|Publication number||US6942643 B2|
|Application number||US 11/008,723|
|Publication date||Sep 13, 2005|
|Filing date||Dec 9, 2004|
|Priority date||Jan 12, 2001|
|Also published as||US6485460, US6726652, US6846303, US20020133119, US20030032923, US20040159564, US20050113752, US20050283116, WO2002055140A1|
|Publication number||008723, 11008723, US 6942643 B2, US 6942643B2, US-B2-6942643, US6942643 B2, US6942643B2|
|Inventors||Michael N. Eakins, Ernest Balestracci, Ernst Schramm, John J. Niedospial, Jr.|
|Original Assignee||Bracco Diagnostics Inc.|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (34), Referenced by (21), Classifications (14), Legal Events (5)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
This application is a continuation of U.S. application Ser. No. 10/774,852, filed Feb. 9, 2004, now U.S. Pat. No. 6,846,303 which is a divisional of U.S. application Ser. No. 10/265,986, filed Oct. 7, 2002, now U.S. Pat. No. 6,726,652, which is a divisional of U.S. application Ser. No. 09/759,565, filed Jan. 12, 2001, now U.S. Pat. No. 6,485,460, all of which are incorporated herein by reference.
The present invention relates to a tamper evident cap for a prefilled syringe barrel. More particularly, the invention relates to a tip cap positioned on the distal end of the prefilled syringe barrel and an overwrap enclosing the tip cap and at least a portion of the prefilled syringe barrel.
Hypodermic syringes are well-known in the prior art comprising: a cylindrical syringe body having a fluid-receiving chamber therein; a proximal end; and a distal end. The distal end of the syringe body tapers into a tip having a bore therethrough which communicates with the fluid-receiving chamber. The tip is covered with a closure means such as a stopper of a polymeric or elastomeric material, a tip cap or a membrane to prevent leakage and contamination of the fluid medication contained in the syringe barrel. The closure means must be able to be removed with relative ease when the prefilled syringe is to be used.
A plunger is inserted into the open proximal end of the syringe barrel for sliding in fluid-tight engagement with the inside wall of the fluid-receiving chamber. The plunger is equipped with a plunger rod to enable the user to exert pressure on the plunger.
The hypodermic syringe also includes a needle cannula, packaged separately from the syringe barrel, which has a proximal end attachable to the tip of the syringe barrel, and a distal end terminating in a sharp or blunt point. Some hypodermic syringes are equipped with a luer connector to be attached to a corresponding luer collar on the syringe barrel. Additionally, flexible tubing can be placed between the hypodermic syringe and a needle cannula with luer connectors at both ends.
It has been observed that during in-line processing, handling, and sterilizing of the prefilled barrels, some polymeric or elastomeric closures were missing from the lips of the barrels resulting in rejects. Also, during shipment of the finished product and handling by healthcare professionals some untipped barrels were observed which necessitated discarding of batches containing failed samples. For product integrity a corrective measure was indicated to prevent the polymeric or elastomeric closure from becoming dislodged from the tip of the barrel.
More importantly, it has also been recognized that untipped barrels, whether the damage occurred during shipment or handling, attracts the suspicion that the product was tampered with. Such possible tampering is a concern for both the National Regulating Authorities and the manufacturers who are required to insure safety, efficacy and the product integrity.
The prior art has provided various tamper evident closures for syringes.
One reference discloses a tamper evident syringe characterized in that the syringe barrel, the cap, and the plunger rod are covered with a tubular sealing device that is made from a heat-shrinkable film and which has been shrunk under heat so that it adheres closely to the surfaces of those members.
The sealing device comprises a tube and a tear tape. The tube is formed of a transparent heat-shrinkable film. The tear tape is attached by bonding to the inner surface of the tube from one end to the other in the longitudinal direction.
Another reference discloses a hypodermic syringe used with a needle for lyophilized medicament comprising: a syringe body having a piston therein equipped with a tip cap at its distal end; an elastomeric plug having a passage channel closing the neck of the syringe; and a protector cap which encloses the tip cap and the neck portion of the syringe body. The protector cap and tip cap are integral with each other and can be moved axially to open and close the syringe. The protector cap consists of a top portion and a bottom portion, the two parts being held together by a weakened portion. The center of the protector cap is provided with a small hole through which the tip cap can be viewed. In use, the top portion of the protector cap is snapped off at the weakened portion, and the tip cap is taken off and discarded. A needle is then fitted in the passage channel of the elastomeric plug to access the content of the syringe.
