|Publication number||US6961075 B2|
|Application number||US 10/702,896|
|Publication date||Nov 1, 2005|
|Filing date||Nov 6, 2003|
|Priority date||Nov 6, 2003|
|Also published as||DE602004013821D1, EP1682353A2, EP1682353B1, US20050099487, WO2005047004A2, WO2005047004A3|
|Publication number||10702896, 702896, US 6961075 B2, US 6961075B2, US-B2-6961075, US6961075 B2, US6961075B2|
|Inventors||Robert F. Mindler, Guy T. Calkins|
|Original Assignee||Eastman Kodak Company|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (11), Referenced by (17), Classifications (6), Legal Events (8)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
The present invention relates generally to thermal printing of images on receivers using thermal donor media, such as sheet or ribbon, having plural series of different color panels or patches, and more particularly, to improving image quality by the use of printing elongated images.
In recent years, digital and video cameras and computer-generated images have found wide acceptance. The demand for digital color printers has increased to provide for an acceptable hard copy output for the images captured or generated by such cameras and computers.
Of the various recording methods, the recording apparatus that employs the thermal transfer method using an ink donor ribbon makes it easier to maintain the apparatus. In addition, full-color images of higher quality are obtainable with such apparatus. Typically, there is a reasonable match between the size of the ink donor color panel or patch on the ribbon and the corresponding size of the image to be recorded on the receiver sheet.
Thermal dye sublimation or diffusion printers use heat to cause colored dyes on the ink donor ribbon medium to transfer to a receiver medium that is in intimate contact with the donor ribbon. Over the past 20 years a new printing technology known as “resistive head thermal printing” has emerged. Thermal printers are used for a variety of printing needs, ranging from inexpensive monotone fax printers, to near photographic quality continuous tone color images. The highest quality output is produced by the dye diffusion thermal printer. The thermal printing operation is driven by a thermal print head that consists of a number of resistive heating elements closely arranged along the axis of the head. Between 200 and 600 heating elements are aligned per inch. During the dye diffusion printing process, the thermal printhead is brought into contact with a dye coated donor ribbon (see FIG. 1). A chemically coated receiver sheet sits beneath the donor ribbon. The donor/receiver surfaces are compressed between the printhead bead and an elastomeric drum creating a very small but highly pressured nip contact region.
The high pressure creates the intimate contact between the layers that is necessary for efficient thermal transfer. During printing, each resistive element on the head is pulsed with current in order to create heat. This heat then drives the diffusion process. By manipulating the thermal resistor pulsing scheme one can control the temperature history, and subsequently the amount of diffusion taking place beneath each resistor. In the color dye diffusion process three printing passes are used to overlay yellow, magenta, and cyan dye. The result is a high quality, continuous tone color image.
Most printers which employ this process have the property that once a point of the thermal donor media has been used it cannot be reused, as insufficient amounts of dye remain at that point for a second use. Thermal dye donor media come in standard configurations such as a roll or ribbon composed of a series of interleaved cyan, magenta, and yellow (CMY) panels or patches herein below referred to as a triad of color patches. Thermal donor media also come in standard sizes. An additional panel or patch may also be provided with the series of color patches so as to provide a transparent ink panel or patch for transferring a transparent overcoat to a multiple color image formed on the receiver sheet. The thermal transfer medium including the three color panels or patches and a transparent overcoat panel or patch are referred to hereinbelow as a quad of color patches.
In the field of printing of images, and with regard to U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,132,701 and 5,140,341, there is disclosed a method and apparatus to produce an image on relatively large receivers using a thermal printer having multiple color dye transfer patch triads. In the aforesaid patents, there is noted the problem in thermal printing of printing on a receiver that is longer than the length of the dye transfer patch that is available. Thus, image size has typically been limited to the size of a dye donor film patch used to produce the image. To overcome this problem, the aforesaid patents teach steps of producing a first sub-image with a segment thereof having blank areas which are distributed in accordance with a pattern that does not produce a substantially linear alignment of the blank areas with one another. The second sub-image is produced with a segment thereof having blank areas which are distributed in accordance with a pattern that is complementary to the pattern of the blank areas of the first sub-image.
