service can be an independent service, or can be a government agency.
Yet another option is to permit the copying, but to insert forensic tracer data in the resultant copy. This tracer data can take various forms. Steganographically encoded binary data is one example. An example is shown in U.S. Pat. No. 5,568,268. The tracer data can memorialize the serial number of the machine that made the copy and/or the date and time the copy was made. To address privacy concerns, such tracer data is not normally inserted in photocopied output, but is so inserted only when the subject being photocopied is detected as being a banknote. (Such an arrangement is shown in FIG. 7.)
Desirably, the scan data is analyzed on a line-by-line basis in order to identify illicit photocopying with a minimum of delay. If a banknote is scanned, one or more lines of scanner output data may be provided to the photocopier's reprographic unit before the banknote detection decision has been made. In this case the photocopy will have two regions: a first region that is not tracer-marked, and a second, subsequent region in which the tracer data has been inserted.
Photocopiers with other means to detect not-to-be-copied documents are known in the art, and employ various response strategies. Examples are detailed in U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,583,614, 4,723,149, 5,633,952, 5,640,467, and 5,424,807.
Another hardware device that can employ the foregoing principles is a standalone scanner. A programmed processor (or dedicated hardware) inside the scanner analyzes the data being generated by the device, and responds accordingly.
Yet another hardware device that can employ the foregoing principles is a printer. A processor inside the device analyzes graphical image data to be printed, looking for watermarks associated with banknotes.
For both the scanner and printer devices, response strategies can include disabling operation, or inserting tracer information. (Such devices typically do not have dial-out capabilities.)
Again, it is desirable to process the scanner or printer data as it becomes available, so as to detect any banknote processing with a minimum of delay. Again, there will be some lag time before a detection decision is made. Accordingly, the scanner or printer output will be comprised of two parts, one without the tracer data, and another with the tracer data.
Banknotes presently include various visible structures that can be used as aids in banknote detection (e.g. the seal of the issuing central bank, and various geometrical markings). In accordance with a further aspect of the present invention, a banknote is analyzed by an integrated system that considers both the visible structures and watermark-embedded data.
Visible banknote structures can be sensed using known pattern recognition techniques. Examples of such techniques are disclosed in U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,321,773, 5,390,259, 5,533,144, 5,539,841, 5,583,614, 5,633,952, 4,723,149 and 5,424,807 and laid-open foreign application EP 766,449.
In photocopiers (and the like) equipped to detect both visible and watermarked banknote markings, the detection of either causes one or more of the above-noted banknote responses to be initiated.
Again, scanners and printers can be equipped with a similar capability—analyzing the data for either of these banknote hallmarks. If either is detected, the software (or hardware) responds accordingly.
Identification of banknotes by watermark data provides an important advantage over recognition by visible structures—it cannot so easily be defeated. A banknote can be doctored (e.g. by white-out, scissors, or less crude techniques) to remove/obliterate the visible structures. Such a document can then be freely copied on either a visible structure-sensing photocopier or scanner/printer installation. The removed visible structure can then be added in via a second printing/photocopying operation. If the printer is not equipped with banknote-disabling capabilities, image-editing tools can be used to insert visible structures back into image data sets scanned from such doctored bills, and the complete bill freely printed. By additionally including embedded watermark data in the banknote, and sensing same, such ruses will not succeed.
(A similar ruse is to scan a banknote image on a non-banknote-sensing scanner. The resulting image set can then be edited by conventional image editing tools to remove/obliterate the visible structures. Such a data set can then be printed—even on a printer/photocopier that examines such data for the presence of visible structures. Again, the missing visible structures can be inserted by a subsequent printing/photocopying operation.)
Desirably, the visible structure detector and the watermark detector are integrated together as a single hardware and/or software tool. This arrangement provides various economies, e.g., in interfacing with the scanner, manipulating pixel data sets for pattern recognition and watermark extraction, electronically re-registering the image to facilitate pattern recognition/watermark extraction, issuing control signals (e.g. disabling) signals to the photocopier/scanner, etc.
(To provide a comprehensive disclosure without unduly lengthening the following specification, applicants incorporate by reference the patent documents cited above (except application Ser. Nos. 09/234,780 and 60/071,983).)
From the foregoing, it will be recognized that embodiments according to the present invention allow banknotes to be recognized based on optical scan data, and responsive actions taken, thereby reducing the risk of counterfeiting. Other devices, responsive to authentic banknotes, are enabled.
Having described and illustrated the principles of my invention with reference to several illustrative embodiments, it will be recognized that these embodiments are exemplary only and should not be taken as limiting the scope of my invention. Guided by the foregoing teachings, it should be apparent that other watermarking, decoding, and anti-counterfeiting technologies can be substituted for, and/or combined with, the elements detailed above to yield similar effects.
While the invention has been described with reference to embodiments employing regular rectangular arrays of grid points, those skilled in the art will recognize that other arrays of points—neither rectangular nor regular—can alternatively be used.
While the invention has been described with reference to embodiments that scale the embedded energy in accordance with local image characteristics, in other embodiments a manually crafted energy profile can be implemented. That is, a mask defining embedded signal magnitudes at different parts of the image can be manually devised, and employed to tailor the change in luminance in each region.
In view of the many possible embodiments to which the principles of the invention may be put, it should be recognized that the detailed embodiments are illustrative only and should not be taken as limiting the scope of my invention. Rather, I claim as my invention all such embodiments as may come within the scope and spirit of the following claims and equivalents thereto.
