US 6962864 B1
A wire-bonding method for chips with copper interconnects by introducing a thin layer is provided for solving the problem of oxidizing a copper bonding-pad during bonding processing in order not to deteriorate the bonding strength and yield rate thereof. The wire-bonding method of the present invention comprises: a step for providing a chip with a copper bonding-pad; another step for providing an aqueous solution to form a Cuprous oxide thin layer on the copper bonding-pad; and yet another step for setting a plurality of copper interconnects on the copper bonding-pad and providing an ultrasonic power for removing the Cuprous oxide layer to have the interconnects bonded on the copper bonding-pad.
1. A wire-bonding method for chips with copper interconnects by introducing a thin layer, comprising following steps:
(a) providing a chip having a copper bonding-pad;
(b) providing an aqueous solution to react with the surface of the copper bonding-pad to form a Cuprous oxide thin layer on the copper bonding pad; and
(c) setting a plurality of copper interconnects on the copper bonding-pad and providing an ultrasonic power for removing the Cuprous oxide thin layer to have the copper interconnects bonded on the copper bonding-pad, in which the pH value of the aqueous solution is 5–14.
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1. Field of the Invention
The present invention relates to the application field regarding IC packaging, particularly to a wire-bonding method for chips with copper interconnects by introducing a thin layer.
2. The Prior Arts
In the VLSI (Very Large Scale Integration) era today, an IC chip is made through several steps including wafer fabricating process, wafer test, VLSI forming process, and finally, IC packaging test.
The packaging test usually comprises a wafer attachment process, a wire-bonding process, etc., in which the wire-bonding process is conducted by a wire bonder for connecting a chip to a plurality of pins with metallic interconnects under a high-temperature and ultrasonic environment. The bonded interconnects serve as a bridge for transmitting signal and/or electric power between a chip and the external circuits. Since, almost all the makers have made different efforts to try minimizing the volume of chip as smaller as possible, and accompanying with the scaling-down semiconductor devices, the RC constant of interconnect is increased rapidly because the resistance of the metal leading increases with decreasing line width and the interconnect capacitance increases with decreasing spacing, hence, a greater resistance and capacitance is inevitably resulted when the width of wire and the space between lead wires in chip are narrowed.
On the other hand, the performance of deep sub-micron integrated circuit cannot be further improved since the delay of signal in the interconnect would exceed the delay of signal in the device. Therefore, it is necessary to use interconnects with better conductivity to replace conventional Aluminum. Copper has been identified as the best candidate due to its low resistivity, high electromigration resistance and likely lower processing cost. However, one of the disadvantages of copper is that copper is readily oxidized at low temperature, and unlike the oxidation of aluminum, the oxidation rate of copper is fast, and no self-protective oxide layer forms to prevent further oxidation. Such characteristic will deteriorate the effect in transmitting the frictional power of ultrasonic vibrations to the surface of the copper bonding-pad while bonding interconnects to the chip, so that the efficiency for stripping the oxide layer off and obtaining therethrough a smooth bonding on the surface of the copper bonding-pad is retarded, and accordingly is the yield rate. Hence, the key point for obtaining a good yield in the wire-bonding process is to prevent the copper bonding-pad from being oxidized rapidly owing to the temperature of a bonding interface.
For improvements, two ways have been suggested: (1) An inertia gas (Ar) is applied to a chip during the wire-bonding process to protect the surface thereof and lower down the temperature to slow down oxidation. (2) A thin barrier layer, a Titanium layer for example, is sputtered on the surface of a chip to prevent oxidation of the copper-bonding pad. These ways are capable of avoiding oxidation of the copper bonding-pad and enhancing the strength of bonding points though, they are both expensive and troublesome.
The primary object of the present invention is to provide a wire-bonding method for chips with copper interconnects by introducing a thin layer to prevent the problem of oxidizing a copper bonding-pad during a bonding process.
The wire-bonding method for chips with copper interconnects by introducing a thin layer comprises: providing a chip associated with a copper bonding-pad; providing an aqueous solution to form a Cuprous oxide thin layer on the copper bonding-pad; and setting copper interconnects on the copper bonding-pad and providing an ultrasonic power for removing the Cuprous oxide layer to have the copper interconnects bonded on the copper bonding-pad.
The wire-bonding method for chips with copper interconnects by introducing a thin layer is advantageous in that a Cuprous oxide layer formed on the copper bonding-pad can prevent the pad from being oxidized further, and the layer is removable by ultrasonic power to ensure a better wire bonding.
With a proper control of pH value, the aqueous solution can work to produce the Cuprous oxide layer on the copper bond-pad in a low cost.
For more detailed information regarding advantages or features of the present invention, at least one example of preferred embodiment will be described below with reference to the annexed drawings.
The related drawings in connection with the detailed description of the present invention to be made later are described briefly as follows, in which:
As shown in
According to the principle of Le Chatelier, a system would always react in such a way as to tend to counteract the original alteration when the system is in equilibrium and one of the factors, which determine the equilibrium point, is altered. It is understood from reaction (3) that H+is supposed to move to the left side when its concentration is raised up. If the concentration of H+goes up, the aqueous solution is becoming acidified and the pH value is lowered (the higher the H+, the lower the pH value), or vice versa. Therefore, it is possible to keep the reaction going toward the right hand to produce Cuprous oxide (Cu2O) should the concentration of H+is controlled properly under a predetermined level. A preferred concentration of H+below 10−5 M/L, or a pH value greater than 5, is found by experiments.
As shown in
The aqueous solution applied could be a solution of any kind having a pH value between 5–14, including a weak acid, neutral, weak alkaline, or active alkaline aqueous solution.
Moreover, there is no specified quantity of aqueous solution to be provided on the surface of the copper bonding-pad 102, and it is considered good enough as long as it can fully cover the surface of the copper bonding-pad 102.
With reference to
In the above described, at least one preferred embodiment has been described in detail with reference to the drawings annexed, and it is apparent that numerous changes or modifications may be made without departing from the true spirit and scope thereof, as set forth in the claims below.