|Publication number||US6932935 B1|
|Application number||US 10/049,305|
|Publication date||Aug 23, 2005|
|Filing date||Jul 28, 2000|
|Priority date||Aug 6, 1999|
|Also published as||DE19937260A1, DE19937260B4, DE50001399D1, EP1192040A2, EP1192040B1, US7901604, US20070001342, WO2001010631A2, WO2001010631A3|
|Publication number||049305, 10049305, PCT/2000/7318, PCT/EP/0/007318, PCT/EP/0/07318, PCT/EP/2000/007318, PCT/EP/2000/07318, PCT/EP0/007318, PCT/EP0/07318, PCT/EP0007318, PCT/EP007318, PCT/EP2000/007318, PCT/EP2000/07318, PCT/EP2000007318, PCT/EP200007318, US 6932935 B1, US 6932935B1, US-B1-6932935, US6932935 B1, US6932935B1|
|Inventors||Johann Oberhofer, Jochen Weidinger, Thomas Mattes|
|Original Assignee||Eos Gmbh Electro Optical Systems|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (17), Referenced by (35), Classifications (12), Legal Events (3)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
The invention relates to a process for producing a three-dimensional object having the steps of forming an object in a container arranged within a process chamber on a carrier which can be displaced in the container by sequential selective solidification of layers of a solidifiable pulverulent material at positions corresponding to the cross-section of the object in the particular layer and a device for producing a three-dimensional object by sequential solidification of layers of a solidifiable powder material having a container for accommodating the object to be produced, and a carrier which can be displaced in the container.
In a process, known for example from U.S. Pat. No. 4,863,538, for producing a three-dimensional object by means of selective laser sintering, the object is produced by successive selective solidification of layers of a pulverulent material at positions corresponding to the object in the particular layer under the action of a laser beam. The objects thus produced are still hot immediately after they are completed and do not yet have their final solidity. Furthermore, the object must be freed of non-solidified powder before it may be used. Depending on application, it is also desirable or necessary to subsequently treat the objects.
A process and a device is known from U.S. Pat. No. 5,846,370. There it is proposed to construct the object in a container which is provided within a process chamber and after completing the object may be removed from the latter and may be used as a cooling device. It is known from European 0 632 761 to also solidify a container wall surrounding the object together with the object and to place this container thus formed together with the object at a separate location for cooling after the building process. It is known from European 0 289 116 to produce an object by means of laser sintering of a powder, wherein the powder layers are applied by means of a fluidised bed process. Heated or cooled gas is supplied in order to keep the object at a uniform temperature during the building process. It is known from European 0 287 657 to pass a stream of temperature-controlled air through the powder bed, in order to remove heat from the object during the building process.
It is also known from German utility model DE 29 506 716.6 to remove or to unpack an object produced by means of selective laser sintering manually from the non-solidified powder still surrounding the object after construction. It is known from WO 00/21673 to provide a changeable building frame for the object in a laser sintering device which can be removed quickly and simply from the laser sintering device and re-installed and hence facilitates rapid job change. A device and a process is known from U.S. Pat. No. 5,569,431, in which an object formed by means of stereolithography is automatically raised up from a bath of liquid material which can be photo-solidified. Furthermore, European 0 403 146 discloses a stereolithography device, in which a device in which the object is constructed and a subsequent treatment device are provided. A transport device for transporting the object between the two is also provided.
It is the object of the invention to provide a process and a device for producing a three-dimensional object from solidifiable powder material, with which the overall production process may be simplified, automated and/or shortened and the precision during the production of the object is improved.
The present invention provides a process for producing a three-dimensional object having the steps forming the object (3) in a container (1, 200) arranged within a process chamber (100) on a carrier (4) which can be displaced in the container by sequential selective solidification of layers of a solidifiable pulverulent material (11) at positions corresponding to the cross-section of the object in the particular layer, characterised by the step of controlled removal of non-solidified pulverulent material (11) after completing the object (3).