|Cited Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US2630525||May 25, 1951||Mar 3, 1953||Musicast Inc||System for transmitting and receiving coded entertainment programs|
|US3493674||May 18, 1966||Feb 3, 1970||Rca Corp||Television message system for transmitting auxiliary information during the vertical blanking interval of each television field|
|US3562420||Mar 12, 1968||Feb 9, 1971||Post Office||Pseudo random quantizing systems for transmitting television signals|
|US3576369||Dec 19, 1968||Apr 27, 1971||Agfa Gevaert Ag||Method of making prints from photographic negatives|
|US3585290||Jan 29, 1968||Jun 15, 1971||Rca Corp||Coding arrangements for multiplexed messages|
|US3655162||Oct 8, 1970||Apr 11, 1972||Symons Corp||Self-contained waler clamp assembly for concrete wall form|
|US3703628||Mar 29, 1971||Nov 21, 1972||Recognition Equipment Inc||System for document coding and identification|
|US3805238||May 9, 1972||Apr 16, 1974||Rothfjell R||Method for identifying individuals using selected characteristic body curves|
|US3809806||Oct 18, 1972||May 7, 1974||Columbia Broadcasting Syst Inc||Banding correction system for film recording apparatus|
|US3838444||Oct 30, 1972||Sep 24, 1974||Hazeltine Research Inc||System for transmitting auxiliary information in low energy density portion of color tv spectrum|
|US3845391||Jul 15, 1971||Oct 29, 1974||Audicom Corp||Communication including submerged identification signal|
|US3914877||Apr 8, 1974||Oct 28, 1975||Marion E Hines||Image scrambling technique|
|US3918567||Mar 28, 1973||Nov 11, 1975||Kittredge Edward D||Process printing|
|US3922074||Sep 24, 1973||Nov 25, 1975||Fuji Photo Film Co Ltd||Information storage and retrieval|
|US3969830||Sep 15, 1975||Jul 20, 1976||Grasham James A||Color encoding-decoding method|
|US3971917||Aug 1, 1974||Jul 27, 1976||Maddox James A||Labels and label readers|
|US3977785||Jan 6, 1975||Aug 31, 1976||Xerox Corporation||Method and apparatus for inhibiting the operation of a copying machine|
|US3982064||Sep 5, 1974||Sep 21, 1976||The General Electric Company Limited||Combined television/data transmission system|
|US3984684||Feb 6, 1974||Oct 5, 1976||Douglas Fredwill Winnek||Three-dimensional radiography|
|US4025851||Nov 28, 1975||May 24, 1977||A.C. Nielsen Company||Automatic monitor for programs broadcast|
|US4164745||May 8, 1978||Aug 14, 1979||Northern Telecom Limited||Printing by modulation of ink viscosity|
|US4184700||Sep 1, 1978||Jan 22, 1980||Lgz Landis & Gyr Zug Ag||Documents embossed with optical markings representing genuineness information|
|US4225967||Jan 9, 1978||Sep 30, 1980||Fujitsu Limited||Broadcast acknowledgement method and system|
|US4230990||Mar 16, 1979||Oct 28, 1980||Lert John G Jr||Broadcast program identification method and system|
|US4231113||Mar 11, 1968||Oct 28, 1980||International Business Machines Corporation||Anti-jam communications system|
|US4237484||Aug 8, 1979||Dec 2, 1980||Bell Telephone Laboratories, Incorporated||Technique for transmitting digital data together with a video signal|
|US4238849||Dec 19, 1978||Dec 9, 1980||International Standard Electric Corporation||Method of and system for transmitting two different messages on a carrier wave over a single transmission channel of predetermined bandwidth|
|US4252995||Feb 17, 1978||Feb 24, 1981||U.S. Philips Corporation||Radio broadcasting system with transmitter identification|
|US4262329||Mar 27, 1978||Apr 14, 1981||Computation Planning, Inc.||Security system for data processing|
|US4297729||Nov 20, 1978||Oct 27, 1981||Emi Limited||Encoding and decoding of digital recordings|
|US4313197||Apr 9, 1980||Jan 26, 1982||Bell Telephone Laboratories, Incorporated||Spread spectrum arrangement for (de)multiplexing speech signals and nonspeech signals|
|US4367488||May 1, 1981||Jan 4, 1983||Sterling Television Presentations Inc. Video Data Systems Division||Data encoding for television|
|US4379947||Feb 2, 1979||Apr 12, 1983||Teleprompter Corporation||System for transmitting data simultaneously with audio|
|US4389671||Sep 29, 1980||Jun 21, 1983||Harris Corporation||Digitally-controlled analog encrypton|
|US4416001||Nov 26, 1980||Nov 15, 1983||News Log International, Inc.||Method and apparatus for optically reading digital data inscribed in an arcuate pattern on a data carrier|
|US4423415||Jun 22, 1981||Dec 27, 1983||Light Signatures, Inc.||Non-counterfeitable document system|
|US4425642||Jan 8, 1982||Jan 10, 1984||Applied Spectrum Technologies, Inc.||Simultaneous transmission of two information signals within a band-limited communications channel|
|US4425661||Sep 3, 1981||Jan 10, 1984||Applied Spectrum Technologies, Inc.||Data under voice communications system|
|US4476468||Jun 10, 1983||Oct 9, 1984||Light Signatures, Inc.||Secure transaction card and verification system|
|US4495620||Aug 5, 1982||Jan 22, 1985||At&T Bell Laboratories||Transmitting data on the phase of speech|
|US4523508||Nov 2, 1983||Jun 18, 1985||General Electric Company||In-line annular piston fixed bolt regenerative liquid propellant gun|
|US4528588||Sep 25, 1981||Jul 9, 1985||Loefberg Bo||Method and apparatus for marking the information content of an information carrying signal|
|US4553261||May 31, 1983||Nov 12, 1985||Horst Froessl||Document and data handling and retrieval system|
|US4571489 *||Jul 1, 1983||Feb 18, 1986||Tokyo Shibaura Denki Kabushiki Kaisha||Automatic bank note transaction apparatus|
