|Publication number||US6935042 B2|
|Application number||US 10/683,626|
|Publication date||Aug 30, 2005|
|Filing date||Oct 10, 2003|
|Priority date||Nov 8, 2002|
|Also published as||CN1711491A, EP1595172A2, US7069667, US20050081397, US20050147357, WO2004044420A2, WO2004044420A3, WO2004044420B1|
|Publication number||10683626, 683626, US 6935042 B2, US 6935042B2, US-B2-6935042, US6935042 B2, US6935042B2|
|Inventors||Harry Bonham, Tyler Dawson, Jay Prestipino, Grady Roberts, Rahul Saini|
|Original Assignee||Nanolign, Inc.|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (32), Referenced by (21), Classifications (18), Legal Events (4)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
This application is related to U.S. provisional patent application No. 60/424,741, filed Nov. 8, 2002, entitled IN SITU DYNAMIC FIBER ALIGNER, the entire contents of which are incorporated herein by this reference. The Applicants hereby claim the benefits of this earlier pending provisional application under 35 U.S.C. Section 119(e).
The present invention relates to one or a plurality of micro-positioners used to dynamically align, position or move media(s), mass(es), or component(s) and device(s) related thereto. Such media include, but are not limited to, one or a plurality of fibers, optical fibers, optical elements, tubes or wires, and such components include, but are not limited to, lenses, nozzles, valves, antenna elements and radio frequency (“rf”) stubs. The micro-positioners can be positioned and secured inside a jacket or other self-contained housing adapted to receive and hold the media or securely hold the components. The micro-positioners may also be used to position materials within an integrated package, such as an optical package.
The conventional means of aligning a media or component is to statically align the media or component or the mount holding the media or component either passively or actively. Static or statically, refers to the inability to make adjustments to the media after the media and related elements are anchored. To align a media passively, small silicon workbenches are etched into a device using semiconductor technology. Piece parts are then placed upon the etched workbench and secured in place. In the foregoing case, the media could consist of optical fiber. The passive method requires that the optical fiber be precisely located and aligned to a mechanical feature, which can in turn be located in an etched groove within the workbench. The passive method has had limited alignment success because, in many cases, the relationship between the mechanical feature and the optical fiber is not sufficiently precise. Disadvantageously, no adjustment of the optical fiber is possible after placement and anchoring to the final location. The same considerations apply to media other than optical fiber.
Because of the cited disadvantageous of the passive method, the active method of aligning a media or component is more widely used. The active method uses complex equipment to move a media, typically an optical fiber, into alignment. The equipment then anchors the media, such as an optical fiber, using glue, solder or welding. While the active method is more precise, successful employment of the active method requires complex equipment and precise piece parts with extremely flat and smooth surfaces. Disadvantageously, manufacturing yields using the active method are typically low and rework of the assemblies is difficult. As in the case of passive alignment, active alignment is static. The present invention comprises a dynamic micro-positioner used to position and/or align media or components and includes a variety of embodiments and applications thereof. The present invention can be used to position and/or align a media or components, such media including, but not limited to, one or a plurality of fibers, optical fibers, optical elements, tubes or wires, such components including, but not limited to, lenses and/or nozzles.
With reference to the conventional art, there are disclosed various conventional active and passive means of and apparatus for aligning media and components, typically optical elements and optical assemblies. The MEMS actuator disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 6,114,794 to Dhuler et. al., uses a silicon substrate upon which a bimetallic material is added. The method of fabricating the actuator of Dhuler applies a separate heater to expand the bimetallic member. Disadvantageously, the member of Dhuler is securely attached to the substrate such that only a minimum amount of displacement can be achieved. Dhuler further discloses a latch mechanism. However the latch is operable only to lock the optical element in a few discrete positions. In contrast to Dhuler, an embodiment of the present invention includes integral heaters to provide expansion and a locking mechanism to allow for a continuum of possible locked positions. Further, the mechanism of an embodiment of the present invention transitions through a sequence of alternating locking positions. This permits large movements, the integrated heaters providing a user defined step size.
The apparatus and method of optical switching disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 6,381,382 B2 to Goodman et. al., adds a composition on the sides of a fiber, longitudinally, which contracts or expands with an electrical signal. The invention of Goodman et. al., is operable to bend fiber and thus align optics. Disadvantageously, the invention of Goodman et. al., requires continuous electrical power to maintain alignment and uses piezoelectric and other materials. Because of local stresses on the fiber, polarization properties of the light signal may be affected. An embodiment of the present invention has integral micro-positioners to move media, such as optical elements, to a desired location. The present invention does not utilize longitudinal actuators attached to fiber, but rather uses a MEMS thermal actuator perpendicular to the fiber.
The mounting and alignment structure disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 6,487,355 to Flanders discloses a passive alignment and static anchoring structure fine-tuned by flexion. The invention of Flanders does not permit dynamic anchoring. In contrast, the present invention permits active alignment of a media without flexion and permits dynamic anchoring of the media.
