|Publication number||US6928586 B1|
|Application number||US 10/106,631|
|Publication date||Aug 9, 2005|
|Filing date||Mar 26, 2002|
|Priority date||Dec 10, 1998|
|Also published as||US6363501|
|Publication number||10106631, 106631, US 6928586 B1, US 6928586B1, US-B1-6928586, US6928586 B1, US6928586B1|
|Inventors||David F. Tobias, Richard G. Russell, Mark T. Ellis|
|Original Assignee||Advanced Micro Devices, Inc.|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (22), Referenced by (4), Classifications (6), Legal Events (3)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
This application is a continuation of Ser. No. 09/209,190 Dec. 10, 1998, Pat. No. 6,363,501.
1. Field of the Invention
The apparatus and method according to the invention pertains to peripheral states registers embedded in a microcontrollers, and more specifically, using scan hardware to capture peripheral device states.
2. Description of the Related Art
The proliferation of electronic goods such as telephones, televisions, and video camcorders has been made possible by integrated circuit technology. One type of integrated circuit especially important to electronic devices is the microcontroller.
A microcontroller, or embedded controller, is similar to a microprocessor as used in a personal computer, but with a great deal of additional functionality combined onto the same monolithic semiconductor substrate (i.e., chip). In a typical personal computer, the microprocessor performs the basic computing functions, but other integrated circuits perform functions such as communicating over a network, providing input/output with the user, and controlling peripherals.
In a typical microcontroller, many of these functions are embedded within the integrated circuit chip itself. A typical microcontroller, such as the Am186ES by Advanced Micro Devices, Inc., of Sunnyvale, Calif., not only includes a core microprocessor, but further includes a memory controller, a direct memory access (DMA) controller, an interrupt controller, and both asynchronous and synchronous serial interfaces. In computer systems, these peripheral devices are typically implemented as separate integrated circuits, requiring a larger area and increasing the size of the product. By embedding these functions within a single chip, size and cost are reduced, often important in consumer products.
From a consumer products designer's viewpoint, often the particular combination of added features make a particular microcontroller attractive for a given application. Many microcontrollers are available that use the standard 80×86 microprocessor instructions, allowing for software to be easily developed for such microcontrollers. Because of the similar execution unit instruction sets, the added features often become principal differentiating criteria between particular microcontrollers.
The peripheral devices embedded in a microcontroller each have their own individual registers. Typical peripheral device registers include state registers, instruction registers, address registers, status registers and data registers. Depending on the peripheral, certain registers store configuration information needed for the peripheral's proper operation during start up. On system start up, the execution unit initializes each peripheral device with device specific initial configuration data. This initialization could occur during a cold start-up, zero-volt suspend/resume procedure or after a system crash.
In addition to having peripheral devices, many of today's microcontrollers have embedded test circuitry. In 1985, a group of European companies formed Joint European Test Action Group (JETAG) to devise ways to reduce manufacturing costs. One concept was to incorporate such test circuitry into standard components (controlled via software), eliminating the need for sophisticated in-circuit test equipment. This concept gained support in the U.S., where in 1988, several North American companies formed the Joint Test Access Group (JTAG) consortium to formalize the concept. In 1990, the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE) refined the concept and created the 1149.1 standard (which is incorporated herein by reference), known as IEEE Standard Test Access Port and Boundary Scan Architecture.
In such an architecture, a JTAG test device is connected to a microcontroller and performs a “boundary-scan test” on the microcontroller. Boundary scan cells contain shift register elements that connect together to form a scan chain around the core logic circuit. Input/output (I/O) signals freely pass between integrated circuit (IC) pins and the core logic, through the boundary scan cells, in normal mode. However, in test mode, only test signals are allowed to pass into or out of the core logic, via a test port and through the boundary scan chain, providing observability and controllability of the input and output signals. The JTAG test commands are typically drawn from a fairly limited set of commands particularly adapted for testing the interconnections of microcontrollers and are not typically well suited for testing or monitoring its internal logic. Instructions and associated data for testing are read serially into each microcontroller peripheral boundary scan cell registers and read out serially, and after the instructions has been carried out the result is read out serially.
While boundary scan techniques are useful in testing interconnection between components, the scan path does not include internal logic registers. In full scan path design typically all registers and storage elements are connected in the scan paths.
Furthermore, access to registers of peripheral devices may not be possible using I/O commands. Some of these registers may not have both read/write capabilities. Thus, data cannot be written to read-only registers with processor I/O commands and data cannot be read from write-only registers with processor I/O commands.