|US4588212||Aug 29, 1984||May 13, 1986||De La Rue Giori S.A.||Document of value|
|US4590366||Jun 28, 1984||May 20, 1986||Esselte Security Systems Ab||Method of securing simple codes|
|US4595950||Dec 17, 1984||Jun 17, 1986||Loefberg Bo||Method and apparatus for marking the information content of an information carrying signal|
|US4618257||Jan 6, 1984||Oct 21, 1986||Standard Change-Makers, Inc.||Color-sensitive currency verifier|
|US4637051||Jul 18, 1983||Jan 13, 1987||Pitney Bowes Inc.||System having a character generator for printing encrypted messages|
|US4639779||Oct 15, 1985||Jan 27, 1987||Greenberg Burton L||Method and apparatus for the automatic identification and verification of television broadcast programs|
|US4644582||Jan 24, 1984||Feb 17, 1987||Hitachi, Ltd.||Image registration method|
|US4647974||Apr 12, 1985||Mar 3, 1987||Rca Corporation||Station signature system|
|US4654867||Aug 11, 1986||Mar 31, 1987||Motorola, Inc.||Cellular voice and data radiotelephone system|
|US4660221||Jul 18, 1983||Apr 21, 1987||Pitney Bowes Inc.||System for printing encrypted messages with bar-code representation|
|US4660859 *||Jun 17, 1985||Apr 28, 1987||Materials Research, Inc.||Process for incorporating a novel nuclear signature on currency which permits easy authentication at a later date|
|US4663518||Oct 31, 1985||May 5, 1987||Polaroid Corporation||Optical storage identification card and read/write system|
|US4665431||Aug 16, 1982||May 12, 1987||Cooper J Carl||Apparatus and method for receiving audio signals transmitted as part of a television video signal|
|US4672605||Mar 20, 1984||Jun 9, 1987||Applied Spectrum Technologies, Inc.||Data and voice communications system|
|US4677435||Jul 16, 1985||Jun 30, 1987||Association Pour La Promotion De La Technologie (Promotech)||Surface texture reading access checking system|
|US4677466||Jul 29, 1985||Jun 30, 1987||A. C. Nielsen Company||Broadcast program identification method and apparatus|
|US4682794||Jul 22, 1985||Jul 28, 1987||Photon Devices, Ltd.||Secure identification card and system|
|US4689477||Oct 2, 1985||Aug 25, 1987||Light Signatures, Inc.||Verification system for document substance and content|
|US4697209||Apr 26, 1984||Sep 29, 1987||A. C. Nielsen Company||Methods and apparatus for automatically identifying programs viewed or recorded|
|US4703476||Nov 6, 1986||Oct 27, 1987||Audicom Corporation||Encoding of transmitted program material|
|US4712103||Dec 3, 1985||Dec 8, 1987||Motohiro Gotanda||Door lock control system|
|US4718106||May 12, 1986||Jan 5, 1988||Weinblatt Lee S||Survey of radio audience|
|US4723149||May 5, 1986||Feb 2, 1988||Kabushiki Kaisha Toshiba||Image forming apparatus having a function for checking to copy a secret document|
|US4739377 *||Oct 10, 1986||Apr 19, 1988||Eastman Kodak Company||Confidential document reproduction method and apparatus|
|US4750173||May 21, 1986||Jun 7, 1988||Polygram International Holding B.V.||Method of transmitting audio information and additional information in digital form|
|US4765656||Oct 15, 1986||Aug 23, 1988||Gao Gesellschaft Fur Automation Und Organisation Mbh||Data carrier having an optical authenticity feature and methods for producing and testing said data carrier|
|US4775901||Dec 2, 1986||Oct 4, 1988||Sony Corporation||Apparatus and method for preventing unauthorized dubbing of a recorded signal|
|US4776013||Apr 1, 1987||Oct 4, 1988||Rotlex Optics Ltd.||Method and apparatus of encryption of optical images|
|US4805020||Oct 14, 1985||Feb 14, 1989||Greenberg Burton L||Television program transmission verification method and apparatus|
|US4811357||Jan 4, 1988||Mar 7, 1989||Paradyne Corporation||Secondary channel for digital modems using spread spectrum subliminal induced modulation|
|US4811408||Nov 13, 1987||Mar 7, 1989||Light Signatures, Inc.||Image dissecting document verification system|
|US4820912||Sep 19, 1986||Apr 11, 1989||N. V. Bekaert S.A.||Method and apparatus for checking the authenticity of documents|
|US4835517||Jun 20, 1984||May 30, 1989||The University Of British Columbia||Modem for pseudo noise communication on A.C. lines|
|US4855827||Jul 21, 1987||Aug 8, 1989||Worlds Of Wonder, Inc.||Method of providing identification, other digital data and multiple audio tracks in video systems|
|US4864618||Oct 17, 1988||Sep 5, 1989||Wright Technologies, L.P.||Automated transaction system with modular printhead having print authentication feature|
|US4866771||Jan 20, 1987||Sep 12, 1989||The Analytic Sciences Corporation||Signaling system|
|US4874936||Apr 8, 1988||Oct 17, 1989||United Parcel Service Of America, Inc.||Hexagonal, information encoding article, process and system|
|US4876617||May 5, 1987||Oct 24, 1989||Thorn Emi Plc||Signal identification|
|US4884139||Dec 23, 1987||Nov 28, 1989||Etat Francais, Represente Par Le Secretariat D'etat Aux Post Es Et Telecommunications (Centre National D'etudes Des Telecommunications)||Method of digital sound broadcasting in television channels with spectrum interlacing|
|US4885632||Mar 16, 1988||Dec 5, 1989||Agb Television Research||System and methods for monitoring TV viewing system including a VCR and/or a cable converter|
|US4903301||Feb 12, 1988||Feb 20, 1990||Hitachi, Ltd.||Method and system for transmitting variable rate speech signal|
|US4908836||Oct 11, 1988||Mar 13, 1990||Unisys Corporation||Method and apparatus for decoding multiple bit sequences that are transmitted simultaneously in a single channel|
