|Publication number||US6937781 B2|
|Application number||US 10/105,384|
|Publication date||Aug 30, 2005|
|Filing date||Mar 26, 2002|
|Priority date||Apr 4, 2001|
|Also published as||US7263251, US20020146196, US20050249455|
|Publication number||10105384, 105384, US 6937781 B2, US 6937781B2, US-B2-6937781, US6937781 B2, US6937781B2|
|Inventors||Masayuki Shirane, Masatoshi Tokushima|
|Original Assignee||Nec Corporation|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (17), Non-Patent Citations (1), Referenced by (65), Classifications (21), Legal Events (3)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
The present invention relates to an optical switch. More particularly, the present invention relates to an optical switch having a photonic crystal structure.
Optical communication requires a mechanism for switching optical signals on and off in accordance with binary signals (i.e., 0 or 1). One of the simplest mechanisms is to directly control on and off of output of a semiconductor laser used as a light source. However, directly controlling on and off of the output of the semiconductor laser deteriorates oscillation stability of the semiconductor laser and above all high-speed swiching as high as 10 Gbps (giga-bits/second) or more is difficult to achieve.
Another technique for controlling on and off of an optical signal is to use an optical switch. According to this technique, constant optical outputs from a semiconductor laser are modulated to be on and off by a device provided at a subsequent stage. This device is referred to as an optical switch. By using an optical switch, light intensity of the semiconductor laser light source can be kept constant. Therefore, a problem of unstable oscillation can be solved. The performance of the optical communication is not influenced by the modulation rate of the semiconductor laser itself.
Conventional optical switches include a compound semiconductor. Examples of known operation principles include:
one that utilizes quantum confined Stark effect that leads to a red shift of effective band gap by applying an electric field to a multi quantum well structure;
one that utilizes change in a refractive index of an active layer due to current injection or a reverse bias voltage application; and
one that utilizes optical Kerr effect which is a third-order nonlinear optical effect.
The principle that utilizes quantum confined Stark effect allows some degree of design freedom according to a combination of well layers and barrier layers. However, the number of materials that can be selected by their intrinsic properties such as band-gap energy is limited, which results in limited operating wavelength range.
According to the principle that utilizes change in the refractive index, obtainable change in the refractive index is small. Therefore, in order to obtain sufficiently large difference between the signal light intensities of ON and OFF states, the length of the optical path needs to be as long as about several-hundreds of microns, which interferes with high-density integration.
An optical switch that utilizes optical Kerr effect is most likely to achieve high speed. However, this switch requires an additional high-power control light source for obtaining the optical Kerr effect, thereby rendering itself impractical.
As an optical switch that may overcome the above-mentioned problems, an optical switch that uses photonic crystal has recently been proposed. As one of the publications relating to the optical switch incorporating the photonic crystal, for example, Japanese Patent Laid-Open Application No. 10-90638 discloses a structure of an optical switch. This optical switch includes: a photonic band structure that forms a alternately structure on a two-dimensional plane with two types of optical media having different complex refractive indices where at least one of the optical media is a semiconductor; controlled light parallel to the two-dimensional plane; and means for radiating circularly-polarized light as control light to the alternately structure on the two-dimensional plane along an optical path that does not cross with an optical path of the controlled light, wherein the optical switch changes light transmission of the controlled light according to the control light.
A photonic crystal has at least two media with different refractive indices alternately and regularly arranged at a three- or two-dimensional on the order of the wavelength of light, namely, at a cycle of sub-micron meter. A photonic crystal has high design freedom and thus is receiving great attention as an artificial optical crystal having specific optical property.
The solid lines in
In the energy band structure shown in
The above-described optical switch disclosed in the Japanese Patent Laid-Open Application No. 10-90638 controls on and off of light propagating in the photonic crystal by controlling the PBG according to the change in the refractive index of the material. In this conventional example, since light with energy Ω3 is within the PGB, light cannot be propagated in the OFF state. The refractive index of the photonic crystal material is changed by externally radiating control light or by injecting current to the photonic crystal. As a result, the energy band structure defined by the solid lines in
The above-described optical switch using a photonic crystal disclosed in Japanese Patent Laid-Open Application No. 10-90638 utilizes a small change in the refractive indices of the media. By setting the wavelength of the controlled light to the edge of the energy band, ON/OFF effect of the light (i.e., function of the optical switch) can be obtained.