It also provides a process for producing a three-dimensional object having the steps forming the object (3) in a container (1, 200; 300) arranged within a process chamber (100) on a carrier (4) which can be displaced in the container by sequential selective solidification of layers of a solidifiable pulverulent material (11) at positions corresponding to the cross-section of the object in the particular layer, characterised by the step of controlled cooling of the object (3) after completing.
It further provides a process for producing a three-dimensional object having the steps: forming the object (3) by sequential selective solidification of layers of a solidifiable pulverulent material (11) at positions corresponding to the cross-section of the object in the particular layer, characterised in that the object formed is automatically subjected to infiltration.
The invention also provides a device for producing a three-dimensional object by sequential solidification of layers of a solidifiable powder material having a container (1; 200) for accommodating the object (3) to be produced, a carrier (4) which can be displaced in the container, and a device (50; 500) for controlled removal of non-solidified pulverulent material (11) after completing the object (3).
Further, it provides a device for automatic unpacking and/or cooling of a three-dimensional object, which is produced by sequential solidification of layers of a solidifiable powder material, having a container (1; 200) for accommodating the object (3) to be produced, a carrier (4) which can be displaced in the container and having a device (50; 500) for controlled removal of non-solidified pulverulent material (11) after completing the object (3) and/or having a device for controlled cooling of the object formed (500; 600).
Further features and advantages of the invention can be seen from the description of exemplary embodiments using the figures.
Of the figures
As can be seen in particular from
The container 1 is releasably attached in a process chamber 100, so that it can be removed from the process chamber 100 together with the object 3 formed therein.
A radiation device in the form of a laser 7, which emits a directed light beam 8, is arranged above the working plane 6. A deflecting device 9 is provided, for example as a system of galvanometer mirrors, by means of which the light beam 8 as deflected beam 8′ can be deflected to each required position of the working plane 6.
A coater 10, for applying a layer of a powder material 11 to be solidified to the carrier surface 5 or a layer which is solidified in the end, is provided. The coater 10 can be moved back and forth over the working plane 6 by means of a schematically indicated drive from a first end position on one side of the container 1 to a second end position on the opposite side of the container 1.
A control device 40 is also provided, by means of which the drive to set the position of the carrier 4, the drive for moving the coater 10 and the drive for adjusting the deflecting device can be controlled in coordinated manner or independently of one another.
In a first embodiment of the invention shown in
A covering 52 sealing the container 1 from the surroundings at its open side is also provided in the form of a dome-like hood, which rests with its lower rim on the upper rim 2 of the container 1. The covering 52 can be placed on the container and a seal is provided between the upper rim 2 of the container 1 and the covering, by means of which seal a hermetic seal to the atmosphere is guaranteed. The covering has two openings 53 and 54 opposite one another which are provided at a predetermined distance from the lower rim of the covering 52. The openings 53, 54 are in each case connected to a supply pipe 55 or a removal pipe 56 for supplying a compressed gas or for removing the gas and powder particles fluidised by the gas stream. The supply pipe 55 is connected to a device 57 for supplying a gaseous medium preferably with a compressed air source 57. The removal pipe 56 is connected to a collection container 58 for removed powder material. The openings 53 and 54 in the covering 52 are arranged such that when the compressed air source 57 is connected, a gas stream flowing essentially tangentially over the upper rim 2 of the container is produced. The compressed air source 57 can be adjusted so that the strength of the air stream can be controlled. Furthermore, the temperature of the gaseous medium can be controlled so that a temperature required for cooling can be set.