The fiber optic switching system and method disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 4,696,062 to LaBudde consists of an optical switch that moves a lens relative to a fixed optical rod between ports to produce a switch wherein alignment is achieved by monitoring a reflection. In contrast, the fiber optic embodiment of the present invention uses free space between two collimators and/or connector or combination of collimator and fiber or connector and fiber.
The lens assembly disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 6,374,012 B1 to Bergmann et. al., utilizes a lens within the optical path which, when moved perpendicular to the optical path, causes a change in its pointing angle. The assembly requires external manipulators to move parts to their desired location and incorporates welding, adhesives, or solder to anchor the assembly into position. After anchoring, the elements cannot be further adjusted. In contrast, an embodiment of the present invention utilizes integral micro-positioners to move the elements, such as optical elements, into a desired location. The assembly of the present invention is self-locking in that when power is not supplied, the elements are anchored. Further, the present invention is dynamic in that at any point within the life of the product, power may be applied to move the media, such as a fiber or optical element, to a new setting.
The piezoelectric apparatus disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 4,512,036 to Laor uses a piezoelectric component to bend a fiber thus aligning it. With the invention of Laor, if deformation occurs, then the anchoring is static. If not, then voltage must be maintained to secure alignment. The use of piezoelectric, disadvantageously, requires application and maintenance of high voltages to the piezoelectric element. An embodiment of the present invention uses integral micro-positioners to move media, such as optical fiber or optical components, into a desired location. Further, an embodiment of the present invention is self-locking such that when power is not supplied, the media, such as optical fiber or optical components, remain anchored.
The assembly disclosed in U.S. patent application Ser. No. 09/733,049 by Musk uses silicon machined mechanical parts as a means to locate and move optical elements relative to each other. The assembly requires external manipulators to move parts to a desired location and incorporates welding, adhesives, or glass re-flow to anchor the optical elements into position. Disadvantageously, anchoring is static in that after anchoring the alignment, media or elements cannot receive additional adjustment. An embodiment of the present invention has integral micro-positioners to move the media, such as optical fiber or optical elements, into a desired location. Further, the micro-positioners are self-locking. When power is not supplied to the present invention, the media, such as optical fiber or optical elements, are anchored, yet the present invention remains dynamic in that at any point during the life of the product, power may be applied to move the media to a new setting.
The method disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 6,205,266 to Palen uses light coupled from the signal path to provide feedback allowing continuous adjustment of a fiber. This method is referred to as active alignment. The invention of Palen requires continuous power to maintain the position of the optical element. In contrast, an embodiment of the present invention allows periodic alignment, anchoring, and realignment, without the need for continuous power to the micro-positioner. Further, while the invention of Palen covers continuous alignment using optical feedback architecture, it does not include an anchoring mechanism, as does the present invention.
The apparatus disclosed in U.S. patent application Ser. No. 10/098,742 by Deck et. al., applies interferometric methods to actively align and statically anchor optics using external manipulators. In contrast, an embodiment of the present invention uses internal micro-positioners, dynamic anchoring, and remains transparent to the method used to detect alignment errors.
None of the following references disclose a method and apparatus for dynamically aligning a media using integral micro-positioners that permit movement of a media, such as an optical fiber or optical element, into a desired location, the micro-positioner assembly being self locking. Further, none of the following disclosed references remain dynamic such that, at any point during the life of the product, power may be applied to implement a new desired setting, such alignment being possible in the field. For example, the method and apparatus disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 6,244,755 B1 to Joyce et. al., utilizes active alignment and static, not dynamic, anchoring using external manipulators and a metal bracket that is deformed to achieve alignment. The optical interface disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 6,477,303 to Witherspoon uses V-groove technology to achieve passive alignment and static anchoring to facilitate optical backplanes. The invention of Witherspoon is focused on the optical interface between a circuit board and a main-board using micro-machining techniques to chemically etch paths in the substrate to facilitate self-alignment. The method and apparatus for aligning optical components disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 6,480,651 B1, to Rabinski uses two stages. One stage is used to align the fiber and the second stage is used to adjust, maintain and lock the optical components about a virtual pivot point. The invention of Rabinski is used to align fiber arrays similar to that used in V-groove technology. The apparatus disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 6,240,119 to Ventrudo uses a partial reflector and fiber grating in series with an optical beam to stabilize laser performance. The kinematic mount disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 5,748,827 to Holl et. al., consists of a passive alignment method using a two stage mountable module with a macro-stage and a micro-stage that further includes a fluid flow control channel. The coupling elements disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 4,452,506 to Reeve et. al., consists of an alignment algorithm and method of using light in a fiber buffer to determine the direction of movement of a fiber needed to achieve alignment. The electrostatic micro-actuator disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 5,214,727 to Carr et. al., uses an electrostatic actuator for moving a fiber in a switch application. The actuator is specifically designed in an H-shape. The method of Carr et. al., restricts the size of motion and requires large enabling voltages. In contrast, an embodiment of the present invention uses a thermal expansion bar, which provides for both large and small step size movements at low voltages. The alignment apparatus disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 4,474,423 also uses light in a buffer glass to align fibers for use, for example, in splicing applications. The polarization state changer and phase shifter disclosed in U.S. patent application Ser. No. 10/1 50,060 by MacDonald utilizes a method whereby stress is applied to a wave-guide to shift phase or modify the polarization state. The method and system for attenuating power in an optical signal disclosed in U.S. patent application Ser. No. 09/796,267 by Cao et. al., utilizes MEMS mirrors in a variable optical attenuator. The structures disclosed in U.S. patent application Ser. No. 10/072,629 by Hsu et. al., provides a means of compensating for thermal effects and stress through flexible symmetry. The apparatus and method disclosed in U.S. patent application Ser. No. 09/75,867 by Miracky uses an electrostatic actuator that moves a lens-using comb drives for the actuator for optical lens movement.