The above-described optical switch using a conventional photonic crystal simply utilizes characteristic of the photonic crystal itself as a bulk structure, but have no regard to the guided wave of light necessary for actually forming an optical circuit, that is, optical confinement in a direction perpendicular to the light propagating direction. Therefore, a recovery efficiency of light that has propagated through the photonic crystal is considered to be extremely low.
In order to guide the wave of light efficiently, the photonic crystal may be shaped into a narrow waveguide with a width of 1 to 2 μm with which a basic propagation mode can be achieved. In this case, however, the energy band of the bulk structure no longer retains its shape shown in
All of the above-described conventional optical switches control ON and OFF of a single channel with a single switch. Therefore, when a multi-channel configuration is considered, a plurality of optical switches need to be prepared for the number of channels.
Furthermore, the conventional optical switches control entire ON/OFF of light according to control signals such as current, voltage and light. Therefore, when the waveform of the control signal is deteriorated, the waveform of the light is deteriorated as well.
Thus, the present invention has an objective of providing an optical switch having a photonic crystal structure, which can propagate light efficiently and which can operate at high speed.
As can be appreciated from the following description, the present invention also has an objective of providing an optical switch, where a multi-channel optical switch that can switch among a plurality of channels with a single switch is realized to make a compact multi-channel switch, or where a waveform shaping function is realized that makes the light intensity to be predetermined range, when the signals are ON.
The present invention which provides means for solving the above-described problems is an optical switch having a slab optical waveguide whose core has a photonic crystal structure where two or more substances with different refractive indices are alternately and regularly arranged. The photonic crystal structure comprises: a line-defect waveguide; and means for altering the refractive index of the line-defect waveguide. Here, the slab optical waveguide refers to a waveguide which includes a single- or multi-layered flat media and which allows light to propagate in a direction along the plane. According to the present invention, the refractive index may be altered by current injection or radiation of control light other than the incident light.
In another aspect of the invention, the photonic crystal structure comprises Mach-Zehnder interferometry using the line-defect waveguide, and means for altering the refractive index of the waveguide at one or both of two branched optical paths.
In yet another aspect of the invention, the photonic crystal structure comprises: means for refracting light by making incident light to be oblique with respect to the intrinsic axis of the photonic crystal; and means for altering the refractive index of the photonic crystal. The refractive angle of the photonic crystal is altered according to the change in the refractive index. According to the present invention, a multi-channel optical switch that can switch among a plurality of channels with a single optical switch is realized, thereby achieving a compact multi-channel switch.
In yet still another aspect of the invention, the refractive index of the photonic crystal alters according to the change in the intensity of light incident to the photonic crystal, whereby switching operation takes place. According to the invention, a waveform shaping function is realized for making the light intensity to be predetermined range, when the signals are ON.
In yet another aspect of the invention, in an optical switch using a line-defect waveguide of a slab photonic crystal: a core layer of the slab photonic crystal is an i-type, n-type or p-type semiconductor; the core layer has an n-type region and a p-type region sandwiching the line-defect waveguide; and the n-type region and the p-type region have an n-type ohmic electrode and a p-type ohmic electrode, respectively.
According to the present invention, the conductive type of a base material of the core layer is n-type or p-type, and an electrode of the same conductive type as the conductive type of the base material of the core layer and an ion-injected region are provided separately from the line-defect optical waveguide.
Hereinafter, embodiments of the present invention will be described with reference to the drawings.
A p-type semiconductor clad layer 35 is further provided on the photonic crystal layer 38, together with an electrode 36 and a lead wire 37 for current injection. The n-type substrate 31 is held at ground potential.
The i-type semiconductor (base medium) 33 is imbedded with cylinders made of the i-type semiconductor 34 in a two-dimensional triangular lattice (to have a alternately structure). There is a linear region where a row of the i-type semiconductor 34 is replaced with the base medium 33 in a direction along an input end to an output end of incident light 21. Hereinafter, this region 39 is referred to as a “line-defect waveguide.” The i-type semiconductor cylinders 34 may be replaced with air, vacuum or an insulator.