Still another reference discloses a syringe cap assembly placed on the distal end of a syringe. The assembly includes: an elastomeric insert having a passage therein; a retaining collar which fits over the elastomeric insert to hold the insert in place; a plug or tip cap is engaged in the insert to block the passage in the insert; and a retaining safety cap fitted over the tip cap. The end wall of the retaining safety cap is formed with a hole in its center and is slightly smaller in diameter than the plug so that the user can ascertain that the plug is properly in its place without opening the assembly.
In use the safety cap is pulled, twisted, and lifted off the assembly. The plug is then lifted off to expose the collar, and a needle assembly is fitted to the collar.
A further reference discloses a prefilled syringe with break-away tip seal which closes the passageway to the content of the syringe. A score means is provided adjacent to the tip for accommodating removal of the sealed tip.
An object of the present invention is to provide a prefilled tamper evident syringe or cartridge barrel which makes apparent the unauthorized use of the medical fluid contained in the barrel of the syringe or cartridge or at least warns healthcare professionals that such unauthorized use may have occurred.
The present invention also addresses the requirement of tailor-making the barrel to provide various degrees of protection against tampering, i.e. certain medical fluids such as narcotics, lends a grater incentive for tampering than other medical fluids, such as a saline solution. To wit, a barrel containing narcotics should have more than one built-in tamper evidence, although such an approach can equally apply to other medicaments.
Another object of the present invention is to provide tamper evident syringe or cartridge barrels the content of which is easily accessed by the healthcare professionals while their unauthorized use is readily apparent.
A further object of the present invention is to provide a tamper evident syringe or cartridge barrel the content of which can be accessed by luer connections or a tubing conduit so as to avoid the use of “sharps” and thereby preventing needle stick injuries.
In accordance with the present invention there is provided a prefilled syringe or cartridge barrel equipped with tamper evident closures which indicate unauthorized use of the contents of the syringe of cartridge barrel (hereinafter sometimes referred to as “barrel”). The invention consists of four embodiments each of which is designed to be used without sharp or blunt needles so that needle stick injuries as well as the spread of contagious diseases associated with such injuries are prevented.
In one embodiment the present invention comprises:
In another embodiment of the present invention the tip cap further comprises: a centrally positioned cylinder enclosing the tip seal to facilitate breaking off the tip seal from the tapered tip; and an anti-rotation lock between the distal end of the barrel and the tip cap. In this embodiment, the tip cap consists of two portions: an upper portion separated from the lower portion by a breakaway score line. The upper portion is designed to be removed while the lower portion remains on the barrel, the shoulder portion and the tapered tip.
The above-described embodiments provide multiple tamper evidence by having: a tip seal, a tip cap and a overwrap each of which must be removed to reach the content of the barrel. These embodiments are intended to prevent tampering with the barrel containing, for example, narcotics or other medicaments.
In the third embodiment the present invention provides a barrel, having a medical fluid therein, with a tamper evident closure which comprises:
The fourth embodiment of the present invention is essentially the same as the third embodiment except the luer collar is removed so that no external luer connector is needed to tap the content of the barrel. Instead of an external luer connector a tubing conduit is used one end of which is attached to the open tip of the barrel.
In the figures, like numbers denote corresponding elements, while like numbers with prime (′) thereon denote like elements;
At its distal end the barrel terminates in a tapered sealed tip generally designated by the numeral 28 and comprises a distal end 27 and a proximal end 29. The sealed tip has a breakaway score means or weak portion 30 adjacent to the tip seal portion for breaking the tip seal portion off the distal end of the barrel to form an opening which, along with a bore in the tip seal, forms a passageway through which the injectable sterile fluid may be expelled by advancing the plunger from the proximal end towards the distal end of the barrel. The tip seal prevents the injectable fluid, such as therapeutic and diagnostic substances to be expelled prior to it being broken off at the score means or weakened portion as well as preventing the entry of contaminants into the sterile injectable fluid contained in the barrel.