In “Surface Micro-machined 2D Lens Scanner Array”, Proc. IEEE/LEOS Optical Mems., by H. Toshiyoshi, G. D. J. Su, J. LaCosse, and M. C. Wu (“Toshiyoshi”), an apparatus that uses a stepping motion to move a lenses into alignment with another optical device is described. Disadvantageously, the apparatus of Toshiyoshi requires significant voltage to move a comb with etched steps in micrometer step increments. An embodiment of the present invention uses integral micro-positioners to move the optical components to a desired location using a thermal expansion bar. The micro-positioner of the present invention can move media, or components, in very small or large steps and can lock the media or component into position when power is not applied. The present invention overcomes the disadvantages of the passive and active alignment methods by providing an inexpensive, dynamic means to align media, such as optical fibers or optical elements, or components. The present invention permits adjustment and alignment of the media or components during subsequent assembly steps and after deployment within a network or apparatus.
The apparatus disclosed in U.S. patent application Ser. No. 3,902,084 by May discloses a piezoelectric inchworm motor that provides precision motion in one direction. The device does not provide two-dimensional motion, as does the present invention, and is designed to move a cylindrical shaft parallel to piezoelectric actuators. Such a configuration is not suitable in size or orientation to perform the function of an in situ dynamic aligner. In contrast, an embodiment of the present invention uses internal micro-positioners with dynamic anchoring configured for in-situ applications requiring control in a plurality of dimensions.
The apparatus disclosed in U.S. patent application Ser. No. 6380661 by David A. Henderson, also defines a piezoelectric inchworm motor with one dimension operation. The invention uses an interdigitated ridges made using MEMS technology and alternating clamping to make linear movements. To maintain a load electrical power must be applied. The present invention permits movements in a plurality of dimensions, does not require power when holding a load, and provides a small configuration compatible with in-situ applications.
The use of fiber optics in telecommunication applications requires the alignment of various optical elements to extremely low tolerances in the range of 0.1 micron. These low tolerances have not previously been encountered in commercial manufacturing. Achieving such low tolerances in alignment of optical fibers and related components requires costly equipment and long manufacturing cycles of optical components. An embodiment of the present invention comprises a component that can achieve low alignment tolerances, while accomplishing optical input/output (“I/O”) objectives. Further, an embodiment of the present invention satisfies a need to dynamically control and tune optical power.
Critically low tolerances are required between optical fiber lenses or other optical elements such as planer components. These low tolerances are difficult to achieve in volume manufacturing. An embodiment and application of the present invention which comprises an optical aligner and collimator provides a dynamic means to achieve precise, low alignment tolerances and further provides a means to power tune an optical fiber during the life of the component. One embodiment of the present invention comprises a micro-positioner to align and manipulate an optical fiber, the entire assembly adapted to be positioned in a self-contained housing or in an integrated assembly. Depending on the application, a lens and/or jacket, including a hermetic jacket, may be included as part of the self-contained housing. Lenses can be used on the end of the self-contained housing when an application requires beam conditioning. A metal jacket, case, or package can further be used, as necessary to encapsulate the device, facilitate mounting, and/or provide hermetic sealing.
In one embodiment of the present invention, a micro-positioner moves a media or component, such media including, but not limited to, one or a plurality of fibers, optical fibers, optical elements, tubes or wires, such components including, but not limited to, lenses or nozzles media, in one dimension. In another embodiment of the present invention, a micro-positioner moves a media or component, such media including, but not limited to, one or a plurality of fibers, optical fibers, optical elements, tubes or wires, such components including, but not limited to, lenses or nozzles media, in at least two dimensions in the plane of the micro-positioner.