Specifically, the optical switch having the photonic crystal structure shown in
First, an n-type InGaAsP clad layer 32 and an i-type InGaAsP semiconductor 33 are deposited on an n-type InP substrate 31, for example, by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) or molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). The i-type semiconductor 33 has a thickness of about 0.3 to 0.5 μm.
Next, a mask pattern for a two-dimensional triangular lattice is formed on the i-type semiconductor 33 to provide cylindrical holes for achieving photonic crystal by etching.
After the etching, the mask is removed and i-type InP is grown with which the cylindrical holes are filled in preferentially, thereby forming an i-type semiconductor 34.
Then, a p-type InP clad layer 35 is further deposited, and an electrode 36 and a lead wire 37 are provided.
Alternatively, after etching and removing the mask away, a substrate that has been deposited with a p-type InP clad layer 35 may be placed on the i-type InGaAsP semiconductor 33 so as to leave the p-type clad layer 35 through etching. In this case, the i-type semiconductor 34 is replaced by air. The electrode and the lead wire are attached as described above.
Hereinafter, operation principle of the first embodiment of the invention will be described.
When no change in the refractive index is caused upon current injection or the like in a photonic crystal region other than the line-defect waveguide, an energy band structure will be as defined by the solid lines in FIG. 4. There is no propagation mode on the two-dimensional plane for light wave of Ω5 to Ω6.
Accordingly, when the energy of the incident light 21 is Ω5 to Ω6, light cannot propagate on the two-dimensional plane outside the waveguide, namely, the photonic crystal region. Therefore, the light is highly confined in the above-described line-defect waveguide. For example, light with energy of Ω7 applies to this case. Thus, a minute waveguide as small as about sub-μm which is identical to the size of the lattice pitch can be realized.
With respect to a direction perpendicular to the two-dimensional plane, light can be confined efficiently in the photonic crystal layer, or a core structure, by appropriately selecting the refractive index and the thickness of the upper and lower clad layers 32 and 35. The optical switch of the present example is able to confine light in a three-dimensional manner, by which light can propagate and be emitted as light 22 with less loss.
Hereinafter, a case where current injection is carried out will be described. When the number of carriers in the photonic crystal layer changes (due to plasma effect), a refractive index of at least one of the i-type semiconductors 33 and 34 alters, by which the energy band changes as defined by the dashed lines shown in FIG. 4. Since light with energy Ω7 is outside the photonic band gap (PBG) in this case, light leaks to a complete photonic crystal region outside the line-defect waveguide, and as the light propagates through the line-defect waveguide, intensity of the light is attenuated and thus the intensity of the transmitted emitted light 22 becomes extremely weak.
Based on the same principle, on the contrary to light with energy Ω7, when the energy of the incident light 21 is Ω8, the intensity of the emitted light changes from OFF state to ON state due to current injection.
Although two-dimensional triangular lattice is used as an example of the photonic crystal of the present example, the photonic crystal may take other two-dimensional photonic crystal structure such as a square lattice or a regular hexagonal lattice, or a three-dimensional photonic crystal structure such as a diamond structure.
Although InGaAsP is used as a material for the photonic crystal, other material can also be used. Although current injection by forward bias application is employed to change the refractive index in the present example, equal effect can be obtained when the refractive index is altered by reverse bias application (Franz-Keldish effect).
Hereinafter, a second embodiment of the present invention will be described.
This structure differs from that of the first embodiment in that the substrate 70 can be made of any material and that the clad layers 71 and 73 are dielectric layers. Electrodes 74 and 75 are provided on the surface of the clad layer 73.
The core layer having a alternately structure of photonic crystal sandwiched by the clad layers, in order words, a combination of the core layer 72 and the clad layers 71 and 73 shown in
The core layer 72 is made of a semiconductor, and is of i-type, n−-type (weak n-type) or p−-type (weak p-type) with low conductivity and small conductivity loss.
The clad layer 73 has holes through which the electrodes 74 and 75 make contact with electrodes 80 and 81 on the core layer 72.
