US 694904 A
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' w. YOULTEN, SIGHTING DEVICE FOR FIREARMS.
(Application filed May 13, 1901.)
No. 694,904. Patented Mar. 4, I902.
:Wz'lnesses: I [n ventona W a J Q1; J, w m -Ztfizk- Patented Mar. 4, I902. W. YOULTEN. SIGHTINGDEVICE FOR FIREARMS.
, (Application filed m 13, 1901.) I (llo Model.)
mlnssgs: I 7 lnfentbr; v i f 47 z I fltlorneys.
No. 694,964." Patented Mar. 4, I902.
' W. YOULTEN.
SIGHTING DEVICE FOR FIREARMS.
(Application filed may 18, 1901.) (No Model.)
4 Sheets-Sheet 3.
m? n 253 es:
040.094,!!04. Patented Mar. 4, I902.
- w. YOULTEN. I
SIGHTING DEVICE FOR FIREARMS.
(App1ica.tion filed May 18, 1901.) (No Model.) 4 Sheets-Sheet 4.
.30 trating one method of I STATES.
PATE T ()FFICE.
WILLIAM YOULTEN, or WESTMINSTER, IENGLANDI.
I sleirme DEVICE FORIEIREJARMS;
SPECIFICATION forming part of Letters Patent No. 694,904, dated March 4, 1902. I I I Application filed May 13,1901. Serial No. 60.114- (No model.)
T all, whom it may concern.- Be it known thatI, WILLIAM. YOULTEN, asubject of the King of Great Britain and Ireland, residingat 159 Victoria street, Westminster, in the county of London, England,. have invented Improvements Relating to the Sighting of Rifles and other Firearms, ,of which the following is a specification. This invention relates to an improved. re- :0 fleeting instrument by the use of which certain well-known principles in the science of optics are adapted tothe sighting of rifles, small-arms, machine-guns, and the like from behind walls, boulders,and the like without the gunner being exposed to the view of the enemy. I I
According to this invention I mount two or more mirrors or'other reflecting-surfaces in a tubeor otherwisejn such ama'nncr that the co first of these reflecting-surfaces maycome behind the sights andin' the line of-aim of the gun, while the last reflector comes in front of the gunners eye and enables him to aim the gun without exposing himself to the enemys a flre."
-' In order that'my invention may be understood, I will describe several ways of applyingit to a rifle. a Q Figure 1 shows an elevation of rifle, illusattaching the reflecting instrument. Fig. 2-is a front elevation of the reflecting instrument shown at Fig. 1. Fig. 3 is a side elevation of the same instrument, and Fig. 4 is a plan of same; Fig. 5, a
plan .of partof rifle shown at Fig. 1. Fig. 6
shows a modification ofthe manner of attaching the'reflectin'g instrument to a rifle. Fig. 7 shows a further modification; Fig. 8 shows a detail hereinafter referred to. Fig.9 is an elevation showingafourth method of fitting the instrument to a rifle. Fig. lOshows a detail hereinafter -referred to. Fig. llshows the construction of rifle-butt which I prefer to employ. Fig. 12 shows a rifle out through thestock behind the lock and cranked form in order to facilitate the appli cation of the reflecting. instrument; Fig. 13
is a. back view of same" ona larger scale. Figs. 14 and 15 selreflecting and telescopic instruments, respectively. Figs. 16 and, 17 show details hereinafter referred to.
. tube a. This son using the rifle.
strument is shownattached in fixed in the show modified forms of thesquare in cross-section; The tube a contains With reference to Figs. 1 to 5 the reflect a and b are tubes two mirrors (1 e, Fig. 4, and the tube b two mirrors f g. Each tube has an aperture, the aperture 7; in. the tube a being for the admisat and-the aperture 71 in the tube b for the emission of such rays after reflection from the mirrors (1, e, f, and g. A dovetail projection j is formed on the under side of the projection slides in the groove is on the rifle, (see Fig. 5,) thereby holding the reflecting instrument near the back sight m. n and p, hinged together at 0 and attached to the butt of the rifle-by clips. The part 12 forms a false butt to rest against the shoulder of the per- With reference to Fig. 6 the reflecting ina' vertical position to the butt. of the rifle.- ment in this case'consists of a single tube q,
provided with two parallelmirrors aforesaid. r shows a-skeleton butt attached to the r fle v, by clips,enabling the marksman to .take the 8 shows 1 recoil. of'the rifle upon his chest. a wire proceeding from the trigger, so that the marksman may fire the-rifle by pulling on the wire shhstead of having to reach to the trigger.
sion of the raysof light from the object aimed The strips n and pare. *readily detached from the rifle and-packed Hi a small compass. 1
The instru-' Fig. 1, show twostrips of metal With reference to Fig. 7,1 shows a false butt suitablyclippe t0 the butt of the rifle. This false butt ,6 is in the form of a box, and the instrument (1 is contained in this box, being hinged at u, so' that upon raising the 11d 4:
the said instrument may be. swungnp into a vertical position, as shown in the figure. The
bottom w of the box is also hinged ,so that the said' box may" be used to conta n other articles. The lid 0 may be used to support the instrument when raised. In this case an.
aperture would be provided in the said lid ofor the purposes of observation.