An application of the one-dimensional or two-dimensional embodiment of the present invention is as a dynamic collimator. Another application of the one-dimensional or two-dimensional embodiment of the present invention is as a dynamic fiber aligner. A dynamic fiber aligner is similar to a dynamic collimator but the dynamic fiber aligner does not employ a collimating lens. In either of the foregoing applications of the present invention, a dynamic collimator or dynamic fiber aligner is attached to an optical component package by soldering, welding, epoxy or other means. Unlike with conventional collimators or fiber aligning methods, attachment tolerances of the present invention are less critical since the micro-positioner of the present invention is dynamic and may be adjusted electronically to achieve the desired alignment. Active adjustment of the media or component in the present invention is accomplished by applying electrical signals or pulses comprising current through, or a voltage across, micro-positioner arms in certain control sequences to define the direction and distance of the motion of the optic fiber or other media in one or two dimensions. The amplitude or duration of the electrical signals, or pulses, can be used to define the distance traveled. When a signal is not applied, the micro-positioner is locked into position to ensure anchoring at the desired location. An embodiment of the micro-positioner of the present invention is constructed using semiconductor technology. This micro-positioner takes advantage of the measurable thermal expansion characteristics of its expansion bars to cause movement, and hence, positioning and/or alignment, of the media or components. Each expanding, or contracting, expansion bar(s), has a set of corresponding clamps on the ends thereof, and the operation thereof creates a precision stepping motion. At least one expansion bar is required for each degree of freedom desired. Since power dissipated in an expansion bar is proportional to the square of voltage applied, and since thermal expansion is linearly dependent upon power dissipation, expansion or step size is proportional to the square of applied voltage. Thus, the invention has the ability to make large steps, in micrometers, and small steps, in nanometers.
Several embodiments of the present invention disclosed herein disclose the use of semiconductors to implement the expansion bars, however, the use of thermal expansion bars can be realized using small mechanical parts assembled without using semiconductor technologies. The micro-positioner of the present invention can be implemented using microelectromechanical systems (“MEMS”) technology, where in the micro-positioner, the expansion bar is replaced with silicon etched gears and/or racks. Alternatively, the present invention can be implemented with piezoelectric or other material that expands with application of electrical current or voltage to effect movement.
FIG. 3(a) illustrates a side view of a multiple channel dynamic aligner/collimator with N×M channels wherein micro-positioners of the present invention adjust and/or align optical fibers independently.
FIG. 3(b) illustrates a front view of the N×M array of FIG. 3(a).
FIG. 8(a) is a top view of a first embodiment of the micro-positioner assembly of the present invention.
FIG. 8(b) is an exploded view of a spring, clamp, expansion bar subassembly of the first embodiment of the micro-positioner of the present invention.
FIG. 21(a) is a side view of a lens illustrating a light ray angles from an optical fiber.
FIG. 21(b) is a graph illustrating optical control and collimator performance as a function of fiber displacement.
FIGS. 22(a) and 22(b) are graphs illustrating constraints on performance of fiber optics.
An advantage of the present invention is that each media or component, such as an optical fiber or lens, is independently adjustable. When used with optical fiber, the present invention is operable to permit independent optimization of the throughput light. The jacket or other outer housing of the present invention can be constructed using conventional microelectronic and optical packaging technology and standard sizes. The embodiment of the present invention used with optical fiber can be enclosed such that the fiber guide and micro-positioner are positioned in a jacket. Control, or electrical leads pass through apertures in the jacket or housing so that the micro-positioner therein may be adjusted electrically.
Embodiments of the present invention used in optical fiber applications may also utilize a lens or lens assembly. Lenses are used when beam conditioning of the light is desired. Such embodiments of the present invention maybe enclosed in jackets or housings. In each optical fiber embodiment, a micro-positioner that adjusts the fiber or other media or lens in at least one dimension is required. In optical applications, critical tolerances are required between the optical fiber and lens or, as in the case where lenses are not required, between the optical fiber and other optical elements such as planar components. Optical fibers and fiber guide are enclosed within the jacket or housing using adhesives or other suitable attachment means. The optical fiber embodiments of the present invention can be constructed such that the optical fiber or other media is stationary and the component, such as the lens, is adjusted by the micro-positioner. In such case, the fiber does not pass through the micro-positioner, but the component, such as the lens, is mounted on the micro-positioner. The appearance and size of the jacket or housing enclosing the present invention are similar to collimators or connectors conventionally available, although, as noted, the present invention has control or electrical leads extending through the jacket or housing.
The micro-positioner is a multi-dimensional device, which, when electrically activated, moves the media or component in steps of variable step size from a few micrometers to a few nanometers in the desired direction. In an embodiment of the present invention, an exposed end of the optical fiber is threaded through a movable mount located on a shuttle subassembly of the micro-positioner. As the movable mount moves in an X-Y direction, the exposed end of the optical fiber bends. The optical fiber sheath proximate to the exposed end of the optical fiber is firmly attached to a fiber guide within the jacket or housing. Distances between the micro-positioner and fiber guide are very large as compared to the micro-positioner movement so that the change in optical fiber to lens distance is not significant and micro-bending losses are not of concern. In operation, a computer algorithm is used to compute and send control signals to the micro-positioner to achieve the desired positioning and/or alignment of the optical fiber. For purposes of this application and the claims herein, reference to movement in the X-Y direction shall be deemed to include movement measured in a polar coordinate system, such as (r, theta) e.g., radius from an origin, and degrees of rotation from an axis.
The optical fiber embodiment of the present invention is operable to define a collimating light path. Advantageously, the present invention adds no optical elements through which the light must traverse. As such, there is no impact upon optical dispersion or polarization. Implementation of the micro-positioner requires no additional surface area or volume within a conventional collimator package. The device enclosing the micro-positioner appears as a collimator with leads. Employment of the present invention only requires replacement of a conventional collimator or fiber anchor apparatus.