The tip seal is surrounded by a cylindrical luer collar 32 having internal spiral threads 34 therein for attaching a corresponding IV catheter thereto having external spiral threads thereon. When the tip seal is detached, an outlet is created which allows fluid communication between the content of the barrel and the IV catheter.
Surrounding the tip seal 28 and the cylindrical luer collar 32 is a tip cap, generally designated by the numeral 36, which at its proximal end 38 is sealed to proximal end 29 of the tip seal 28 with a thermoplastic or other suitable material. The seal so formed is frangible so that the tip cap can be easily separated from the tapered tip seal by breaking off the tip cap.
As shown in
The overwrap is made of a polymeric sheet, preferably of two or more layers superimposed on each other and sealed together at their peripheries to form a cylindrically shaped body. The inside layer 49 is formed with an overwrap ridge 50 projecting towards the barrel. The outside layer 51 of the overwrap is continuous forming the top and side portions of the overwrap. A tamper evident seal 52 closes the proximal end of the overwrap to the outside wall 12 of the barrel 10. A frangible score line 54 running horizontally in the tamper evident seal renders the overwrap removable when delivery of the sterile injectable fluid is desired from the syringe or cartridge barrel.
In covering a portion of the syringe or cartridge barrel, the tip cap and tip seal, the overwrap is slid towards the proximal end of the barrel until overwrap ridge 50 reaches the top tapered portion 11 of the barrel 10. The overwrap ridge anchors the overwrap to the tapered portion of the barrel. For glass barrels the anchoring is accomplished by providing a groove in the tapered top portion of the barrel into which the plastic ridge snaps. For plastic barrels the anchoring is accomplished by forming a ridge in the plastic tapered portion of the barrel. In both cases, when removal of the overwrap is desired, the overwrap is dislodged from the groove or ridge of the barrel by pulling the overwrap toward the distal end of the barrel. In reference to
As can be seen, this embodiment of the present invention provides a prefilled syringe or cartridge barrel for injection of a sterile medical fluid where the injection can be accomplished by hand, or a power injector such as disclosed, for example, by U.S. Pat. No. 5,322,511. The tip seal integrally formed with the barrel prevents entry of contaminants from contacting the sterile medical fluid in the barrel prior to use or leakage of medical fluid from the barrel. The tip seal also provides a measure of security that the content of the barrel has not be tampered with. However, the present invention also provides more apparent signs of tampering by the use of a tip cap and an overwrap as components of the present invention. In order to get to the content of the barrel: first, the overwrap must be removed leaving the lower or proximal portion thereof on the barrel and showing at the score line that the overwrap has been removed; second, the tip cap must be removed which also leaves a score line on the proximal end of the tip seal; and third, the top portion of the tip seal must be broken off in order to open the fluid channel to the content of the barrel.
Another embodiment of the present invention is shown in partial cross-sectional view in
Tip cap 36′ comprises two parts: an upper part 56 and a lower part 58. The upper and lower parts are separated form each other by a breakaway score line 60. The upper part is designed to be broken off while the lower part remains on the syringe or cartridge barrel 10. The upper part contains a centrally positioned cylinder 62 extending from the top wall 39 of the tip cap and terminates at the score line 60. The inside wall 64 of centrally positioned cylinder 62 runs parallel to tip seal 28 and is in contact therewith. Cylinder 62 serves to hold tip seal 28 and helps to remove the tip seal at the weak portion 30 thereof. Lower part 58 of tip cap 36′ extend from breakaway score line 60 to and including the upper portion of the syringe barrel. The distal end 66 of lower part 58 is molded to the syringe barrel by a method known in the art. Additionally, the lower part 58 of tip cap 36′ is provided with an anti-rotation lock 68, made of a polymeric material which holds the syringe barrel and the lower part of the tip cap together and prevents rotation of the lower part of the tip cap when the upper part of the tip cap is being removed. The anti-rotation lock may be affixed between the syringe barrel and the tip cap by an adhesive or, preferably, a thermoplastic polymer. Most preferably, both the tip cap and the anti-rotation lock are made of thermoplastic materials.