. In Fig. 8, :nshows a slot or groove cut in, the rifle, and 3/ shows a metal plate fixed over such slot or groove; This forms a means for attaching. the reflecting instrument to the IDS rifle,-.a projection from the instrument fitting tightly in the slot as.
- -Wi'th reference to Fig. 9, which shows'anothermethod of applying the instrument, 2'
g from, as shown in side view at Fig. 10. The
4 enter and leave the instrument.
' curve of the rod-6 is very slight, and inpractice an inclined straight-rod may be employed. 7 shows an eye or ring fixed to the socket z. The rod 6 works in the eye'7. 8shows asmall telescope attached to the tube 2 at the emission-aperture opposite to the mirror 4. In order to adjust the instrument to various ranges, the telescopic tube 1 is raised or lowered in the tube 2, and at the same time the rod 6, engaging in the fixed eye 7, cants the tubes 1 and 2 over about the pivot 5, thus keeping the center line of the instrument always at right angles to the line of-aim. The
socket 2 must be attached to'the butt of the rifle in such a way that when the reflectinginstrument is telescoped down into its lowest position the center line of the said instrument shall be at right angles to the line of aim for the shortest range. To efiect this, I mark lines on the butt of the ride and other lines on the sides of the socket, and in placing the socket in position I adjust'the said socket so that the lines on the butt and socket are parallel, or other means may be employed to effect this object.
In thecaseof an instrument fittedto the rifle in the mannershown at Fig. 9 I propose to .mark the scale of ranges on the instrument to show where thetelescopic tubes must be set for a given range. The use of such a scale would enable the back sight to" be dispeused with. Apertures are in each case provided in order that the rays of light may When the instrument is applied to the butt of the rifle,
' a suitable skeleton butt, such as that shown in: front View at Fig. 17) placed behind the.
at Fig. 6 or such as the folding projection shown at Fig. 11, is provided in order that the marksman may take the recoil either upon the chest 'or shoulder. The extending or false butt shown in Fig. 11 folds into a groove in the under side of the ride, as indi cated in dotted lines in the figure referred to.
With reference to Figs. 12 to 17, 9 shows a plate, preferably of steel, to which. the sighting-glass 10 is fixed. 11 is a telescopic or single-barrel field-glass attached to 10 by the pieces 12 and 13. 14;18 the butt end -of the:
stock. 15 and 16 are prismatic reflectors, such as are used in the best long-distance fieldglasses,by the use of which in'turning an angle there is no error of refraction, and the loss of illumination is considerably less than five percent. 17 is a metal ring (shown detached cameos-1 i" i' The ,lower tube 2 is pivoted at- 5 to the socket z. 6 is a curved rod fixed to the tube l-and' projecting thereii-sumac reflector 15. The sn w is formed with a fine-wire. grid, as'shown, and it will be obvious that the.fixed point blank back sight of therifle will be exactly. in line with the front sight on an undefined position on the -reflec'tor The fine grid seen through from the center of the eyepiecexwillfshow that spot through the grid at a rather uncertain relative position with the intended zero point say the. lower angle of one of the squares in the grid at dr near. the bottom of thevertical diagonal line of squares. This relative position is converted into the coin- 8o cident position by adjusting the. grid'to it. This may be done by the makerof'the apparatusby means of accurate measurement, or
it the ring is fixed in the tube bymeans of four scnews tapped into the ring after passing through four-plain holes in the tube (which is slightly larger in diameter than the ring) the ring 17 can be readily adjusted,'so' that the intended point-blank point of sight on the grid is regulated to the actual 9o coincidence of the two sights on the barrel. This once done will enable themarksman to ignore the adjustable back sight on the rifle and simply elevate or lower the stock as many squares as will bring the object the proper 5 number of squares above zero or point-blank spot to correspond with the known or indicated range. The indication of range is approximately given by the relative size of a man, for example, compared with the size of the squares. The horizontal lines of squares will serve in asimilar manner for making the requisite allowance for wind. 18 shows a knob or button by means of which the wire grid 17 may be dropped clear as its normal position, and interposed between theeye and the object (or sighlson the barrel) when desired by pressure of the thumb while the forefinger is in command of the trigger. The annular grooves 19 and 20 receive the two connesting-pieces 12 and 13. Fig. 16 shows the shape of these connecting-pieces. 21 and 22 show flexible india-rubber .eyepieces, which if quite flexible. and of suitable diameter-- say one and a half inches-will be suflicient protection against concussion, provided the ride butt-end is brought well up against the shoulder. I V
With reference to the telescopic finder shown at Fig, 15 the achromatic object-lens 23 and the double-concave eyepiece-lens 24, it of the best make, are all that is necessary for magnifying power and good definition up to, say,two thousand yards; but a complete telescopic series for a one-draw action may be used. This, like thesighting-glass shown at Fig. 14, is all in one-piece in outward ap-'. pearance, as the piece of toothed rack 25, fixed to the inner tube which carries the occulaire (double-concave) lens and the inner screw-thread on the outer section of tube, are out of sight in the real instrument; but the wide gap (shown at 26) in the main tube allows the movable inner tube to show through pressing against the frontof the slotted side r are attached.