FIG. 3(a) illustrates a side view of a multiple channel dynamic aligner/collimator with N×M channels wherein micro-positioners of the present invention adjust and/or align the optical fibers. As seen therein, the device consists of a conventional buffered optical fiber ribbon 31 that has been stripped of the buffer exposing a plurality of optical fibers 32. The optical fibers 32 are inserted into a fiber guide 33 that aligns the bare optical fibers 32 so they may be inserted into the N×M micro-positioners 34. The micro-positioners 34 can individually move the optical fibers 32 with precision in two dimensions, Y, which is vertically, and X, which is in and out of the plane of the paper, and individually lock the optical fibers 32 or component positions in place after movement. Glass seal 39 may be added to provide a fiber seal. Light exits optical fibers 32 through free space through lens array panel 35. The buffered optical fiber ribbon 31, optical fibers 32, and guide 33 are securely coupled either mechanically or with epoxy 38 into the collimator jacket 37 to provide strain relief. A collimating lens array panel 35 is attached as is required for optical properties and electrical control leads 36 are passed through the jacket 37 to permit electrical connections to the micro-positioner 34.
FIG. 3(b) illustrates a front view of an N×M array of FIG. 3(a). More specifically, FIG. 3(b) illustrates an 8×8 optical fiber array embodiment of the present invention. As seen therein control leads 36 extend from jacket 37. Light from the terminating end of each individual optical fiber traverses its correlating lens of lens array panel 35.
Clamps 52 and 53 of
In operation, the expansion bar must be allowed to heat and cool. The time constant for these transisitons is given in Equation 2 below In practice the bar will cool faster than equation 2 predicts, since equation 2 considers thermal conductivity only when in practice, thermal convection will also occur.
Equations 1 and 2 predict the step length versus voltage and time. Thus, expansion bar motion may be defined as follows for the heating cycle and for the cooling cycle as follows:
Where the symbols are as above in Equations 1 and 2 and SH is heating step size, SC is cooling step size, K is thermal conductivity and ρ is electrical resistivity.
Employing an expansion bar in two dimensions requires two expansion bars but adds the complication that each expansion bar must have two degrees of freedom. One degree of freedom is needed to accomplish controlled movement and the second is needed to allow free movement in the orthogonal direction.
FIG. 8(a) is a top view of a first embodiment of the micro-positioner 80 of the present invention. As seen therein, micro-positioner 80 is comprised of the following subassemblies, components and elements: shuttle 81, shuttle springs 82, x-axis expansion bars 83(a) and 83(b), x-axis bond pads 84(a) and 84(b), x-axis clamps 85(a) and 85(b), x-axis expansion springs 86(a) and 86(b), y-axis expansion bars 87(a) and 87(b), y-axis bond pads 88(a) and 88(b), y-axis clamps 89(a) and 89(b), y-axis expansion springs 810(a) and 810(b), movable mount 811, and movable mount aperature 812. In one embodiment of the present invention, the foregoing components and elements are comprised of semiconductor material. The shuttle 81 of micro-positioner 80 is adapted to move in the X direction. Shuttle 81 is attached to micropositioner 80 with eight shuttle springs 82 and the shuttle 81 is adjusted or aligned in the X direction by two expansion subassemblies FIG. 8(b). Within shuttle 81 are two expansion subassemblies, one for movement in the positive Y direction and one for movement in the negativeY direction. The X direction expansion subassembly consists of x-axis expansion bars 83(a) and 83(b), two sets of thermal actuated x-axis clamps 85(a) and 85(b) and two sets of x-axis expansion springs 86(a) and 86(b). The Y direction expansion subassembly consists of y-axis expansion bars 87(a) and 87(b), two sets of thermal actuated y-axis clamps 89(a) and 89(b) and two sets of y-axis expansion springs 810(a) and 810(b). Associated with each expansion assembly are a set of bond pads to which electrical connections can be made to the expansion bars and clamps. In the X direction, these comprise bond pads 84(a) and 84(b) and in the Y direction these comprise bond pads 88(a) and 88(b). External analog or logic circuitry (not shown) are coupled to micro-positioner 80 via these bond pads.
The micro-positioner 80 can be manufactured as a silicon chip and can be implemented in one or two-dimensional arrays. Alternating the clamping and unclamping of directional clamps as associated expansion bars are powered by the drive stepping motion.