When it is desired to establish fluid communication between the syringe barrel and an external access means, such as an IV set having a luer lock corresponding with the luer collar shown in
The syringe barrel 10 comprises: a cylindrical chamber 16 which contains a medical fluid therein; a tapered shoulder 70 extending into neck portion 72 towards the distal end of the syringe. Neck portion 72 at that distal end thereof is covered with a tip cap 74 which widens into a top portion 76. The widened top portion facilitates removal of the tip cap. Overwrap 78 encloses a portion of the syringe barrel, the shoulder 70 of the syringe barrel and the tip cap 74 with its widened top portion 76. The overwrap comprises at least two layers of polymeric film: outside layer and inside layer. The inside layer is provided with ridge 50′ projecting inwardly towards the shoulder 70 of syringe barrel 10. Space 37′ is provided between the widened portion of tip cap 76 and the inside layer of the overwrap. Tamper evident seal 52′ having frangible score line 54′ therein seals the overwrap to the outside wall 12 of barrel 10. Tip cap 74 is sealed to neck 72 by an adhesive or a thermoplastic means.
The tamper evident syringe barrel in this embodiment of the present invention is also provided without the luer collar 32′. When delivery of the medical fluid is desired the elastomeric plug 80 is removed and one end of a tubing conduit is attached to the open tip of the barrel. The other end of the tubing conduit is equipped with a syringe through which the medical fluid is administered to the patient.
The method of accessing the medical fluid contained in the syringe barrel includes the steps of:
The syringe or cartridge barrel is made of glass or known polymeric materials, preferably a transparent polymeric material. The barrel can be coated with a UV barrier coating.
The UV barrier coating is a clear flexible film made of polymers having UV absorbing (scavenging) or oxygen absorbing (scavenging) properties so that the content of the container is not affected by environmental conditions. These polymers include in the form of a film alloys, blends, extrusions, laminations, surface modified and impregnated films or combinations thereof of the following polymeric materials which are capable to withstand autoclave or high-temperature sterilization and which contain UV absorbing or oxygen scavenging agent or into which such agents are incorporated by processes known to those skilled in the art:
Blocking agents/UV stabilizers which may be included in the films include:
The protective cap is made of a polymeric material including: polyolefins such as polyethylene and polypropylene; polystyrene, polycarbonate, polymethylpentene, cyclic olefin co-polymers, acrylic polymers and methacrylic polymers.
The elastomeric plug is preferably of soft rubber.
The overwrap used in the present invention can be a monolayer film, however, multilayer films are preferred. The sheets are made of known polymeric materials having properties which make them suitable for use under conditions of steam and gamma rays sterilization. Such properties include gloss, strength, flexibility and chemical inertness. Preferably, the sheets are transparent or at least translucent enabling visual inspection of the contents at all times prior to and during delivery of the content from the barrel to the patient. The sheets may be made, for example, from polyvinylidine chloride between two polyethylene or polyvinyl acetate layers. Further layers may be added to the face or back of the sheet, if desired, such as polyolefin, preferably, polyethylene. Polyvinyl chloride is also suitable for the construction of the sheet and is well-accepted by the prior art for use in containers for medical fluid collection and delivery. Typical properties of polyvinyl chloride films include: a thickness of about 380 micron; a tensile strength of about 240 kg/cm2; a moisture vapor transmission rate of about 14–20 (g/m2/days at 38° C., 100% RH); and an oxygen barrier of 650 (cc/m2/day at 23° C., 0% RH, bar. CRYOVAC® sterlizable medical films (W.R. Grace and Co.) are especially suitable to construct the sheets used in the present invention. The films comprise a polyethylene layer between polyester outer layers sealed together by a modified propylene co-polymer. Typical properties of the film include: a thickness of about 190 micron; a tensile strength of about 250 kg/cm2; a moisture vapor transmission rate of 5 (g/m2/day at 38° C., 100% RH); and an oxygen barrier of about 1500 (cc/m2/day at 23° C., 0% RH, bar).
Other preferred polymeric films or sheets for constructing the flexible overwrap of the present invention include: copolyester ether monolayer films, such as polycyclohexanedimethylcyclohexane dicarboxylate elastomer made by Eastman Chemical Co.