|US4908873||May 13, 1983||Mar 13, 1990||Philibert Alex C||Document reproduction security system|
|US4918484||Oct 17, 1988||Apr 17, 1990||Fuji Photo Film Co., Ltd.||Picture frame number discriminating method and apparatus therefor|
|US4920503||May 27, 1988||Apr 24, 1990||Pc Connection, Inc.||Computer remote control through a video signal|
|US4921278||Nov 9, 1988||May 1, 1990||Chinese Academy Of Sciences||Identification system using computer generated moire|
|US4939515||Sep 30, 1988||Jul 3, 1990||General Electric Company||Digital signal encoding and decoding apparatus|
|US4941150||May 5, 1988||Jul 10, 1990||Victor Company Of Japan, Ltd.||Spread spectrum communication system|
|US4943093 *||Nov 14, 1988||Jul 24, 1990||Portals Limited||Security paper for bank notes and the like|
|US4943973||Mar 31, 1989||Jul 24, 1990||At&T Company||Spread-spectrum identification signal for communications system|
|US4943976||Sep 13, 1989||Jul 24, 1990||Victor Company Of Japan, Ltd.||Spread spectrum communication system|
|US4963998||Apr 20, 1989||Oct 16, 1990||Thorn Em Plc||Apparatus for marking a recorded signal|
|US4965827||May 18, 1988||Oct 23, 1990||The General Electric Company, P.L.C.||Authenticator|
|US4967273||Feb 14, 1989||Oct 30, 1990||Vidcode, Inc.||Television program transmission verification method and apparatus|
|US4969041||Sep 23, 1988||Nov 6, 1990||Dubner Computer Systems, Inc.||Embedment of data in a video signal|
|US4972471||May 15, 1989||Nov 20, 1990||Gary Gross||Encoding system|
|US4972475||Feb 3, 1989||Nov 20, 1990||Veritec Inc.||Authenticating pseudo-random code and apparatus|
|US4972476||May 11, 1989||Nov 20, 1990||Nathans Robert L||Counterfeit proof ID card having a scrambled facial image|
|US4979210||Jul 8, 1988||Dec 18, 1990||Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd.||Method and apparatus for protection of signal copy|
|US5178418 *||Jun 25, 1991||Jan 12, 1993||Canadian Bank Note Co., Ltd.||Latent images comprising phase shifted micro printing|
|US5257119 *||Mar 24, 1992||Oct 26, 1993||Canon Kabushiki Kaisha||Image processing apparatus which adds apparatus identification data to images|
|US5337361 *||Jun 1, 1992||Aug 9, 1994||Symbol Technologies, Inc.||Record with encoded data|
|US5390003 *||Nov 30, 1993||Feb 14, 1995||Minolta Camera Kabushiki Kaisha||Copying system for preventing copying of copy-prohibited images|
|US5430664 *||Feb 25, 1993||Jul 4, 1995||Technitrol, Inc.||Document counting and batching apparatus with counterfeit detection|
|US5721788 *||Jul 31, 1992||Feb 24, 1998||Corbis Corporation||Method and system for digital image signatures|
|US5974548 *||Jul 12, 1996||Oct 26, 1999||Novell, Inc.||Media-independent document security method and apparatus|
|US6185683 *||Dec 28, 1998||Feb 6, 2001||Intertrust Technologies Corp.||Trusted and secure techniques, systems and methods for item delivery and execution|
|US6343138 *||Jun 29, 1999||Jan 29, 2002||Digimarc Corporation||Security documents with hidden digital data|
|US6345104 *||Jul 31, 1998||Feb 5, 2002||Digimarc Corporation||Digital watermarks and methods for security documents|
|US6580819 *||Apr 7, 1999||Jun 17, 2003||Digimarc Corporation||Methods of producing security documents having digitally encoded data and documents employing same|
|EP0493091A1 *||Dec 23, 1991||Jul 1, 1992||Xerox Corporation||Method and system for embedding machine readable digital data in grayscale images|
|1||"Access Control and COpyright Protection for Images, WorkPackage 1: Access Control and Copyright Protection for Images Need Evaluation," Jun., 1995, 21 pages.|
|2||"Access Control and COpyright Protection for Images, WorkPackage 8: Watermarking," Jun. 30, 1995, 46 pages.|
|3||"Access Control and COpyright Protection for Images: WorkPackage 3: Evaluation of Existing Systems," Apr. 19, 1995, 68 pages.|
|4||"Copyright Protection for Digital Images, Digital Fingerprinting from FBI," Highwater FBI brochure 1995, 4 pages.|
|5||"Cyphertech Systems: Introduces Digital Encoding Device to Prevent TV Piracy," Hollyood Reporter, Oct. 20, 1993, p. 23.|
|6||"Foiling Card Forgers With Magnetic Noise," Wall Street Journal, Feb. 8, 1994.|
|7||"Holographic signatures for digital images,"The Seybold Report on Desktop Publishing, Aug. 1995, one page.|
|8||"NAB-Cyphertech Start Anti-Piracy Broadcast Test, "Newsbytes, NEW032300023, Mar. 23, 1994.|
|9||"Specification for an Image Replacement Document-IRD," Draft Standard for Trial Use, DSTU X9.90-2003, Jan. 10, 2003.|
|10||"Steganography," Intellectual Property and the National Information Infrastructure The Report of the Working Group on Intellectual Property Rights, Sep. 1995, pp. 212-213.|
|11||Arachelian, "White Noise Storm," Apr. 11, 1994, Internet reference, 13 pages.|
|12||Arazi, et al., "Intuition, Perception, and Secure Communication," IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, vol. 19, No. 5, Sep./Oct. 1989, pp. 1016-1020.|
|13||Arthur, "Digital Fingerprints Protect Artwork," New Scientist, Nov. 12, 1994, p. 24.|
|14||Aura, "Invisible Communication," Helskinki University of Technology, Digital Systems Laboratory, Nov. 5, 1995, 13 pages.|
|15||Bender et al., "Techniques for Data Hiding," Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Media Laboratory, Draft Preprint, Apr. 13, 1995, 10 pages.|
|16||Bender, "Applications for Data Hiding," IBM Systems Journal, vol. 39, No. 3-4, pp. 547-568, 2000.|