FIG. 8(b) is an exploded view of x-axis expansion assembly consisting of springs 86(b), x-axis clamps 85(b), legs 851(b) of x-axis clamps 85(b), and x-axis expansion bars 83(b) of the micro-positioner 80 of FIG. 8(a). The other x-axis expansion subassembly and the y-axis subassemblies are substantively similar to the subassembly of FIG. 8(a), except for their directional orientation. In operation, a voltage differential is introduced across bond pads 84(a). This causes a current to flow through leg 851(b) and leg 852(b) of x-axis clamp 85(b). Due to the size difference in the two legs, leg 852(b) has more resistance than leg 851(b), causing leg 852(b) to heat up more and thus expand. This in turn causes the x-axis clamp 85(b) to bend and open up. This effect is characteristic of any homogeneous material such as silicon of which the x-axis clamp 85(b) is made. Pressure between the clamp 85(b) and the outer edge of x-axis expansion bars 83(b) disengage when x-axis clamp 85(b) bends outward. Similar effects can be caused by introducing voltage potentials at the bond pads of the other expansion subassemblies of micro-positioner 80. Referring back to FIG. 8(a), when current flows through x-axis clamp 85(b) it opens while x-axis clamp 85(a), without current, is closed. Simultaneously, current can be introduced through x-axis expansion bars 83(a) to cause them to expand, thus moving the shuttle assembly 81 to the left. Soon thereafter, current flow is stopped through x-axis clamp 85(b) whereby x-axis clamp 85(b) cools and retracts to its original position. Clamp 85(b) applies pressure to the outer edge of x-axis expansion bars 83(b) re-engaging and locking the x-axis expansion bars into place once x-axis clamp 85(b) has cooled. Clamp 85(a) is opened as is claim 85(b) and the current through expansion bar 83(a) is stopped. After expansion bar 83(a) cools, current to clamp 85(b) is removed and the shuttle 81 is locked into place. Similar operation and timing of this procedure on x-axis clamps 85(a), 85(b) and x-axis expansion bars 83(b) causes movement of shuttle 81 to the right. Operation and timing of this procedure on y-axis clamps 89(a), and 89(b) and y-axis expansion bars 87(a) and 87(b) causes movement of movable mount 811 downward. Operation and timing of this procedure on y-axis clamp 89(b), 89(a) and y-axis expansion bars 87(b) causes movement of movable mount 811 upward. When a terminated end of a media is threaded through aperture 812 and secured to movable mount 811, the movement of shuttle 81 and or movable mount 811 moves the terminated end of the optical fiber.
Another embodiment of the present invention uses heaters attached to the expansion bar to cause the adjustment of the micro-positioner. The step size is controlled by the thermal expansion, thermal conductance and electrical resistivity properties of the expansion bar. Application of a heater to the expansion bar increases the types of material that can be used as the expansion bar. For an example, titanium carbide can be used as it has expansion and thermal conductivity advantages over other types of materials. Tantalum nitride resistor elements can be used to provide heat. This combination provides similar step size control and significantly increases micro-positioner speed.
Micro-positioner 100 is shown in FIG. 10. As seen in
The apparatus of
Prior to using micro-positioner 140, it may need to be set up. The setup is required for devices that are fabricated using chemical etching procedures. Machining by etching creates gaps between features. As in the case for actuators 143(a), 143(b), 144(a), and 144(b), these gaps prevent firm clamping in the rest case with no voltages applied. The expansion mechanism 147(a) and 147(b) are provided to achieve setup. Expansion mechanism 147(a) and 147(b) consist of four arms, two wide for low electrical resistance and two narrow for much greater electrical resistance, all electrically connected such that when voltage is applied at the corresponding bond pads, current flows through all four arms. Appling voltage to expansion mechanisms 147(a) or 147(b), results in the narrow arm heating and expanding more than the wide arm and the expansion mechanism 147(a) or 147(b) bow. When the expansion mechanism 147(a) and 147(b) bow, they physically contract and move slides 146(a) and 146(b). Slides 146(a) and 146(b) are then moved to place actuators 144(a), 144(b), 143(a), and 143(b) into firm contact with movable aperture 148. Removing the voltage from 147(a) and or 147(b) results in the assemblies contracting and moving back to their rest position, but since the assemblies are not physically connected to the slides 146(a) and 146(b), the actuators 144(a), 144(b), 143(a), and 143(b) remain in firm contact.
The micro-positioner 140 can be manufactured as a silicon chip and can be implemented in one or two dimensions. A sequence of voltage or current pulse applied to the bond pads of the mechanism drives stepping motion in the desired direction.
The formulas of
FIG. 21(a) is a side view of a lens illustrating light ray output pointing angles and output beam displacement as the fiber is displaced radially. FIG. 21(b) is a graph illustrating optical control and collimator performance as a function of fiber displacement. As seen therein, FIG. 21(b) illustrates several optical results of moving an optical fiber using the present invention. These include a change in the pointing angle, the working distance between the optical fiber and lens, and the offset of the beam at the output of the lens. In FIG. 21(b), the working distance is shown as a line with boxes. Advantageously, working distance changes very little as the optical fiber is displaced. The pointing angle refers to when the light leaves the lens. It is shown as a line with diamonds on FIG. 21(b). It changes over a range as much as five degrees of point and angle changes. Beam displacement, shown as a line with circles, advantageously tracks substantially linearly as it changes up to about 700 microns.
FIG. 22(a) and 22(b) are graphs illustrating typical mechanical constraints on design and manufacturing of the in situ fiber aligner embodiment and application of the present invention. These constraints apply to typical applications but they may be violated as an application may require.