A problem associated with the methods disclosed by prior art is that the image processing requirements for the printers disclosed in the prior art may be more difficult to implement with efficient image processing time and thus may also require greater CPU time by the host computer. Particularly when used in a kiosk environment, where the CPU is required to implement a number of tasks beyond interface with the printer, it is desirable to reduce the need for reducing the communication time with the host computer and the printer when implementing image processing. It also would be desirable to reduce the likelihood of print variation when producing multiple prints of the same image.
It is therefore desirable to produce large images that are free of visually discernible distortions and which can be produced with conventional dye-donor triad or quad films that provide superior results obtainable using gray level pixels.
The various objects and advantages described herein will become more apparent to those skilled in the art from description of preferred embodiments of the invention which follows. In the description, reference is made to accompanying drawings, which form a part thereof, and which illustrate examples of the invention. Such examples, however, are not exhaustive of the various possible embodiments of the invention, and therefore reference is made to the claims which follow the description for determining the scope of the invention.
In accordance with a first aspect of the invention there is provided a method of thermally printing a desired image on a receiver comprising the steps of (a) thermally printing a first sub-image on a first region of the receiver with a first dye-donor patch of a first color having a length that is less than a length of the receiver; (b) thermally printing a second sub-image on a second region of the receiver with a second dye-donor patch of the first color and having a length that is less than the length of the receiver; the first and second regions of the receiver having a partial overlap region; the first and second sub-images form the desired image (or a single color printed record of the desired image) which is longer in length than either of the first and second dye-donor patches; wherein in steps (a) and (b) the thermal printing is made with the same printhead having a plurality of thermally actuated recording elements, the recording elements being actuated to print the first sub-image and the second sub-image each with pixels of varying gray levels, and further wherein pixels in the overlap region are printed with varying gray levels during both of steps (a) and (b) and wherein at pixels locations in the overlap region most printed pixels are printed by overlapping a partial pixel printed during printing step (a) with another partial pixel printed during printing step (b).
In accordance with a second aspect of the invention, there is provided a method of thermally printing a desired image on a receiver with a printhead comprising the steps of (a) thermally printing with the printhead a first sub-image on a first region of the receiver with a first dye-donor patch of a first color having a length that is less than than a length of the receiver; (b) subsequent to step (a) thermally printing with the printhead a second sub-image on a second region of the receiver with a second dye-donor patch of the first color and having a length that is less than the length of the receiver; the first and second regions of the receiver having a partial overlap region; the first and second sub-images form the desired image (or a single color printed record of the desired image) which is longer in length than either of the first and second dye-donor patches; (c) thermally transferring a transparent overcoat on the first sub-image in the first region exclusive of the overlap region of the receiver with a first transparent donor patch of a length that is less than the length of the receiver; (d) thermally transferring a transparent overcoat on the second sub-image in the second region inclusive of the overlap region of the receiver with a second transparent donor patch having a length that is less than the length of the receiver; and wherein in steps (c) and (d) the thermal transferring is made with the same printhead as used in steps (a) and (b) and wherein step (d) is performed after step (c).
In accordance with a third aspect of the invention, there is provided a method and apparatus of thermal printing to form an elongated image wherein material is transferred from a donor sheet having a repeating series of color patches, each series having plural different colors, the method comprising operating a printhead with each at least two of the series of color patches to transfer material, using heat from the printhead, from each of the series of color patches to a receiver sheet to form on the receiver sheet a respective color sub-image from each of the series of color patches, the respective sub-images forming a composite image that has gray level pixels in an overlap region formed by combining deposition of material from the color patches of each series of color patches so that a gray level pixel in the overlap region is formed by material from both the series of color patches.
In accordance with a fourth aspect of the invention, there is provided a method of thermal printing to form an elongated image on a receiver sheet wherein material is transferred from a donor sheet or ribbon having a repeating series of color patches to the receiver sheet, each series having plural patch areas of respective different colors, the method comprising defining a print length of an image to be printed; determining from said print length a number of series of color patches required to print the elongated image; and printing the image on the receiver using a printhead and the determined number of series of color patches, wherein adjacent series of color patches on the donor sheet or ribbon are used by the printhead to print an overlap area between two image area segments printed respectively using one of each of the adjacent series of color patches.
The drawings are not necessarily to scale.