|17||Bender, Techniques for Data Hiding, Proc. SPIE, Vo. 2420, Feb. 9, 1995, pp. 164-173.|
|18||Boland, "Watermarking Digital Images for Copyright Protection," Fifth International Conf. on Image Processing and Its Applications, Conf. Publ. No. 410, pp. 326-330, 1995.|
|19||Boneh, "Collusion-Secure Fingerprinting for Digital Data," Department of Computer Science, Princeton University, 1995, 31 pages.|
|20||Boney et al., "Digital Watermarks for Audio Signals," Proceedings of Multimedia '96, 1996 IEEE, pp. 473-480.|
|21||Boucqueau et al., Equitable Conditional Access and Copyright Protection for Image Based on Trusted Third Parties, Teleservices & Multimedia Communications, 2nd Int. Cost 237 Workshop, Second International Cost 237 Workshop, Nov., 1995; published 1996, pp. 229-243.|
|22||Brassil et al., "Electronic Marking and Identification Techniques to Discourage Document Copying," IEEE Proc. INFOCOM'94, Jun. 1994, pp. 1278-1287.|
|23||Brassil et al., "Hiding Information in Document Images," Mar., 1995, pp. 482-489, Cont. on Information Sciences and Systems.|
|24||Brown, "S-Tool for Windows, Version 1.00; What is Steganography," Internet reference, Mar. 6, 1994, 6 pages.|
|25||Bruckstein et al., A holographic transform domain image watermarking method, Circuits, Systems, and Signal Processing vol. 17, No. 3 p. 361-389, 1998. This paper includes an appendix containing an internal memo of Bell Labs, which according to the authors of the paper, was dated Sep. 1994.|
|26||Bruyndonckx et al., "Spatial Method for Copyright Labeling of Digital Images," preprint dated 1994; published in IEEE Workshop on Nonlinear Images/Signal Processing, Thessaloniki, Greece, Jun. 1995, Proceedings, pp. 456-459.|
|27||Bruyndonckx et al., Neural Network Post-Processing of Coded Images Using Perceptual Masking, 1994, 3 pages.|
|28||Burgett et al., "A Novel Method for Copyright Labeling Digitized Image Data," requested by e-mail from author (unavailable/password protected on IGD WWW site); received Sep. 18, 1995, 12 pages.|
|29||Caronni, "Assuring Ownership Rights for Digital Images," Published in the Proceedings of 'Reliable IT Systems,' VIS '95, HH. Bruggermann and W. Gerhardt-Hackl (Ed.), Vieweg Publishing Company, Germany, 1995, Jun. 14, 1994, 10 pages. (Orginally published as an ETH (Zurich) Technical Report, "Ermitteln Unauthorisierter Verteiler von Maschinenlesbaren Daten," 8/93.|
|30||Caruso, "Digital Commerce, 2 plans for watermarks, which can bind proof of authorship to electronic works." New York Times, Aug. 7, 1995, one page.|
|31||Choudhury, et al., "Copyright Protection for Electronic Publishing over Computer Networks," IEEE Network Magazine, Jun. 1994, 18 pages.|
|32||Chow et al., "Forgerv and Tamper-Proof Identification Document." IEEE Proc. 1993 Int. Carnahan Conf. on Security Technology, Oct. 13-15, 1993, pp 11-14.|
|33||Clarke, "Invisible Code Tags Electronic Images," Electronic Engineering Times, Jun. 12, 1995, n. 852, p. 42.|
|34||Cox et al., "A Secure, Imperceptable Yet Perceptually Salient, Spread Spectrum Watermark for Multimedia," IEEE, Southcon/96, Conference Recor, pp. 192-197, 1996.|
|35||Cox et al., "Secure Spread Watermarking for Multimedia,"NEC Research Institute Technical Report, Dec. 5, 1995, 33 pages.|
|36||D.L. Hecht, "Embedded Data Glyph Technology for Hardcopy Digital Documents," Proc. Color Imaging: Device-Independent Color, Color Hardcopy and Graphic Arts III, SPIE-The Int'l Soc. Optical Engineering, Bellingham, Wash., vol. 2171, 1994 pp. 340-352.|
|37||D.L. Hecht, "Printed Embedded Data Graphical User Interfaces," 2001 Computer IEEE (vol. 34, No. 3), pp 47-55.|
|38||D.N. Curry, "Color Pictorial Serpentine Halftone for Secure Embedded Data," Proc. Optical Security and Counterfeit Deterrence Techniques II, SPIE-The Int'l Soc. Optical Engineering, Bellingham, Wash., vol. 3314, 1998, pp. 309-317.|
|39||Dautzberg, "Watermarking Images," Department of Microelectronics and Electrical Engineering, Trinity College Dublin, 47 pages, Oct. 1994.|
|40||de Castro et al., "Registration of Translated and Rotated Images Using Finite Fourier Transforms," IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, vol. PAMI-9, No. 5, Sep. 1987, pp. 700-703.|
|41||Digimarc presentation at RSA Conference, approximately Jan. 17, 1996, 4 pages.|
|42||Fitzgerald, "Invisible Digital Copyright ID," Editor & Publisher, Jun. 25, 1994, p. 62.|
|43||Franz et al., "Computer Based Steganography: How It Works and Why Therefore Any Restrictions on Cryptography are Nonsense, at Best," Information Hiding, First Int. Workshop Proc, May 30-Jun. 1, 1996, pp. 7-21, (a counterpart was published in German by Steffen Moller et al in 1994).|
|44||Frequently Asked Questions About Digimarc Signature Technology, Aug. 1, 1995, http://www.digimarc.com, 9 pages.|
|45||Friedman, "The Trustworthy Digital Camera: Restoring Credibility to the Photographic Image," IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronic, vol. 39, No. 4, Nov. 1993, pp. 905-910.|
|46||Gabor, et al., "Theory of Communication," J. Inst. Elect. Eng. 93, 1946, pp. 429-441.|
|47||Gerzon, M.A., et al, "A High-Rate Buried-Data Channel for Audio CD," Journal of the Audio Engineering Society, vol. 43, No.1-2, p. 3-22, Jan.-Feb., 1995.|
|48||Gonzalez et al, Digital image processing, Addison-Wesley publishing company, pp. 663-681, Sep. 1993.|