Having described the invention, it will be apparent to those skilled in the art that various changes and modifications may be made thereto. It is intended to include such changes and modification limited only by the scope of the appended claims.
|Cited Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US3272322||Aug 25, 1964||Sep 13, 1966||Syn Pak Corp||Syringe package|
|US3828775||Jun 28, 1971||Aug 13, 1974||Iso Nuclear Corp||Self-packaged hypodermic syringe|
|US4106622||Aug 1, 1977||Aug 15, 1978||Sherwood Medical Industries Inc.||Tamper-resistant rigid syringe package and method of making the same|
|US4187848||Nov 13, 1978||Feb 12, 1980||The Kendall Company||Adapter assembly|
|US4671408||Jun 20, 1985||Jun 9, 1987||Burron Medical Inc.||Temper-resistant protective capping device for filled syringes|
|US4832695||Dec 4, 1987||May 23, 1989||Bruce Rosenberg||Tamper evident injection syringe|
|US4886497||Jan 22, 1988||Dec 12, 1989||Scholl Jr Charles W||Disposable protective container for hypodermic syringes|
|US5057088||Aug 23, 1988||Oct 15, 1991||Krishna Narayanan||Needle guard|
|US5135496||May 16, 1990||Aug 4, 1992||Arzneimittel Gmbh Apotheker Vetter & Co.||Tamper-proof hypodermic syringe assembly|
|US5158550||Nov 16, 1989||Oct 27, 1992||Scholl Jr Charles W||Disposable protective container for a hypodermic syringe|
|US5320603||Aug 20, 1992||Jun 14, 1994||Arzneimitel Gmbh Apotheker Vetter & Co.||Hypodermic syringe for lyophilized medicament|
|US5328474||Sep 10, 1993||Jul 12, 1994||B. Braun Medical Inc.||Tamper resistant syringe cap|
|US5615772||Mar 1, 1994||Apr 1, 1997||Seikagaku Kogyo Kabushiki Kaisha (Seikagaku Corporation)||Medication filled syringe equipment|
|US5624402||Dec 12, 1994||Apr 29, 1997||Becton, Dickinson And Company||Syringe tip cap|
|US5647849||Sep 27, 1995||Jul 15, 1997||Becton, Dickinson And Company||Self-contained safety syringe|
|US5785691||Sep 30, 1996||Jul 28, 1998||Arzneimittel Gmbh Apotheker Vetter & Co. Raversburg||Syringe cap assembly|
|US5887633||Feb 26, 1998||Mar 30, 1999||Becton, Dickinson And Company||Syringe filling and delivery device|
|US6027482||Apr 28, 1997||Feb 22, 2000||Becton Dickinson And Company||Syringe tip cap|
|US6126640||Jul 10, 1998||Oct 3, 2000||Becton, Dickinson And Company||Protective sealing barrier for a syringe|
|US6193688||Jul 17, 2000||Feb 27, 2001||Bracco Diagnostics, Inc.||Tamper evident protector cap for pre-filled syringe barrels|
|US20010003150||Jan 22, 2001||Jun 7, 2001||Claude Imbert||Syringe tip cap|
|US20020069616||Jul 2, 2001||Jun 13, 2002||Odell Robert B.||Method and apparatus for manufacturing, filling and packaging medical devices and medical containers|
|US20020128612||Mar 21, 2001||Sep 12, 2002||Fresenius Kabi, Ab||Container for intravenous administration|
|US20020143293||Mar 27, 2002||Oct 3, 2002||Becton Dickinson And Company||Adaptor for use with point-of-care testing cartridge|
|US20030032940||Aug 10, 2001||Feb 13, 2003||Doyle Mark C.||Valved male luer|
|US20030040720||Aug 22, 2001||Feb 27, 2003||Steube Gregory Alan||Needle hub assembly|
|US20030141477||Aug 21, 2002||Jul 31, 2003||Miller Pavel T.||Slit-type swabbable valve|
|US20030163093||May 23, 2001||Aug 28, 2003||Jean-Claude Thibault||Luber-lock type sealing connection device for medical use, and syringe comprising same|
|CH279468A||Title not available|
|EP1002551A2||Apr 15, 1999||May 24, 2000||Bracco International B.V.||Easy-slip plunger/plunger rod assembly for a syringe or a cartridge|
|GB2202747A||Title not available|
|WO1994013338A1||Dec 9, 1993||Jun 23, 1994||Mallinckrodt Medical, Inc.||Prefilled syringe with break-away tip seal|