On both sides of the line-defect optical waveguide 77, an n-type region 78 and a p-type region 79 are provided, each having an n-type ohmic electrode 80 and a p-type ohmic electrode 81, respectively.
The operation principle of the second embodiment of the invention is the same as that of the first embodiment. Specifically, energy of the optical signal to be switched is within the photonic band gap of the slab photonic crystal. The line-defect optical waveguide formed in the photonic crystal has a propagation mode in the photonic band gap prior to current injection or voltage application to the electrodes.
When current is injected or a reverse bias voltage is applied between the electrodes 80 and 81, the photonic band structure of the photonic crystal around the line-defect optical waveguide changes, by which the propagation mode of the line-defect waveguide becomes to be outside the photonic band gap, whereby light can no longer propagate through the line-defect waveguide.
Alternatively, the propagation mode of the line-defect waveguide that exists outside the photonic band gap in the first place may become to be within the photonic band gap due to current or voltage application, allowing light to propagate therethrough.
One of the advantages of the second embodiment of the invention is that the clad layers can be made of a non-conductive dielectric. Accordingly, there is no loss of light propagating through the line-defect waveguide 77 due to the clad layers 71 and 73.
Hereinafter, a specific example of the second embodiment of the present invention will be described. The triangular lattice photonic crystal structure and the line-defect waveguide as shown in
After forming a mask by photolithography, arsenic or boron ion injection and subsequent annealing for activation are conducted to form regions corresponding to the n-type region 78 and the p-type region 79. Then, an ohmic metal is deposited on each of the ion-injected region to form electrodes by sintering. The ion injection for forming the n-type region 78 and the p-type region 79 may be performed prior to the fabrication of the photonic crystal structure. When the conductive type of the base material of the core layer is n−-type or p−-type semiconductor, the electrode (as well as the ion-injected region) having the same conductive type as the conductive type of the base material of the core layer does not need to be in the vicinity of the line-defect optical waveguide but away from it.
When a plurality of optical switches of the present embodiment are to be arranged, only an electrode having a opposite conductive type to that of the core layer may be provided in the vicinity of each line-defect waveguide while at least one electrode having the same conductive type as that of the core layer may be provided as a common electrode separated from the line-defect waveguides.
Hereinafter, a third embodiment of the invention will be described.
The operation principle of the third embodiment of the invention will be described. Referring to the energy band shown in
Change in the number of carriers in the photonic crystal (plasma effect) is one factor that causes alteration of the refractive index by light radiation. In addition, optical Kerr effect as the third-order nonlinear optical characteristic of the medium may be another factor. Optical Kerr effect is a phenomenon represented by the following equation (1).
n=n0+n 2*I (1)
where n is a refractive index of the medium under radiation of the control light 41, n0 is a refractive index under no radiation, n2 is a value proportional to a third-order nonlinear optical constant, and I is light intensity.
Hereinafter, a fourth embodiment of the present invention will be described.
Next, operation principle of the fourth embodiment of the invention will be described. The incident light 21 is split at a Y-shaped junction of the line-defect waveguide to be transmitted through two optical paths 40 and 40′ as upper and lower branches. The beams that propagate through the two optical paths are recombined at the other Y-shaped junction and output as emitted light 22. Since the lengths of the optical paths of the upper and lower branches are equal when no current is injected, the phase difference between the two branched beams is zero (in-phase), and thus the intensity of the output light 22 (which is the coherent light of the recombined beams) is the maximum. Even when the lengths of the two optical paths are different, the phase difference is equivalent to zero as long as the difference between the lengths of the optical paths is a multiple of the wavelength.
When a current is injected through at least one of the electrodes of the upper and lower branches to alter the refractive index, the effective optical path length of that part changes. When a phase difference is caused between the optical paths 40 and 40′ of the upper and lower branches, the recombined beams as the coherent light weakens each other and the intensity of the output light 22 becomes the minimum.
Accordingly, the emitted light 22 can be switched on/off according to on/off of the current injection. In order to alter the refractive index, instead of current injection, application of a reverse bias, or radiation of control light other than the incident light may also be employed.
Hereinafter, a fifth embodiment of the invention will be described.