|49||Gruhl et al., Information Hiding to Foil the Casual Counterfeiter, Information Hiding, 2d Int'l Workshop, pp. 1-15, Apr. 1998.|
|50||Hartung et al., Digital Watermarking of Raw and Compressed Video, Proc. SPIE 2952, Digital Compression Technologies and Systems for Video Communications, Oct., 1996, pp. 205-213.|
|51|| *||Haslop, "Security Printing Techniques," Optical Document Security, edited by R.L. van Renesse, Artech House, 1994, pp. 111-126.|
|52||Hecht, "Embedded Data Glyph Technology for Hardcopy Digital Documents," SPIE vol. 2171, Feb. 1994, pp. 341-352.|
|53||Humphrey, "Stamping Out Crime," Hollywood Reporter, Jan. 26, 1994, p. S48.|
|54||Jain, "Image Coding Via a Nearest Neighbors Image Model," IEEE Transactions on Communications, vol. COM-23, No. 3, Mar. 1975, pp. 318-331.|
|55||Johnson, "Steganography," Dec. 10, 1995, 32 pages.|
|56||JPEG Group's JPEG Software (release 4), ftp.csua.berekley.edu/pub/cypherpunks/applications/jsteg/jpeg.announcement.gz, Jun. 7, 1993, 2 pages.|
|57||Kassam, Signal Detection in Non-Gaussian Noise, Dowden & Culver, 1988, pp. 1-96.|
|58||Kawaguchi et al., "Principle and Applications of BPCS-Steganography," Proc. SPIE vol. 3528: Multimedia Systems and Applications, Nov. 2-4, 1998, pp. 464-473.|
|59||Kochi et al., "Copyright Protection for Multimedia Data," Proc. of the International Conference on Digital Media and Electronic Publishing, Dec. 6-8, 1994, Leeds, U.K., 15 pages.|
|60||Komatsu et al., "A Proposal on Digital Watermark in Document Image Communication and Its Application to Realize a Signature," Electronics and Communications in Japan, Part 1, vol. 73, No. 5, 1990, pp. 22-33.|
|61|| *||Komatsu et al., "Authentication System Using Concealed Image in Telematics," Memoirs of the School of Science & Engineering, Waseda Univ., No. 52, 1988, pp. 45-60.|
|62||Kurak et al., "A Cautionary Note On Image Downgrading," Nov. 30, 1992 IEEE, pp. 153-159.|
|63||Low et al., "Document Marking and Indentification using Both Line and Word Shifting," IEEE Proc. INFOCOM'95, Apr. 1995, pp. 853-860.|
|64||Luc, "Analysis of Spread Spectrum System Parameters for Design of Hidden Transmission," Radioengineering, vol. 4, No. 2, Jun. 1995, pp. 26-29.|
|65||Machado, "Announcing Stego 1.0a2, The First Steganography Tool for the Macintosh," Internet reference, Nov. 28, 1993, 3 pages.|
|66||Macq, "Cryptology for Digital TV Broadcasting," Proceedings of the IEEE, vol. 83, No. 6, Jun. 1995, pp. 944-957.|
|67||Matsui et al., "Embedding a Watermark to Binary Pictures in Hardcopy System," Memoirs of the National Defense Academy, Japan, vol. 36, No. 2, (1997), pp. 13-20.|
|68||Matsui et al., "Use of the Wavelet Transformation to Embed Signatures in Images," Systems and Computers in Japan, Jan., 1997, vol. 28, No. 1, pp. 87-94.|
|69||Matsui et al., "Video-Steganography How to Secretly Embed a Signature in a Picture," IMA Intellectual Property Project Proceedings, Jan. 1994, vol. 1, Issue 1, pp. 187-205.|
|70||Matthews, "When Seeing is Not Believing," New Scientist, Oct. 16, 1993, pp. 13-15.|
|71||Maxemchuk, "Electronic Document Distribution," AT&T Tech. J., Sep. 1994, pp. 73-80.|
|72||Müller, et al., "Rechnergestutzte Steganographic: Wie sie Funktionert und warum folglich jede Reglementierung von Verschlusselung unsinnig ist," (with English abstract), Datenschutz und Datensicherung, 18/6 (1994) 318-326.|
|73||Nakamura et al., "A Unified Coding Method of Dithered Image and Text Data Using Micropatterns," Electronics and Communications in Japan, Part 1, vol. 72, No. 4, 1989, pp. 50-56.|
|74||Nakamura et al., "A Unified Coding Method of Image and Text Data Using Discrete Orthogonal Transform," Systems and Computers in Japan, vol. 21, No. 3, 1990, pp. 87-92.|
|75||New Product Information, "FBI at AppleExpo" (Olympia, London), Nov., 1995, 2 pages.|
|76||O Ruanaidh et al., "Rotation, Scale and Translation Invariant Digital Image Watermarking," IEEE Proc. Int. Conf. on Image Processing, Oct. 26-29, 1997, pp 536-539.|
|77||Ohnishi et al., Embedding a Seal into a Picture Under Orthogonal Wavelet Transform, Proceedings of Multimedia '96, 1996, IEEE, pp. 514-521.|
|78||Oomen, A. et al., "A Variable-Bit Rate Buried-Data Channel for Compact Disc," Journal of the Audio Engineering Society vol. 43, No. 1-2, pp. 23-28, Jan.-Feb., 1995.|
|79||ORuanaidh et al, "Watermarking Digital Images for Copyright Protection," http://www.kalman.mee.tcd.ie/people/jjr/eva.sub.-pap.html, Feb. 2, 1996, 8 pages. (Also published Aug., 1996, IEEE Proceedings-Vision, Image and Signal Processing, vol. 143, No. 4, pp. 250-256).|
|80||Pennebaker et al., JPEG Still Image Data Compression Standard, Chapter 3, "Aspects of the Human Visual System," pp. 23-27, 1993, Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York.|
|81||Pickholtz et al., "Theory of Spread-Spectrum Communications-A Tutorial," Transactions on Communications, vol. COM-30, No. 5, May, 1982, pp. 855-884.|
|82||Pitas et al., "Applying Signatures on Digital Images," IEEE Workshop on Nonlinear Image and Signal Processing, Neos Marmaras, Greece, pp. 460-463, Jun., 1995.|
|83||Port, "Halting Highway Robbery on the Internet," Business Week, Oct. 17, 1994, p. 212.|
|84||Proudler, Graeme J., "Authentication and Display of Signatures on Electronic Documents," 2244 Research Disclosure, Feb., 1994, No. 358, Emsworth, GB, 1 page.|
|85||Quisquater, J., "Access Control and COpyright Protection for Images, Conditional Access and Copyright Protection Based on the Use of Trusted Third Parties," 1995, 43 pages.|