Advantages of the present invention include (i) substantial cost reduction and improved performance; (ii) during application no human intervention and no specialized equipment are required. The small form factor of the present invention allows several devices per semiconductor wafer in the semiconductor embodiment of the present invention. The present invention is remotely configurable, can be utilized in active and passive network components and meets industry requirements for maintaining alignment during mechanical and thermal stresses.
A variety of components can be manipulated by the micropositioner arrangement. These include lenses, prisms, detectors, diodes, laser diodes, sensors, antenna elements, rf stubs, valves or nozzles. The optical embodiment of the present invention can be used in any device requiring an optical interface, such as variable optical attenuators (“VOAs”), demultiplexers, multiplexers, switches, optical amplifiers, filters, transmitters, receivers, modulators and for gain flattening or tilting.
The innovative teachings of the present invention are described with particular reference to the embodiments disclosed herein. However, it should be understood and appreciated by those skilled in the art that the several embodiments of the apparatus disclosed herein provide only examples of the many advantageous uses and innovative teachings herein. Various non-substantive alterations, modifications and substitutions can be made to the disclosed apparatus without departing in any way from the spirit and scope of the invention.
|Cited Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US3902084||May 30, 1974||Aug 26, 1975||Burleigh Instr||Piezoelectric electromechanical translation apparatus|
|US4452506||Nov 28, 1980||Jun 5, 1984||Post Office||Coupling of dielectric optical waveguides|
|US4474423||Jun 13, 1980||Oct 2, 1984||At&T Bell Laboratories||Automatic alignment apparatus for optical fiber splicing|
|US4512036||Feb 2, 1981||Apr 16, 1985||Herzl Laor||Piezoelectric apparatus for positioning optical fibers|
|US4696062||Jul 12, 1985||Sep 22, 1987||Labudde Edward V||Fiber optic switching system and method|
|US5214727||Jan 16, 1992||May 25, 1993||The Trustees Of Princeton University||Electrostatic microactuator|
|US5606635||Jun 7, 1995||Feb 25, 1997||Mcdonnell Douglas Corporation||Fiber optic connector having at least one microactuator for precisely aligning an optical fiber and an associated fabrication method|
|US5748827||Oct 23, 1996||May 5, 1998||University Of Washington||Two-stage kinematic mount|
|US5920665 *||Jun 6, 1997||Jul 6, 1999||Lucent Technologies Inc.||Mechanical optical fiber switch having enhanced alignment|
|US6114794||Jan 19, 1999||Sep 5, 2000||Cronos Integrated Microsystems, Inc.||Thermal arched beam microelectromechanical valve|
|US6205266||Oct 6, 1998||Mar 20, 2001||Trw Inc.||Active alignment photonics assembly|
|US6240119||Dec 16, 1999||May 29, 2001||Sdl, Inc.||Apparatus for providing a stabilized laser source|
|US6244755||Nov 24, 1998||Jun 12, 2001||Lucent Technologies Inc.||Method for aligning the optical fiber and laser of fiber-optic laser modules|
|US6275320||Sep 27, 1999||Aug 14, 2001||Jds Uniphase, Inc.||MEMS variable optical attenuator|
|US6374012||Sep 30, 1999||Apr 16, 2002||Agere Systems Guardian Corp.||Method and apparatus for adjusting the path of an optical beam|
|US6380661||Jun 4, 2001||Apr 30, 2002||Burleigh Instruments, Inc.||Linear incremental bi-directional motor|
|US6381382||Dec 8, 2000||Apr 30, 2002||Wizard Technologies, Inc.||Dynamic multichannel fiber optic switch|
|US6471419 *||Jun 7, 1999||Oct 29, 2002||International Business Machines Corporation||Fiber optic assembly|
|US6477303||May 15, 2000||Nov 5, 2002||Litton Systems, Inc.||MEMS optical backplane interface|
|US6480651||Jul 13, 2001||Nov 12, 2002||Jds Uniphase Inc.||Method and apparatus for aligning optical components|
|US6487355||Nov 14, 2000||Nov 26, 2002||Axsun Technologies, Inc.||Mounting and alignment structures for optical components providing optical axis direction deformation|
|US6516130 *||Dec 30, 1998||Feb 4, 2003||Newport Corporation||Clip that aligns a fiber optic cable with a laser diode within a fiber optic module|
|US6571041 *||Aug 2, 2001||May 27, 2003||Corning Incorporated||Method and apparatus for positioning optical elements|
|US6647632 *||Feb 1, 2002||Nov 18, 2003||Hitachi Kokusai Electric Inc.||Position measuring apparatus|
|US20020006247||Jun 27, 2001||Jan 17, 2002||Vladimir Vaganov||Optical switch|
|US20020031324||Feb 27, 2001||Mar 14, 2002||Cao Simon Xiaofan||Variable optical attenuator using microelectro mechanical mirror|