In the process of the invention, the object is initially produced in known manner on the carrier 4 within the container 1 in the process chamber 100. Hence, the carrier 4 is first moved to the highest position, in which the carrier surface 5 lies at a distance of one layer thickness of the first layer to be applied below the upper rim 2 of the container 1. The coater 10 is then moved over the working plane 6 and a first layer of powder 11 to be solidified is applied. The deflecting device 9 is then controlled such that a region of the powder material corresponding to the cross-section of the object in this layer is solidified by the laser beam 8. The carrier 4 is then lowered and a new layer applied and likewise again solidified. These steps are repeated so often until the object 3 is completed. Plastic powder, such as for example polyamide powder, metal powder, ceramic powder, plastic-coated sand or combinations thereof, is used as powder material 11, depending on the area of application.
The container is then removed from the process chamber 100 together with the object 3 formed therein and introduced into the device 50 for unpacking the object 3. The carrier 4 is thus situated within the container 1 in its lowest position. Powder material 11 which is not yet solidified is situated between the object 3 formed and the container wall. When using plastic powder, the object 3 is typically still hot immediately after being completed and has not yet reached its final solidity. For gentle unpacking and cooling of the object, the covering 52 is now placed on the container 1 and the compressed air source 57 is connected. The carrier 4 is then moved upwards either continuously at an adjustable rate or stepwise within the container, so that a quantity of non-solidified powder is always situated above the container rim 2 and is held by the covering 52. The compressed air source 57 is adjusted so that an adequately strong air stream passes essentially tangentially over the powder surface and thus entrains non-solidified powder, which is removed through the outlet opening 53 and the removal pipe 56 and is collected in the collection container 58. As soon as the object 3 arrives within the region of the air stream passing over the surface by raising the carrier 4, it is cooled by the air stream. When the carrier 4 is in its uppermost end position, the covering 52 is removed and the object is taken out. It is thus adequately cooled. Hence, the object 3 is removed from the container 1 in predetermined manner by adjusting the temperature and the pressure of the air stream, and the moving rate of the carrier within the container in predetermined manner and the container 1 is again free for new insertion in the process chamber 100. The process has the advantage that by controlled unpacking and cooling of the object 3, sudden cooling is avoided and at the same time the non-solidified powder material is removed and cooled likewise slowly and in controlled manner, so that it has a high quality for re-use. On the other hand, the object 3 is only removed after this procedure, so that it does not have to be touched in the hot and still soft state, and thus is not exposed to deforming forces. Furthermore, cooling and unpacking outside the process chamber has the advantage that the latter is free for forming new objects.
In an alternative embodiment, a suction pump, which assists transport of the non-solidified powder, is connected to the removal pipe 56. The air may also be circulated, a connection pipe is then provided for this between the air removal pipe 56 and the air supply pipe 55, in which a filter is arranged to separate fluidised powder and air. Instead of air, a further gas, for example a protective gas, such as nitrogen, may also be used to prevent the powder, for example from oxidising. The overall device 50 may also be arranged within the process chamber 100, wherein however, the process chamber is then occupied during unpacking and cooling.
In a modification of the embodiment according to
In a further embodiment shown in
A sieve device 80, preferably in the form of a shaking sieve, is arranged below the overflow edge 63 of the container 1 and a collection container 90 is arranged below the shaking sieve.
In a modification of the embodiment according to claim 3, the container 1, the sieve device 80 and optionally the collection container 90 are arranged in a dust-tight and optionally gas-tight chamber in order to avoid dust and to facilitate the control of the temperature of the surroundings.
In the process according to this embodiment, first of all the object 3 is completed within the process chamber as described above. It is thus quite possible that several separate objects 3, 3′, 3″ are produced within the container, which are separated from one another by non-solidified powder material 11.
The container 200 is then removed from the process chamber and placed in the mounting 70 of the device 500 for unpacking. The container 200 is tilted by means of the tilting device 71 such that the axis V of the carrier 4 has a predetermined angle A to the vertical in the direction of the sieve or collection device 80. The carrier 4 is then raised continuously or stepwise, so that non-solidified powder material 11 is pushed over the overflow edge 63 and then falls on the shaking sieve 80. The mesh width of the sieve 80 is selected such that non-solidified powder may be sifted off and collected and transported away for re-use in the collection container 90. The object or objects formed are also pushed over the overflow edge 3 by the pressure of the following powder material pushed over the overflow edge 63 by the carrier 4 moving upwards and collected in the shaking sieve 80, from where they may then be removed after sifting off the non-solidified powder material. The tilting angle A may be changed, for example increased, during raising of the carrier 4, so that the powder and the objects may be pushed completely from the container over the overflow edge 63. The container 200 does not necessarily have to be tilted. Controlled unpacking, that is the controlled removal of non-solidified powder material, is crucial.