As is generally known and as used herein a typical dye donor web is used in a thermal printer and the web includes a repeating series of three different primary color sections or patches such as a yellow color section, a magenta color section and a cyan color section. Also, there may be a transparent laminating section after the cyan color section.
To make a color image using a thermal printer, respective color dyes in a single series of yellow, magenta and cyan color sections on a dye donor web are successively heat-transferred (e.g. by diffusion or sublimation), one on top of the other, onto a dye receiver sheet. Then, optionally, the transparent laminating section is deposited on the color image print. The dye transfer from each color section to the dye receiver sheet is done one line of pixels at a time across the color section via a bead of selectively used heating or resistor elements on a thermal printhead. The bead of heating elements makes line contact across the entire width of the dye donor web, but only those heating elements that are actually used for a particular line are heated sufficiently to effect a color dye transfer to the receiver sheet. The temperature to which the heating element is heated is proportional to the density (darkness) level of the corresponding pixel formed on the receiver sheet. The higher the temperature of the heating element, the greater the density level (or at least color dye transfer for that color) of the corresponding pixel. Various modes for raising the temperature of the heating element are described in prior art U.S. Pat. No. 4,745,413 issued May 17, 1988.
One known example of a color print-making process using a thermal printer will be described immediately below. This process will provide an understanding of operation of the invention in the context of making prints of a size corresponding to that of the dye donor patch of color. This known process is as follows.
Where a transparent overcoat is to be provided on the receiver sheet using a quad type patch set, an additional step is provided before causing the dye receiver to be forwarded to the exit tray. In this additional step, the transparent overcoat patch is positioned between the printhead and the receiver sheet and the printhead elements heated accordingly to transfer material from the patch having the transparent panel.
The printer controller 40 is coupled by first, second and third outputs to the motors 42 and 44 and to the printhead 22, respectively. The motor 42 rotates the transport platen 24 to advance the receiver 28. The motor 44 rotates a drive roller 36 to advance the dye-donor film or ribbon 34.
In operation, the thermal printer 20 functions under the direction of the printer controller 40. The printer controller 40 is a microprocessor-based control system. The printer controller 40 receives an image data signal from a conventional digital image source, such as a computer, workstation, digital camera or other source of digital data, and generates instructions for the printhead 22 in response to the image data. Additionally, the printer controller 40 has inputs 16 for receiving signals from various conventional detectors (not shown) in the thermal printer 20 which provide routine administrative information, such as a position of the receiver 28 a position of the dye-donor film 34, and the beginning and end of a print cycle, etc. The printer controller 40 generates operating signals for the motors 42 and 44 in response to said information.
The printhead 22 performs a printing operation by selectively heating and thereby transferring spots of dye from the dye-donor film 34 onto the receiver 28. The system of dye deposition in thermal printing is well known in the prior art and an example is provided in the description above. The creation of a full-color image requires the deposition of three separate images superimposed on each other, using yellow, cyan and magenta dyes successively from a predetermined dye triad.
Referring now to
The dye patches 50, 52 and 54 are coated on to the dye-donor film 34 in a gravure process that produces the dye patches each with a length Lp as is predetermined based on the nominal size of the expected regular prints to be produced by the thermal printer. The film 34 comprises a repeating sequence of yellow, magenta and cyan dye patches 50, 52 and 54 respectively which are each separated by a non-color portion or nontransferable separation of film 34 a. If we assume for example that the nominal size of a print to be produced by the printer 20 is 3½ by 5 inches, then the printhead 22 can be made five inches long and be the full width of the patch material and the length Lp of each patch in this example would be 3½ inches long or slightly longer. This allows for higher productivity by providing for a printhead that prints in the fast scan direction while the shorter dimension is the slow scan direction in which the receiver moves.
In order to produce a larger size of print such as that of a 5 by 7 inches size print, it is clear that this represents a doubling in size of the nominal receiver. The situation for producing a larger size print according to the prior art and which bears similarities to that of the present invention is illustrated in FIG. 2. The receiver 28 has a length Lr in the slow scan direction that is greater than the length Lp of the dye patches 50, 52 and 54 on the dye donor film 34. The receiver 28 is comprised of two regions R1 and R2 a portion of which regions overlap and the overlap region is shown as being between the dashed lines. Each of the regions R1 and R2 has a length that is no longer than the length Lp of one of the dye patches 50, 52 and 54. The regions R1 and R2 are shown overlapping by a distance D1.