In other words, when the refractive index is slightly altered while the wavelength of the incident light is fixed, the energy band changes and due to which the refractive angle changes greatly.
Next, operation principle of the fifth embodiment of the invention will be described with reference to FIG. 8. Light that is incident, prior to current injection, to the photonic crystal 50 via the waveguide 51 in an oblique manner with respect to the intrinsic axis (−X or −J) of the photonic crystal 50 propagates through the photonic crystal as indicated by the solid arrow in
Upon current injection, the refractive index of the medium forming the photonic crystal changes, by which the refractive angle also changes. As a result, the path of the propagating light changes as represented by the dashed arrow shown in FIG. 8 and the light is output to the waveguide 52′ of channel 2 (ch 2).
Although the case where two waveguides are used on the output side is described in the above-described example, the number of the waveguides used may be one, or three or more. Of course, instead of current injection, the refractive index may be altered by other means such as application of a reverse bias or radiation of control light other than the incident light.
Hereinafter, a sixth embodiment of the present invention will be described.
Next, operation principle of the sixth embodiment of the invention will be described with reference to
First, a case where the energy of the incident light 21 is Ω8 (see
On the contrary to the case of incident light with an energy of Ω8, for incident light with an energy of Ω7 (see FIG. 4), the intensity of the transmitted light is decreased when the intensity of the incident light is weak while the intensity of the transmitted light greatly increases when the intensity of the incident light is strong as shown in FIG. 10B. This may be assumed as a function that increases the contrast of the signal light intensities between on and off states. Of course, the limiter function and the contrast increasing function can be combined.
Similar to the embodiments of the first and second embodiments described with reference to
According to each embodiment, the operating wavelength for switching is determined not by the characteristic of the structural material but by the structure of the photonic crystal, which gives more design freedom. By using a photonic crystal, a compact functional element can be realized. Since a flat micro-optical circuit, a semiconductor laser and the like used in optical communication have waveguide structures, the photonic crystal preferably has a waveguide structure as well.
According to the present invention, light is confined in a three-dimensional manner to efficiently guide the light, and thus the present invention has an advantage of enabling high-speed operations. Furthermore, since the operating wavelength for switching is determined not by the characteristic of the structural material but by the structure of the photonic crystal, the design freedom is increased.
According to the present invention, a multi-channel optical switch which can switch among a plurality of channels with a single optical switch is realized, thereby realizing a compact multi-channel switch.
According to the present invention, a waveform shaping function is realized which can make the light intensity to be predetermined range when the signal is ON.
The invention may be embodied in other specific forms without departing from the spirit or essential characteristic thereof. The present embodiments are therefore to be considered in all respects as illustrative and not restrictive, the scope of the invention being indicated by the appended claims rather than by the foregoing description and all changes which come within the meaning and rage of equivalency of the claims are therefore intended to be embraced therein.
The entire disclosure of Japanese Patent Application No. 2001-106318 (Filed on Apr. 4th, 2001) including specification, claims, drawings and summary are incorporated herein by reference in its entirety.
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|WO2006098844A1 *||Feb 17, 2006||Sep 21, 2006||Agilent Technologies Inc||Apparatus for single nanoparticle detection|
|WO2008085819A1 *||Jan 3, 2008||Jul 17, 2008||Hewlett Packard Development Co||Photonic systems and methods for encoding data in carrier electromagnetic waves|
|U.S. Classification||385/16, 359/320, 385/130, 385/129, 385/40, 385/125, 359/322|
|International Classification||G02B6/122, G02F1/313, G02F1/015, G02F1/01, G02F1/025, G02B6/12|
|Cooperative Classification||B82Y20/00, G02B6/1225, G02F2202/32, G02F2203/48, G02F1/025|
|European Classification||B82Y20/00, G02F1/025, G02B6/122P|
|Mar 26, 2002||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: NEC CORPORATION, JAPAN
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:SHIRANE, MASAYUKI;TOKUSHIMA, MASATOSHI;REEL/FRAME:012733/0352
Effective date: 20020304
|Jan 28, 2009||FPAY||Fee payment|
Year of fee payment: 4
|Jan 30, 2013||FPAY||Fee payment|
Year of fee payment: 8