According to the invention, the configuration states of peripheral devices that are embedded in a microcontroller are saved using scan hardware. Various configuration registers, both internal (non-I/O registers) and external (I/O registers), are connected in a configuration scan path internal to the peripheral device. When it is desirable to save the configuration state(s) of the peripheral device(s), the configuration scan path is scanned, and this data can be stored in an external memory device. The external memory device can either be volatile or non-volatile.
In addition, in one embodiment, the scan path is IEEE 1149.1 compliant. Furthermore, according to the invention, various configuration registers, both internal and external, can be saved to an external memory device without intervention of the execution unit of the microcontroller. Instead of the execution unit issuing read and write commands to the various configuration registers and an external memory, configuration data is scanned out to the external memory via a scan path.
Also according to the invention, the configuration states of peripheral devices can be loaded into peripheral device registers using scan hardware. Configuration states can be stored in external memory and shifted into the configuration registers of peripheral devices via a scan path.
Furthermore, according to the invention, configuration states of peripheral devices can be loaded into peripheral device registers that are read-only and saved from peripheral device registers that are write-only by using this scan path.
A better understanding of the present invention can be obtained when the following detailed description of the preferred embodiment is considered in conjunction with the following drawings, in which:
The block diagram of the microcontroller M is typical of microcontrollers, and could be for example, the Am186ES microcontroller by Advanced Micro Devices, Inc., of Sunnyvale, Calif. The techniques and circuitry according to the invention, however, could be applied to a wide variety of microcontrollers as well as other devices that use a non-ideal clock for generation of asynchronous serial port clocks. Further, the term “microcontroller” has differing definitions in industry. Some companies refer to a processor core with additional features (such as I/O) as a “microprocessor” if it has no onboard memory, and digital signal processors (DSPs) are now used for both special and general purpose controller functions. So as here used, the term “microcontroller” covers all of the products, and generally means an execution unit with added functionality all implemented on a single monolithic integrated circuit.
Microcontrollers that are IEEE 1149.1 compliant have boundary scan paths that couple the registers of peripheral device's I/O pins. Boundary scan provides access to the periphery of the microcontroller, but not the internal registers of the execution unit and peripheral devices. In full scan path design all registers are connected in the scan paths. Scan paths connect individual flip-flops within a register and then connect the registers, e.g., bit one of register one is connected to bit two of register one, and bit two is connected to bit three of register one, and so on until the last bit of register one is connected to bit one of register two. According to the invention, scan is implemented on sufficient registers to save configuration state of the device. Furthermore, it is not necessary to capture all data from each register to determine the state of the device. For instance, data from a status register may not be needed to determine the configuration state of the device.
Peripheral Device Registers
Peripheral devices embedded in microcontrollers have many different registers that store data for use in a variety of functions. Sometimes, registers necessarily define a configuration state of a peripheral. Other times, registers contain transitory information (such as UART receive status bits) that are not strictly needed to establish the peripheral's configuration. Further, whether a register has information “necessary” to define a peripheral configuration may depend on the particular implementation of the peripheral and its applications. As an illustration, one such peripheral device is an asynchronous serial port 136. A common asynchronous serial port is a Universal Asynchronous Receiver and Transmitter (UART) 300. The UART 300 is one peripheral that provides a serial interface of the microcontroller M. Some of the peripheral's functions include the serialization of parallel data and the insertion of start, parity, and stop bits, or the parallelization of serial data and the separation of start, parity, and stop bits.
Configuration State Registers
One skilled in the art could appreciate that inclusion or exclusion of particular registers to be saved can be different from system to system. That is, some predetermined subset of configuration registers could differ according to the system. For example, in a high speed system that quickly restarts, it might be desirable to include status registers in the scan path. Thus, the modem status register 312 and/or serialization status register 320 of the UART 300 can be included in the scan path.
In addition, internal registers (as opposed to I/O registers) can be included in the scan path. The contents of these registers are typically not ascertainable without debug tools or the addition of shadow registers, but it might be desirable to include these registers in the scan path. For example, the receiver shift register 324 and/or transmitter shift register 326 of the UART 300 can be included in the scan path.
Furthermore, externally accessible registers (I/O registers) may have read, write, or read/write capabilities. But using standard I/O commands, data cannot be saved from write-only registers nor written to read-only registers. As an example, the receiver buffer register 302 is typically a read-only register. Configuration data normally cannot be loaded into this register with a write command from execution unit 124.