In a typical print cycle, the printer controller 40 of
The motor 42 incrementally advances the receiver 28 and the dye-donor film 34 throughout the generation of a first color (yellow) image on the first region R1 of the receiver 28. A constant tension is maintained on the dye-donor film 34 by the rollers 36 and 38 and the motor 44. At the completion of the first color image, motor 42 reverses and rotates the transport platen 24 in a counter-clockwise direction until the leading edge of the receiver 28 has been withdrawn beyond the starting position. The motor 42 is then driven in the forward or clockwise direction until the leading edge of the receiver 28 is advanced to a position where printing of a second color image is to begin. The motor 44 advances the dye-donor film 34 so that a leading edge of a first one of magenta dye patches 52 is positioned (Position B) adjacent the leading edge of the receiver 28. The printing process is repeated to replace a second color (magenta) image on to the first region R1 of the receiver 28. Similarly, a third color (cyan) image is printed onto the first region R1 of the receiver 28 (Position C).
At the completion of printing of the three image colors (yellow, magenta and cyan), a first full-color composite sub-image (first sub-image) has been produced on the first region R1 of the receiver 28.
After the first sub-image in region R1 is formed, the leading edge of the receiver 28 is returned to the starting position. The receiver 28 is then advanced so that a leading edge of the region R2 of the receiver 28 is aligned with the printhead 22. Then a leading edge of a second one of the yellow dye patches 50 is advanced to the printhead 22. The relative position of the receiver 28 and the dye-donor film 34 at this point is shown in Position D.
Printing of a first color (yellow) of a second sub-image in region R2 then begins. In a preferred embodiment of the thermal printer 20, the printing of the second sub-image begins in a region of the receiver 28 on which a partially complete segment of the first sub-image is already formed. In other words, there is an overlapping of segments of the first and second sub-images on a portion of the receiver 28 where the regions R1 and R2 overlap.
This process is repeated for each of the two remaining colors, magenta and cyan (see Positions E and F). After deposition of the images for the three colors of dye onto the second sub-image, a complete image is present on the receiver 28.
In order to produce an image that is not visually objectionable, it is necessary to accurately align the first and second sub-images. As noted in the aforementioned prior art, there may be some misalignment between the sub-images and certain steps described therein may be used to minimize the visibility of such misalignments to the unaided human eye. In the prior art, image data is assigned to each of the rows of a line with a probability that varies as a function of the distance of a line from the boundary line. For example, the first line in the overlap region has a 100 percent probability of printing the pixel assigned to be printed on that line whereas subsequent lines have a correspondingly lower probability of being printed using the first triad of color dye patches. A printer controller selects at random, which rows of a particular line are to be left blank. When the overlap region is to be printed using the second triad of color dye patches, image data is assigned to the overlap segment of a data field that corresponds to blank areas of the data field used for printing when employing the first triad of color dye patches.
Reference symbol Rph denotes a heater for pre-heating the paper and is optional. A switch SWph shown as a mechanical switch but actually is preferably a transistor switch controls the supply of current to the pre-heater. The pre-heater Rph and the switch SWph are connected in series between the power supply VH and the power supply VL. Description of the pre-heater may be found in U.S. Patent Application Publication No. 2001/0033320 published in the name of Sugiyama et al.
Reference numerals DR1 to DR 24 denote printer drivers (ICs) for driving the thermal head heaters R 1 to R 1536. Each driver is responsible for controlling sixty four thermal head heaters of thermal head heater elements R 1 to R 1536, the total of 1536 (=64×24) thermal head heater elements being driven by the 24 drivers.
The 24 drivers DR1 to DR 24 are cascaded via data lines so that one line of imprint data can be sent into the drivers R 1 to R 24 by shifting print data DATA0 DATA7 from one driver to the following driver. The drivers DR1 to DR 24 include switches SW1 to SW 1536 (see
Terminals through which print data DATA0 through DATA7 are supplied maybe respectively connected to a ground terminal GNDL via pull-down resistors PR0 to PR7.
With reference to
It will be understood that the numbers provided above are exemplary and that through higher level integration, one integrated circuit may contain all the driver circuitry for several thousand switches.