|86||Roberts, "Picture Coding Using Pseudorandom Noise," IRE Trans. on Information Theory, vol. 8, No. 2, Feb., 1962, pp. 145-154.|
|87||Sapwater et al., "Electronic Copyright Protection," Photo<Electronic Imaging, vol. 37, No. 6, 1994, pp. 16-21.|
|88|| *||Schell, "The Historical Development of Security Printing: Design and Technology," Optical Document Security, R.L. van Renesse, ed., Artech House, 1994, pp. 75-93.|
|89||Schneider, "Digital Signatures, Cryptographic Algorithms Can Create Nonforgeable Signatures for Electronic Documents, Making Them Valid Legal Instruments"BYTE, Nov. 1993, pp. 309-312.|
|90||Schreiber et al., "A Compatible High-Definition Television System Using the Noise-Margin Method of Hiding Enhancement Information," SMPTE Journal, Dec. 1989, pp. 873-879.|
|firstname.lastname@example.org, "Hide and Seek v. 4.0," Internet reference, Apr. 10, 1994, 3 pages.|
|92||Sheng et al., "Experiments on Pattern Recognition Using Invariant Fourier-Mellin Descriptors," Journal of Optical Society of America, vol. 3, No. 6, Jun., 1986, pp. 771-776.|
|93||Short, "Steps Toward Unmasking Secure Communications," International Journal of Bifurcation and Chaos, vol. 4, No. 4, 1997, pp. 959-977.|
|94||Simmons, "Subliminal Channels; Past and Present," ETT, vol. 5, No. 4, Jul.-Aug. 1994, pp. 45-59.|
|95||Sklar, "A Structured Overview of Digital Communications-a Tutorial Review-Part I," IEEE Communications Magazine, Aug., 1983, pp. 1-17.|
|96||Sklar, "A Structured Overview of Digital Communications-a Tutorial Review-Part II," IEEE Communications Magazine, Oct., 1983, pp. 6-21.|
|97|| *||Spannenburg, "Modulation of Printed Gratings as a Protection Against Copying," Optical Document Security, R.L. van Renesse, ed., Artech House, 1994, pp. 127-148.|
|98||Szepanski, "Binary Data Transmission Over Video Channels with Very Low Amplitude Data Signals," Fernseh- und Kino-Technik, vol. 32, No. 7, Jul. 1978, pp. 251-256. (German text with full English translation).|
|99||Szepanski, "Compatibility Problems in Add-On Data Transmission for TV-Channels," 2d Symp. and Tech. Exh. On Electromagnetic Compatibility, Jun. 28, 1977, pp. 263-268.|
|100||Szepanski, "Optimization of Add-On Signals by Means of a Modified Training Algorithm for Linear Classifiers," IEEE Int'l Symp. On Info. Theory, Oct. 10, 1977, pp. 27-28.|
|101||Szepanski, Additive Binary Data Transmission for Video Signals, Conference of the Communications Engineering Society, 1980, NTG Technical Reports, vol. 74, pp. 343-351. (German text with full English translation).|
|102||U.S. Appl. No. 09/465,418, filed Dec. 16, 1999, Rhoads et al.|
|103||U.S. Appl. No. 09/765,102, filed Jan. 17, 2001, Shaw.|
|Citing Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US7555139||Oct 23, 2007||Jun 30, 2009||Digimarc Corporation||Secure documents with hidden signals, and related methods and systems|
|US7831062||May 12, 2009||Nov 9, 2010||Digimarc Corporation||Arrangement of objects in images or graphics to convey a machine-readable signal|
|US7965863||Nov 20, 2007||Jun 21, 2011||Digimarc Corporation||Digital watermarks as a gateway and control mechanism|
|US7978874||Mar 17, 2005||Jul 12, 2011||Digimarc Corporation||Digital watermarking for workflow by tracking content or content identifiers with respect to time|
|US8103879||Sep 8, 2009||Jan 24, 2012||Digimarc Corporation||Processing audio or video content with multiple watermark layers|
|US8165342||Apr 6, 2010||Apr 24, 2012||Digimarc Corporation||Color image or video processing|
|US8243980||Mar 9, 2004||Aug 14, 2012||Digimarc Corporation||Image processing using embedded registration data to determine and compensate for geometric transformation|
|US8290202 *||Jan 11, 2007||Oct 16, 2012||Digimarc Corporation||Methods utilizing steganography|
|US8532330||May 22, 2008||Sep 10, 2013||Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P.||Security printing analysis system and method for enhancing security printing|
|US20120278441 *||Apr 28, 2011||Nov 1, 2012||Futurewei Technologies, Inc.||System and Method for Quality of Experience Estimation|
|WO2009142640A1 *||May 22, 2008||Nov 26, 2009||Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P.||Security printing analysis system and method for enhancing security printing|
| || |
|U.S. Classification||382/137, 283/72|
|International Classification||H04K1/00, G10L19/00, H04N1/40, G06T7/00, G06K9/00, H04N1/387, H04N1/32, B29C45/14, H04N1/00, G07D7/12, G07D7/00, G06T1/00, B42D15/00|
|Cooperative Classification||Y10S283/901, H04N1/00002, H04N2201/3271, H04N1/32219, H04N1/0087, H04N1/00244, H04N1/00037, H04N1/32203, G06T1/005, H04N1/00875, H04N1/00005, H04N2201/3239, G06T7/0002, H04N1/32309, G07D7/004, H04N2201/3207, H04N1/00092, H04N1/00867, H04N1/32144, G06T1/0071, G06T1/0028, G10L19/018, H04N1/32208, G07D7/002, H04N2201/3233, B29C45/1418, H04N2201/3249, G06T1/0064, H04N2201/3246, H04N1/32261, H04N1/00859, G06T2201/0051, H04N1/00846, H04N2201/3226, H04N2201/327, G06T1/0021, H04N2201/3205, H04N1/32304, B42D15/0013|
|European Classification||G06T7/00B, H04N1/00A, G06T1/00W6, H04N1/32C19B3, G06T1/00W6M, G06T1/00W6G, G06T1/00W2, H04N1/32C19B7, H04N1/00C3K, H04N1/00A1, H04N1/00A3E, H04N1/00P3A, H04N1/00P3M2H, H04N1/32C19B3B, H04N1/32C19B3C, H04N1/32C19B3J, H04N1/32C19B6D, H04N1/00A5, G10L19/018, B42D15/00C, G07D7/00D, G06T1/00W, H04N1/32C19, H04N1/00P3M2, H04N1/00P2R2, H04N1/00P3P, G07D7/00B4|