In this embodiment, it is also possible to provide a cooling device, for example in the form of an air or gas stream G passing along the powder surface, as a result of which objects emerging on the powder surface and the powder itself are cooled.
A combination of the embodiments shown in
In a further embodiment, a device is provided, with which the non-solidified powder is removed mechanically in controlled manner. Such a device may be formed, for example by one or more brushes, by means of which non-solidified powder is conveyed away from the surface during the upward movement of the carrier in the container, and optionally powder residues adhering to the object are removed. The mechanical device for removing the powder may also be used for assisting powder removal during sieving.
Moreover, the invention is not restricted to the use of a gas stream for removing non-solidified powder material. It is also possible to use a different fluid medium instead of the gas stream, for example a gas/powder mixture, a liquid or a liquid/powder mixture. By using a suitable fluid medium, it is possible to treat the surface of the component at the same time as removing the powder, for example to bring about smoothing by means of a gas/powder stream or hardening by means of reactive gases. Such a subsequent treatment of the component may take place at the same time and automated with the removal of powder in the device for removing the object from the container or after powder removal.
Both the embodiment according to
In a further embodiment, which is shown in
Depending on the powder material used, the building process may be carried out, so that the object is not hot immediately after completing and therefore does not require cooling. Here too, the processes and devices described have the advantage that the object is unpacked gently and without manual work. If the object already has adequate solidity immediately after completing, instead of the continuous or stepwise raising of the carrier, the whole content of the container may be emptied straight onto the sieve or collection device, for example by opening the container. This alternative has the advantage that the entire process is accelerated, wherein the process and means described above for powder removal and cooling may likewise be used.
It is crucial that means for controlled removal of the non-solidified powder material are provided, which faciliate automatic unpacking of the object formed from the container in controlled manner without manual work.
A further embodiment of the invention consists in specifically influencing the object properties by controlled unpacking and/or cooling by means of a gas or a fluid medium, which renders manual subsequent treatment superfluous. Chemical subsequent treatment of the surface of the object formed may for example take place with the blowing-in of gas. Hence, the conventional production steps between production and use of the object can be accelerated. According to a further embodiment of the invention, the object, after non-solidified powder has been removed, is automatically subsequently treated, for example subjected to infiltration using wax or epoxy resin. The temperature of the building chamber is thus set to a suitable value necessary for infiltration via the temperature control.
The invention is also not restricted to the fact that a laser beam is used for solidifying the powder material. Instead of using a laser beam, the powder may also be solidified in a different manner, for example using other energy beams, such as for example using an electron beam or by selective adhesion, for example using binder or adhesive selectively injected from a printer head.
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|U.S. Classification||264/497, 425/375, 264/101, 264/113, 425/215, 425/174.4|
|International Classification||B22C7/00, B29C67/00|
|Cooperative Classification||B22C7/00, B29C67/0077|
|European Classification||B22C7/00, B29C67/00R4B|
|Feb 6, 2002||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: EOS GMBH ELECTRO OPTICAL SYSTEMS, GERMANY
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:OBERHOFER, JOHANN;WEIDINGER, JOCHEN;MATTES, THOMAS;REEL/FRAME:012882/0669;SIGNING DATES FROM 20011127 TO 20011203
|Feb 16, 2009||FPAY||Fee payment|
Year of fee payment: 4
|Feb 14, 2013||FPAY||Fee payment|
Year of fee payment: 8