Reference number 101 denotes a thermal head heater element control signal generator for generating various control signals (enable signal ENBb, load signal LOADb, set signal SETb, high-level strobe signal HLSTR, low-level strobe signal LLSTR, and clock signal DCLK). The strobe pulse table 100 in the thermal head heater element control signal generator 101 forms signal generating means for generating a high-level strobe signal HLSTR serving as a reference signal and controlling the operation of energizing the thermal head heater elements depending upon the printing mode selected from a plurality of printing modes in which respective colors are printed.
Reference number 102 denotes a conversion coefficient table which describes conversion coefficients used in conversion of the gradation of image data PDATA to be printed. Reference number 103 denotes an internal gradation converter for converting 8-bit image data PDATA input from a data source with various correction data in the conversion coefficients into a 10-bit internal gradation data. The correction data may correct for non-uniformity of the recording elements which may be part of a predetermined factory calibration in accordance with well-known techniques. Reference number 104 denotes a head data buffer for temporarily storing the converted internal gradation data. Reference number 105 denotes a head data converter for converting the 10-bit internal gradation data stored in the head data buffer 104 into 8-bit data DATA0 to DATA7 to be sent to the printer drivers. It will be understood that the number of data bits used to print a particular pixel may be more or less than eight bits.
A microcomputer 90 controls the various motors, generators, converters and tables forming printer controller 40 which may be integrated on the microcomputer or comprises separate integrated circuit components. A microcomputer would be programmed to provide the various signals as required in accordance with routine programming skills.
Within each printer driver IC (DR1 . . . DR24) and with reference now to
During recording in the overlap region (lines 923-1006) the duty cycle for the high-level strobe signal HLSTR during recording using the first triad of color patches reduces linearly as illustrated in FIG. 11 and thus the number of low-level strobe signals present within a single high-level strobe signal linearly decreases with the line number since the period and duty cycle for the low-level strobe signal LLSTR is not changed from line to line in this first embodiment.
When the second triad of color patches is also used in the recording of the enlarged image the duty cycle for the high-level strobe signal HLSTR is 0 percent for lines 1 through 922. In the overlap region (lines 923-1006) the duty cycle for the high-level strobe signal HLSTR increases linearly and thus the number of low-level strobe signals LLSTR present within a single high-level strobe signal HSTR increases linearly with the line number again because the period and duty cycle for the low-level strobe signals LLSTR in this embodiment is not changed from line to line.
With reference to
With reference to
For pixels in the overlap region such as pixel 305, the printhead recording element for recording this pixel will be actuated for recording a portion of this pixel using the cyan color patch of the first triad of color patches and then subsequently used for recording the next portion of this pixel using the cyan color patch of the second triad of color patches. The density recorded for each portion of this pixel will be dependent upon the line number. Since the overlap region in this example is defined between lines 923 and 1006, the portion in terms of density of the pixel recorded by the color patch of the first triad will be greater for pixels on line numbers closer to 923 and thus there will be less dye transferred for such pixels from a color patch in the second triad of color patches.
With reference to
For a pixel such as pixel 310 of
It will be noted that the overlap region has purposefully been defined as not passing through the center of the print. Since this region may not be as well recorded as that using a single triad of color patches it is preferable to avoid placing same in the middle of the print. In this example the overlap region is approximately slightly more than one-quarter of an inch long in the direction of the advancement of the receiver sheet.
With reference now to
With reference now
In this third embodiment, the internal gradation converter 103 is provided with a predetermined setting when printing using the first set of color patches and printing lines 1 through 922. Such setting can be accomplished by adjustment of conversion coefficients from table 102 or from the input of various correction data input into the converter 103. Similarly, for lines 1007 through 2100, and during which recording is made using solely the second triad of color patches, the settings for such internal gradation converter 103 will be the same as for recording using the first triad of color patches, wherein the only difference is that the image data PDATA is likely to vary in accordance with the image. However, when recording is made in the overlap region, lines 923 through 1006, a different lookup table of values is provided to modify the image data in accordance with line number of the line being recorded. Thus, in recording using the first triad set of color patches the density of the image data will be changed with line numbers so that for gray level pixels recorded using the first triad of color patches, and such pixels being located closer to line 923, the amount of contribution by the first set of color patches to record that pixel will be greater and the contribution by the second set of color patches will be less. Similarly, when recording gray level pixels using the second triad of color patches in the overlap region the density of the images is adjusted for use of values from a lookup table so that the contribution to density of the resulting printed pixel is greater for the second triad of color patches for pixels that are closer to line 1006. There is a similar decrement by line number or increment by line number as described for the other embodiments except that the result appears in the image data sent to the printhead rather than through adjustment of the enabling signals of the printhead.