|Jan 2, 2013||FPAY||Fee payment|
Year of fee payment: 8
|Nov 2, 2010||AS||Assignment|
Free format text: MERGER;ASSIGNOR:DMRC CORPORATION;REEL/FRAME:025227/0832
Effective date: 20080903
Owner name: DIGIMARC CORPORATION, OREGON
Free format text: MERGER;ASSIGNOR:DMRC LLC;REEL/FRAME:025227/0808
Effective date: 20080801
Owner name: DMRC CORPORATION, OREGON
|Oct 29, 2010||AS||Assignment|
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:DIGIMARC CORPORATION (A DELAWARE CORPORATION);REEL/FRAME:025217/0508
Effective date: 20080801
Owner name: DMRC LLC, OREGON
|May 12, 2010||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: DIGIMARC CORPORATION (AN OREGON CORPORATION),OREGO
Free format text: MERGER;ASSIGNOR:DIGIMARC CORPORATION (A DELAWARE CORPORATION);US-ASSIGNMENT DATABASE UPDATED:20100518;REEL/FRAME:24369/582
Effective date: 20100430
Free format text: MERGER;ASSIGNOR:DIGIMARC CORPORATION (A DELAWARE CORPORATION);US-ASSIGNMENT DATABASE UPDATED:20100512;REEL/FRAME:24369/582
Free format text: MERGER;ASSIGNOR:DIGIMARC CORPORATION (A DELAWARE CORPORATION);US-ASSIGNMENT DATABASE UPDATED:20100513;REEL/FRAME:24369/582
Free format text: MERGER;ASSIGNOR:DIGIMARC CORPORATION (A DELAWARE CORPORATION);US-ASSIGNMENT DATABASE UPDATED:20100525;REEL/FRAME:24369/582
Free format text: MERGER;ASSIGNOR:DIGIMARC CORPORATION (A DELAWARE CORPORATION);REEL/FRAME:24369/582
Free format text: MERGER;ASSIGNOR:DIGIMARC CORPORATION (A DELAWARE CORPORATION);REEL/FRAME:024369/0582
Owner name: DIGIMARC CORPORATION (AN OREGON CORPORATION), OREG
|Dec 19, 2008||FPAY||Fee payment|
Year of fee payment: 4
|Nov 5, 2008||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: DIGIMARC CORPORATION (FORMERLY DMRC CORPORATION),
Free format text: CONFIRMATION OF TRANSFER OF UNITED STATES PATENT RIGHTS;ASSIGNOR:L-1 SECURE CREDENTIALING, INC. (FORMERLY KNOWN AS DIGIMARC CORPORATION);REEL/FRAME:021785/0796
Effective date: 20081024
Owner name: DIGIMARC CORPORATION (FORMERLY DMRC CORPORATION),O
Free format text: CONFIRMATION OF TRANSFER OF UNITED STATES PATENT RIGHTS;ASSIGNOR:L-1 SECURE CREDENTIALING, INC. (FORMERLY KNOWN AS DIGIMARC CORPORATION);US-ASSIGNMENT DATABASE UPDATED:20100203;REEL/FRAME:21785/796
Free format text: CONFIRMATION OF TRANSFER OF UNITED STATES PATENT RIGHTS;ASSIGNOR:L-1 SECURE CREDENTIALING, INC. (FORMERLY KNOWN AS DIGIMARC CORPORATION);US-ASSIGNMENT DATABASE UPDATED:20100223;REEL/FRAME:21785/796
Free format text: CONFIRMATION OF TRANSFER OF UNITED STATES PATENT RIGHTS;ASSIGNOR:L-1 SECURE CREDENTIALING, INC. (FORMERLY KNOWN AS DIGIMARC CORPORATION);US-ASSIGNMENT DATABASE UPDATED:20100225;REEL/FRAME:21785/796
Free format text: CONFIRMATION OF TRANSFER OF UNITED STATES PATENT RIGHTS;ASSIGNOR:L-1 SECURE CREDENTIALING, INC. (FORMERLY KNOWN AS DIGIMARC CORPORATION);US-ASSIGNMENT DATABASE UPDATED:20100309;REEL/FRAME:21785/796
Free format text: CONFIRMATION OF TRANSFER OF UNITED STATES PATENT RIGHTS;ASSIGNOR:L-1 SECURE CREDENTIALING, INC. (FORMERLY KNOWN AS DIGIMARC CORPORATION);US-ASSIGNMENT DATABASE UPDATED:20100323;REEL/FRAME:21785/796
Free format text: CONFIRMATION OF TRANSFER OF UNITED STATES PATENT RIGHTS;ASSIGNOR:L-1 SECURE CREDENTIALING, INC. (FORMERLY KNOWN AS DIGIMARC CORPORATION);US-ASSIGNMENT DATABASE UPDATED:20100329;REEL/FRAME:21785/796
Free format text: CONFIRMATION OF TRANSFER OF UNITED STATES PATENT RIGHTS;ASSIGNOR:L-1 SECURE CREDENTIALING, INC. (FORMERLY KNOWN AS DIGIMARC CORPORATION);US-ASSIGNMENT DATABASE UPDATED:20100330;REEL/FRAME:21785/796
Free format text: CONFIRMATION OF TRANSFER OF UNITED STATES PATENT RIGHTS;ASSIGNOR:L-1 SECURE CREDENTIALING, INC. (FORMERLY KNOWN AS DIGIMARC CORPORATION);US-ASSIGNMENT DATABASE UPDATED:20100413;REEL/FRAME:21785/796
Free format text: CONFIRMATION OF TRANSFER OF UNITED STATES PATENT RIGHTS;ASSIGNOR:L-1 SECURE CREDENTIALING, INC. (FORMERLY KNOWN AS DIGIMARC CORPORATION);US-ASSIGNMENT DATABASE UPDATED:20100420;REEL/FRAME:21785/796
Free format text: CONFIRMATION OF TRANSFER OF UNITED STATES PATENT RIGHTS;ASSIGNOR:L-1 SECURE CREDENTIALING, INC. (FORMERLY KNOWN AS DIGIMARC CORPORATION);US-ASSIGNMENT DATABASE UPDATED:20100427;REEL/FRAME:21785/796
Free format text: CONFIRMATION OF TRANSFER OF UNITED STATES PATENT RIGHTS;ASSIGNOR:L-1 SECURE CREDENTIALING, INC. (FORMERLY KNOWN AS DIGIMARC CORPORATION);US-ASSIGNMENT DATABASE UPDATED:20100504;REEL/FRAME:21785/796
Free format text: CONFIRMATION OF TRANSFER OF UNITED STATES PATENT RIGHTS;ASSIGNOR:L-1 SECURE CREDENTIALING, INC. (FORMERLY KNOWN AS DIGIMARC CORPORATION);US-ASSIGNMENT DATABASE UPDATED:20100511;REEL/FRAME:21785/796
Free format text: CONFIRMATION OF TRANSFER OF UNITED STATES PATENT RIGHTS;ASSIGNOR:L-1 SECURE CREDENTIALING, INC. (FORMERLY KNOWN AS DIGIMARC CORPORATION);US-ASSIGNMENT DATABASE UPDATED:20100518;REEL/FRAME:21785/796
Free format text: CONFIRMATION OF TRANSFER OF UNITED STATES PATENT RIGHTS;ASSIGNOR:L-1 SECURE CREDENTIALING, INC. (FORMERLY KNOWN AS DIGIMARC CORPORATION);US-ASSIGNMENT DATABASE UPDATED:20100525;REEL/FRAME:21785/796
Free format text: CONFIRMATION OF TRANSFER OF UNITED STATES PATENT RIGHTS;ASSIGNOR:L-1 SECURE CREDENTIALING, INC. (FORMERLY KNOWN AS DIGIMARC CORPORATION);REEL/FRAME:21785/796
|Oct 29, 2002||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: DIGIMARC CORPORATION, OREGON
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:RHOADS, GEOFFREY B.;REEL/FRAME:013461/0307
Effective date: 20020930