This inability to read from or write to particular registers can present problems when saving and restoring a peripherals state through routines run by the execution unit 124. Typically, when entering and exiting low power or hibernation modes, a peripherals state is saved and restored via low level power up and power down routines. But this becomes problematic when read- or write-only registers (or internal hidden registers) are employed. Similar problems arise with locked registers and registers that access different functionality on reads than on writes (i.e., a read returns status; a write alters control).
These legacy-style registers could be made read/write, but that might cause existing software to malfunction. The registers could be made read/write in response to a special mode of operation, but that could require extensive modifications to peripheral cores. Therefore, saving and restoring a peripheral gracefully can be difficult when the peripheral has read-only, write-only, locked, hidden, or otherwise inaccessible registers.
Using the configuration scan path according to the invention provides a graceful approach to those problems. Whether registers necessary for peripheral configuration are read-only, write-only, hidden, locked, or otherwise difficult to save and restore using processor reads and writes, the configuration scan chain can capture that information.
Returning to the example of the receiver buffer register 302, because it is coupled to the scan path (as shown in FIG. 4), configuration data can be shifted into this register via SCAN_PATH. Likewise, the transmitter hold register 322 typically has write-only capabilities. Data from this register normally cannot be ascertained with I/O commands (or memory commands for memory mapped I/O) from execution unit 124. As shown in
Finally, an example of a peripheral device with external registers that cannot be accessed easily by software due to the nature of the hardware. One example is the interrupt control unit 106. A common interrupt control unit is the legacy 8259A style programmable interrupt controller. This controller uses four initialization control words, namely Initialization Command Words (ICW) ICW1-ICW4, which are written sequentially into the device via a single I/O port to four registers. The four registers can be included as configuration registers 108 a and are typically write-only registers. Therefore, the registers cannot be read back out. As shown in
Memory Storage Device
Configuration data that is clocked out of the peripheral devices is preferably stored in external memory 200. Configuration data can also be clocked into the peripheral device from external memory 200. Various memory storage devices could be utilized both volatile and non-volatile. One embodiment of the present invention would utilize a serial EEPROM.
IEEE 1149.1 JTAG Boundary SCAN and Test Access Port
Another embodiment of the invention utilizes the JTAG boundary scan path and Test Access Port (TAP) hardware to save the configuration data of the peripheral devices or load configuration data into the peripheral devices. For microcontrollers that are IEEE 1149.1 compliant, the scan paths SCAN_PATH for each peripheral configuration register can be coupled to the boundary scan. The IEEE 1149.1 standard (May 21, 1990), is described in the publication IEEE Standard Test Access Port and Boundary-Scan Architecture, published by the IEEE, Piscataway, N.J. (herein incorporated by reference.)
A command instruction is loaded through the TAP. When the registers are clocked, configuration data is shifted out of the peripheral device register onto the boundary scan path. In addition, the memory storage device could be coupled to the Test Access Port for easy load/storage of configuration data.
The saving of configuration states of peripheral devices can occur during different scenarios. For example, it might be desirable to save the configuration states of peripheral devices prior to a system power down. The states could be saved in non-volatile memory. On power-up, it might be desirable to load the saved states into the peripheral devices as opposed to loading a default configuration setting.
In addition, it might be desirable to save the configuration states of peripheral devices prior to the system entering a sleep or suspend mode. In sleep mode, the system operates under low power. Some peripheral devices might be unable to retain their data while the system is asleep. When the system is awakened or resumes operation, the configuration states can be loaded into the peripheral devices.
Furthermore, it might be desirable to save the configuration states in the event of a system failure. Configuration states can be periodically saved. Thus, if a system failure should occur, the last saved configuration state could be loaded into the peripheral device, instead of loading the default configuration setting.
By saving the configuration states using the scan path, reconfiguration of the peripheral device registers can be accomplished without intervention of the execution unit 124 of microcontroller M. Thus, there would be no need to reload configuration data with I/O commands. As discussed previously, some configuration registers may not be accessible via processor I/O commands because the registers are internal or may be read-only or write-only.