All three embodiments of the invention described herein are similar in that a pixel being recorded is recorded at the correct gray level or density whether in the overlap region or not and any pixel in the overlap region is recorded through a contribution of both triads of color patches.
In each of the above three embodiments and for those systems using the quad set of color patches, the transparent overcoat may be applied or recorded over the image using a different approach. For example, it may be preferable to apply the transparent overcoat forming a part of the first quad of color patches using the printhead and having all the recording elements thereof be at a constant heating level so that the transparent patch of the first quad is applied during recording lines 1 through 922 when the transparent patch is between the printhead and the receiver sheet. Only the first 922 lines are employed in recording using this first transparent patch since the remainder of the pixels in the overlap region need to be completed in their recording or printing using the second quad of color patches. After recording the complete image using the three color dye patches of the second quad the second transparent patch and forming a part of the second quad set of color patches is then used to be applied over lines 923 through 2101. In transferring the transparency material to the receiver sheet over the sub image formed by each triad it may also be desirable to modulate nonuniformly the enablement and heating of the recording elements of the printhead during the transfer of the transparency material to modify the finish on the obtained print so that a matte or modified gloss finish is provided to the completed print.
With reference now to the flowchart 300 of
The printing of the two sub-images to form a composite image has the pixels in the overlap region formed by combining deposition of material from the color patches of each triad or quad of color patches. That is a gray level pixel in the overlap region is formed by material from both triads or both quads. In the overlap region the high-level strobe signal HLSTR and/or the low-level strobe signal LLSTR are modified on a changing line by line basis as described herein to adjust the contributions of the transference of colorants from each of the triads or quads to each gray level pixel. As used herein a gray level pixel is defined to have a density that can be made variable in accordance with image data to more than two levels of density including no density.
The receiver sheet employed herein may be a discrete sheet of predetermined size or a continuous receiver sheet in which the composite image formed by the two sub-images are formed. The receiver sheet may have microperfs to define an image area so that the composite image is formed within the boundary defined by the microperfs and optionally the side edges of the receiver sheet. The microperfs may then be used to facilitate removal of the unprinted border of the receiver sheet from the printed portion having the composite image.
In the above embodiments, description has been provided relative to forming a long length image using two triads or quads of color dye transfer patches. The invention may also use three or more triads or quads to create even longer length images. As may be noted with regard to
Where printing with quads is employed, the printing of the transparent overcoat uses a transparent patch area with each triad of colors. For each overlap area, depositing or printing of the transparent overcoat will not be made using the transparent patch of the first quad series used to print the respective overlap area. This is done to allow the second or completing quad series used to print the respective overlap area to deposit dye when completing complementary printing of the respective overlap area. So, therefore, it would be the transparent patch of the completing quad that is used to provide the transparency material for covering the respective overlap area. For example, the transparent patch of quad3 would be used to print or deposit transparent material upon overlap area OVLP2 whereas the transparent patch for quad2 would not be used at all upon OVLP2 but would instead be used for printing or depositing transparent material upon OVLP1 and the non-overlapped area of image segment 2.
With reference to the flow chart 400 of
In the above description of printing, assumption is made that the image is formatted by an image processor for the print format or print length selected. The print length selected may be in accordance with the image file provided for printing or modified through well-known image processing techniques, such as extrapolation of pixels or image rotation, to form an image file for printing that is suited for the print length or print format selected for printing.
It is to be appreciated and understood that the specific embodiments of the invention are merely illustrative of the general principles of the invention. Various modifications may be made by those skilled in the art which are consistent with the principles set forth.
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|International Classification||B41J2/325, B41J2/355|
|Cooperative Classification||B41J2/355, B41J2202/33|
|Nov 6, 2003||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: EASTMAN KODAK COMPANY, NEW YORK
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:MINDLER, ROBERT F.;CALKINS, GUY T.;REEL/FRAME:014679/0860;SIGNING DATES FROM 20031030 TO 20031106
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