|US20020037142||Jun 13, 2001||Mar 28, 2002||Powernetix,Inc||Thermally and mechanically stable low-cost high thermal conductivity structure for single-mode fiber coupling to laser diode|
|US20020071638||Dec 11, 2000||Jun 13, 2002||Musk Robert W.||Micro-alignment of optical components|
|US20020105699||Feb 2, 2001||Aug 8, 2002||Teravicta Technologies, Inc||Integrated optical micro-electromechanical systems and methods of fabricating and operating the same|
|US20020146195||Feb 8, 2002||Oct 10, 2002||Hsu Ying Wen||Structures that correct for thermal distortion in an optical device formed of thermally dissimilar materials|
|US20020150358||Mar 15, 2002||Oct 17, 2002||Deck Leslie L.||Alignment of a lens array and a fiber array|
|US20020172447||May 20, 2002||Nov 21, 2002||Macdonald Robert I.||Methods and structures for the control of optical waveguide devices by stress|
|Citing Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US7069667 *||Jan 25, 2005||Jul 4, 2006||Nanolign, Inc.||System and means for dynamic micro-positioning and alignment of media|
|US7126489 *||Dec 20, 2004||Oct 24, 2006||The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company||Guide mechanism and method for axially directing an annular transponder unit|
|US7224508 *||Sep 12, 2005||May 29, 2007||Space Photonics, Inc.||MEMS-based optical communications beam steering apparatus|
|US7240434 *||Feb 7, 2005||Jul 10, 2007||Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd.||Stage apparatus|
|US7612317 *||Sep 12, 2005||Nov 3, 2009||Space Photonics, Inc.||Beam steering for optical target identification and tracking without gimbals or scanning mirrors|
|US7612329 *||Sep 12, 2005||Nov 3, 2009||Space Photonics, Inc.||Apparatus and method for free space optical communications beam steering without gimbals|
|US8160452||Jan 7, 2009||Apr 17, 2012||Space Photonics, Inc.||Rapid acquisition, pointing and tracking optical system for free space optical communications|
|US8515228 *||Jun 23, 2009||Aug 20, 2013||Raytheon Canada Limited||Method and apparatus for accurately positioning an optical fiber end|
|US8749445 *||Oct 5, 2011||Jun 10, 2014||Sony Corporation||Variable capacitance device, antenna module, and communication apparatus|
|US9341787||Jan 2, 2013||May 17, 2016||Micron Technology, Inc.||Apparatus providing simplified alignment of optical fiber in photonic integrated circuits|
|US9507104||Apr 20, 2016||Nov 29, 2016||Micron Technology, Inc.||Apparatus providing simplified alignment of optical fiber in photonic integrated circuits|
|US20050147357 *||Jan 25, 2005||Jul 7, 2005||Nanolign, Inc.||System and means for dynamic micro-positioning and alignment of media|
|US20050198844 *||Feb 7, 2005||Sep 15, 2005||Lee Suk-Won||Stage apparatus|
|US20060144896 *||Dec 20, 2004||Jul 6, 2006||Tubb Gary E||Guide mechanism and method for axially directing an annular transponder unit|
|US20060180739 *||Sep 12, 2005||Aug 17, 2006||Chalfant Charles H Iii||Beam steering for optical target identification and tracking without gimbals or scanning mirrors|
|US20060181761 *||Sep 12, 2005||Aug 17, 2006||Chalfant Chuck H Iii||MEMS-based optical communications beam steering apparatus|
|US20060182448 *||Sep 12, 2005||Aug 17, 2006||Chalfant Charles H Iii||Apparatus and method for free space optical communications beam steering without gimbals|
|US20070091976 *||Oct 24, 2006||Apr 26, 2007||Ray Curtis A||Edge emitting laser diode assembly having adjustable mounting of diodes|
|US20100322585 *||Jun 23, 2009||Dec 23, 2010||Raytheon Company||Method and Apparatus for Accurately Positioning an Optical Fiber End|
|US20120092228 *||Oct 5, 2011||Apr 19, 2012||Sony Corporation||Variable capacitance device, antenna module, and communication apparatus|
|US20150188628 *||Dec 29, 2014||Jul 2, 2015||Charles H. Chalfant, III||Acquisition, Tracking, and Pointing Apparatus for Free Space Optical Communications with Moving Focal Plane Array|
|U.S. Classification||33/645, 385/52|
|International Classification||G02B6/42, G02B6/38, G02B6/32, G02B6/36|
|Cooperative Classification||G02B6/32, G02B6/422, G02B6/3833, G02B6/4227, G02B6/3656, G02B6/3644, G02B6/4226|
|European Classification||G02B6/42C5A8, G02B6/32, G02B6/42C5A, G02B6/42C5A10, G02B6/38D6|
|Oct 10, 2003||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: NANOLIGN, INC., TEXAS
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:BONHAM, HARRY;DAWSON, TYLER;PRESTIPINO, JAY;AND OTHERS;REEL/FRAME:014594/0372
Effective date: 20031008
|Mar 9, 2009||REMI||Maintenance fee reminder mailed|
|Aug 30, 2009||LAPS||Lapse for failure to pay maintenance fees|
|Oct 20, 2009||FP||Expired due to failure to pay maintenance fee|
Effective date: 20090830