|WO1996013289A2||Oct 27, 1995||May 9, 1996||Schering Aktiengesellschaft||Process for filling with a fluid and closing disposable syringes that are to be sterilised|
|WO2000038615A1||Dec 24, 1999||Jul 6, 2000||Torii Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd.||Medicine container and syringe|
|Citing Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US7670289||Aug 1, 2007||Mar 2, 2010||Mccall Kenneth Shawn||Dressing and integrated system for detection of fluid loss|
|US7713243 *||Sep 25, 2007||May 11, 2010||Becton, Dickinson And Company||Tip shield for needle stick prevention|
|US7762988||Aug 25, 2006||Jul 27, 2010||Medical Device Engineering, Llc||Tamper evident end cap assembly for a loaded syringe and process|
|US8235930||Aug 7, 2012||Mccall Kenneth Shawn||Dressing and integrated system for detection of fluid loss|
|US8348895||Jan 8, 2013||Medical Device Engineering, LLC.||Tamper evident cap assembly|
|US8353869||Jan 15, 2013||Baxa Corporation||Anti-tampering apparatus and method for drug delivery devices|
|US8398575||Mar 19, 2013||Kenneth Shawn McCall||Early warning and shutdown system for hemodialysis|
|US8672883||Jul 11, 2012||Mar 18, 2014||C. Garyen Denning||Fluid delivery device and methods|
|US8784377||Jan 9, 2013||Jul 22, 2014||Baxter Corporation Englewood||Anti-tampering apparatus and method for drug delivery devices|
|US8864707||Dec 2, 2011||Oct 21, 2014||Medical Device Engineering, LLC.||Tamper indicating closure assembly|
|US8864708||Dec 2, 2011||Oct 21, 2014||Medical Device Engineering, LLC.||Tamper indicating closure assembly|
|US9095667 *||Dec 1, 2011||Aug 4, 2015||Schott Schweiz Ag||Syringe cap|
|US9199749||Apr 26, 2012||Dec 1, 2015||Medical Device Engineering, LLC.||Assembly and system for connecting a closure to a syringe|
|US9205198||Jan 17, 2013||Dec 8, 2015||Dr. Py Institute Llc||Multiple dose syringe and method|
|US9311592||Oct 21, 2014||Apr 12, 2016||Medical Device Engineering, LLC.||Support and closure assembly for discharge port of a syringe and tracking system therefore|
|US9402967||Jan 8, 2013||Aug 2, 2016||Medical Device Engineering, Llc||Tamper evident cap assembly|
|US20080258408 *||Mar 27, 2008||Oct 23, 2008||Toyoda Gosei Co., Ltd.||Boot for constant-velocity universal joint and fixing structure for the same|
|US20090082732 *||Sep 25, 2007||Mar 26, 2009||Becton, Dickinson And Company||Tip shield for needle stick prevention|
|US20110092952 *||Oct 19, 2010||Apr 21, 2011||Terumo Medical Corporation||Shield Apparatuses and Methods For Storing Syringe Assemblies and Needle Assemblies|
|US20130237911 *||Dec 1, 2011||Sep 12, 2013||Alfred Von Schuckmann||Syringe cap|
|WO2013109706A1 *||Jan 17, 2013||Jul 25, 2013||Py Daniel C||Multiple dose syringe and method|
|U.S. Classification||604/111, 222/541.6|
|International Classification||A61M5/00, A61M5/32, A61M5/50, A61M5/31|
|Cooperative Classification||A61M2005/312, A61M5/3134, A61M5/3202, A61M5/5086, A61M2005/3118|
|European Classification||A61M5/32B, A61M5/50H, A61M5/31C2|
|Nov 21, 2007||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: BRACCO DIAGNOSTICS INC., NEW JERSEY
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:EAKINS, MICHAEL N.;BALESTRACCI, ERNEST;SCHRAMM, ERNST;AND OTHERS;REEL/FRAME:020143/0428
Effective date: 20010105
|Mar 13, 2009||FPAY||Fee payment|
Year of fee payment: 4
|Apr 26, 2013||REMI||Maintenance fee reminder mailed|
|Sep 13, 2013||LAPS||Lapse for failure to pay maintenance fees|
|Nov 5, 2013||FP||Expired due to failure to pay maintenance fee|
Effective date: 20130913