the wide gap (which is covered dust-tight by .a piece of transparent celluloid or-the like) as the glass needs focusing to ranges-of five hundred yards and upward and the divisions of focal distanceson the marked scale come intoview through the celluloid-covered gap. 27 and 28 are annular grooves similar to those marked 19 and 20 in Fig. 14; butl propose to modify the method of fixing. The pieces 12 and 13 are shown in Fig. 16 as havingone end gapped out, (29.) The ends are permanently attachedto the telescopic glass, Fig. 15, at 27 28; but the ends, 29 are slipped into the grooves 19 20, Fig. 14, and held tight by a half-turn of the screw-nozzle, thus enabling the rifleman to instantly unshipand pocket 'the glass when occasion requires.
Referring again to Figs. 12 and 13, it will be seen that the plate 9 is the connecting and supporting base to which all the pieces named It is about one-sixteenth inch thick with a side edging about one-eighth inch wide turned over at right angles toward the barrel from 31 to32 to stiffen and give rigidity to the crank fittings. The portions 33 and 34 not turned over form lugs, 34 forming front stays and 33 forming back stays pieces 35, Fig, 12, at 34 and at the back at 33. The angle stay-rod 36, Fig. 12, hinges at 37 and is forced into a spring-socket at the back of the plate 9 at 38, and when the crankinggear is upset 36 folds back into a groovein the stock and is held close by a spring-clutch at 39. The slotted side pieces 35 are hollowed and feather-edged toward the stock and by the loosening of the screws 40 and 41 about two turns the bottom end of the plate 9 drops into a slight narrow gap between a steel face-plate and the wood at the front end of the butt, and the lugs-33 pass behind the slotted side pieces 35. The screws 40 41 arethen turned home nearly tight and the stay-rod 36 is pressed into the spring-socket on the plate at 38, and thescrewsfare turned.
tight home. The plates covering the crosssections of the stock on the barrelend and butt-end, respectively, have side earpieces at 1 42, Fig. 12, turned'over at right angles on the stock to help to give strength and rigidity to the whole.
The method of applying this invention to machine-guns is similar to that heretofore described for rifles, the only alterations being those of detail.
For use when required I providea slide of violet or other suitably-tinted glass to cover,
say,"the aperture, in order to prevent the flashing of. the mirror when the suns rays are upon it and to enable the position of guns using-smokeless powder to bereadily located 7 I by increasing the visibility of the flash.
' What I claim, and desire to protect by Letters*Patent, is-
1. In a small-arm, the combination witha rifle or the like; of an attachment secured near the rear end thereof and allaptcdtomove therewith, reflecting devices carried by said attachment, one of said reflectors being in line with'the object, and. a second reflector below the first-,- upon which the object is to attachment, one of said'reflectors being in line with the object, asecond reflector below th'e-first, .upon which the objectis to 'be-observed, and anextension or false butt secured to the. rear end of .the rifle and extending downwardly therefrom, substantially as described. g k
3. In a small-arm, the combinationwitha rifle'or the like; of an attachment secured near the rear end of the rifleand adapted to move therewith, a reflector mounted in the upper part of said attachment, in line with the sights ofthev rifle, and a second reflector mounted below the first upon which theimage is to be observed, substantially as described.
4. In a small-arm, the combination with a rifle or the like; of an attachment secured near the rear end of the rifle and adapted to move therewith, a reflector mounted in the upper part thereof in line with the sights of the rifle, a second reflector mounted below the flrst,'upon which the image is to be observed, and an extension or false butt secured upon the end of the rifle-stock forming a shoulder below the stock of the rifle, substantially as described.
5. In a small-arm, the combination with a rifle or the like; of an attachment detachably secured to the rifle behind therear sight, a
reflector mounted in the upper part of said reflector mounted in the upper part of said attachment in line with the sights of the rifle, a second reflector mounted below the first upon which the image is to be observed, and
an extension ,or false-butt detachably secured I upon the rear end of the rifle and forming-a shoulder-rest below the stock of the rifle, substantially as described.
7. In a small-arm, the combination with a I rifle or the like, and the sights carriedthereby; of a perforated tube or casing detachably secured to the firearm, and oppositely-disposed reflectors within said casin g, one of said reflectors-being in a direct line with the sights of the rifle, and the other below the first reflector, substantially as described. V
8. In a small-arm, the combination with a rifle or the like, and the sights carried thereby; of a perforated tubeor casing, oppositelydisposed reflectors fwithii said casing, and means for detachably locking said casing to said firearm, substantially as described, 9.- Il; a.small'-arm,' the combination with a 5 rifle or the 1i ke, and tl 1e sights carried thereby; of atnbe or casing, adapted'to be detach ably locked iipen said firearm, an upper re-' fiectpr mounted in said-g-cajsing in linewith said sights, and a lower reflector also mounted in said casing beneath the upper reflector, 10
i1 pon which the image in line with the sights may be observed, substantially as described.
' WM. YOULTEN.
.A. E. VIDAL, A. BROWNE.