The foregoing disclosure and description of the invention are illustrative and explanatory thereof, and various changes in the size, shape, materials, components, circuit elements, wiring connections and contacts, as well as in the details of the illustrated circuitry and construction and method of operation may be made without departing from the spirit of the invention.
|Cited Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US4710931 *||Oct 23, 1985||Dec 1, 1987||Texas Instruments Incorporated||Partitioned scan-testing system|
|US4947357||Feb 24, 1988||Aug 7, 1990||Stellar Computer, Inc.||Scan testing a digital system using scan chains in integrated circuits|
|US5133071 *||Nov 21, 1988||Jul 21, 1992||Hitachi, Ltd.||Channel control method and apparatus|
|US5168555 *||Sep 6, 1989||Dec 1, 1992||Unisys Corporation||Initial program load control|
|US5281864||Apr 10, 1992||Jan 25, 1994||Motorola Gmbh||Implementation of the IEEE 1149.1 boundary-scan architecture|
|US5291495||Jul 12, 1991||Mar 1, 1994||Ncr Corporation||Method for designing a scan path for a logic circuit and testing of the same|
|US5325368||Nov 27, 1991||Jun 28, 1994||Ncr Corporation||JTAG component description via nonvolatile memory|
|US5329533||Dec 26, 1991||Jul 12, 1994||At&T Bell Laboratories||Partial-scan built-in self-test technique|
|US5377198 *||Nov 27, 1991||Dec 27, 1994||Ncr Corporation (Nka At&T Global Information Solutions Company||JTAG instruction error detection|
|US5416409||Sep 8, 1993||May 16, 1995||Ministor Peripherals International Limited||Apparatus and method for testing circuit board interconnect integrity|
|US5434804||Dec 29, 1993||Jul 18, 1995||Intel Corporation||Method and apparatus for synchronizing a JTAG test control signal to an on-chip clock signal|
|US5477545||Feb 9, 1993||Dec 19, 1995||Lsi Logic Corporation||Method and apparatus for testing of core-cell based integrated circuits|
|US5577052 *||Jun 7, 1995||Nov 19, 1996||Texas Instruments Incorporated||Scan based testing for analogue circuitry|
|US5608736||Jun 7, 1995||Mar 4, 1997||Texas Instruments Incorporated||Method and apparatus for a universal programmable boundary scan driver/sensor circuit|
|US5623503||Jul 2, 1996||Apr 22, 1997||Lucent Technologies Inc.||Method and apparatus for partial-scan testing of a device using its boundary-scan port|
|US5627841||Oct 3, 1995||May 6, 1997||Nec Corporation||Integrated logic circuit with partial scan path circuit and partial scan path design method for same|
|US5636228||Jan 16, 1996||Jun 3, 1997||Motorola, Inc.||Scan register with decoupled scan routing|
|US5668490||May 1, 1996||Sep 16, 1997||Sun Microsystems, Inc.||Flip-flop with full scan capability|
|US5717701||Aug 13, 1996||Feb 10, 1998||International Business Machines Corporation||Apparatus and method for testing interconnections between semiconductor devices|
|US5726999||Sep 30, 1996||Mar 10, 1998||Texas Instruments Incorporated||Method and apparatus for universal programmable boundary scan driver/sensor circuit|
|US6321354 *||Apr 28, 1998||Nov 20, 2001||Sgs-Thomson Microelectronics S.A.||Testable circuit with a low number of leads|
|US6363501 *||Dec 10, 1998||Mar 26, 2002||Advanced Micro Devices, Inc.||Method and apparatus for saving and loading peripheral device states of a microcontroller via a scan path|
|Citing Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US7076708 *||Sep 25, 2003||Jul 11, 2006||International Business Machines Corporation||Method and apparatus for diagnosis and behavior modification of an embedded microcontroller|
|US7424419 *||May 27, 2003||Sep 9, 2008||Qlogic, Corporation||Method and system for providing a virtual universal serial port interface and a virtual storage interface|
|US8751760||Oct 1, 2009||Jun 10, 2014||Dell Products L.P.||Systems and methods for power state transitioning in an information handling system|
|US20050071719 *||Sep 25, 2003||Mar 31, 2005||International Business Machines Corporation||Method and apparatus for diagnosis and behavior modification of an embedded microcontroller|
|U.S. Classification||714/30, 710/8, 714/726|
|Sep 30, 2008||FPAY||Fee payment|
Year of fee payment: 4
|Aug 18, 2009||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: GLOBALFOUNDRIES INC., CAYMAN ISLANDS
Free format text: AFFIRMATION OF PATENT ASSIGNMENT;ASSIGNOR:ADVANCED MICRO DEVICES, INC.;REEL/FRAME:023119/0083
Effective date: 20090630
|Jan 9, 2013||FPAY||Fee payment|
Year of fee payment: 8