|Publication number||US6968190 B1|
|Application number||US 09/716,629|
|Publication date||Nov 22, 2005|
|Filing date||Nov 20, 2000|
|Priority date||Nov 29, 1999|
|Publication number||09716629, 716629, US 6968190 B1, US 6968190B1, US-B1-6968190, US6968190 B1, US6968190B1|
|Inventors||Jan Suumäki, Hans Kallio, Kalle Ahmavaara, Juha Kalliokulju, Ari Tourunen|
|Original Assignee||Nokia Mobile Phones, Ltd.|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (24), Non-Patent Citations (5), Referenced by (45), Classifications (8), Legal Events (4)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
This application claims benefit of U.S. Provisional application 60/167,924 filed Nov. 29, 1999.
2nd and 3rd generation cellular packet systems.
In the Global System for Mobile Telecommunications/General Packet Radio Service (GSM/GPRS) network architecture, as shown in
A typical GPRS negotiation that is required between peer entities in the mobile station and some of the fixed network devices is the exchange identification or XID negotiation, where so-called L3CE (layer 3 compatibility entity) parameters are agreed upon.
The UMTS packet network architecture is highly similar to GPRS. However, the naming of some elements and interfaces has been changed from GPRS. While
The UMTS packet network consists of the following network elements:
As shown in
The biggest architectural difference is the new interface, Iur, inside RAN. It is resident between RNCs. UMTS introduces a new concept called macrodiversity. In a macrodiversity situation, data is sent via multiple Node Bs. Because signals are transferred via multiple routes over the air interface and combined in the MS and the RNC, e.g., the fading effect is less harmful and thus lower power levels can be used. However, those Node Bs may belong to the area of two or more different RNCs, so the interface, i.e., Iur-interface between RNCs is required. In this situation, as shown on the right in
The actual termination point of the Iu-interface is at the SRNC. The Iu-interface shown in
The Core Network (CN) part of the packet-switched side consists of 3G-SGSN, 3G-GGSN and HLR elements, as shown in
3G-SGSN participates in routing of user packets as well as mobility and session management functions. The Mobility Management (MM) layer knows “who you are (security) and where you are (mobility)”. The Session Management (SM) layer controls the user connections, i.e., sessions.
3G-GGSN maintains the location information of 3G-SGSN, which serves the mobile station to which a packet is targeted. The main function of 3G-GGSN is to perform interworking functions between the UMTS network and the external data network, e.g., the Internet. These interworking functions include, e.g., the mapping of the external QoS to a comparable UMTS QoS.
HLR stores the subscriber data and holds the information to which 3G-SGSN the user is connected. The subscriber data includes predefined QoS attributes for the user connections, among other things.
The UMTS packet data protocol stack has some major modifications compared to GPRS, partly due to the new radio interface technology (WCDMA) and partly due to much higher QoS requirements.
One of the most important changes is that Logical Link Control layer (LLC) of ESM/GPRS has been removed below the Layer 3 Compatibility Entity (L3CE). L3CE corresponds to SubNetwork Dependent Convergence Protocol (SNDCP) protocol in GPRS. The main tasks of the LLC protocol have been:
In UMTS, LLC is not needed due to the following reasons: 1) Ciphering has been decided to take place in lower layers, inside RAN. 2) Signaling message transfer does not use user plane protocols, because there are separate protocols for transferring signaling messages and thus the differentation between the user plane and the control plane is clearer than in GPRS.
In the UMTS radio interface, each radio bearer will have its own Radio Link Control (RLC) entity. By applying this approach the QoS provisioning is more efficient. The QoS related multiplexing will be a task for the Medium Access Control (MAC) layer and Layer 1 (L1) and thus LLC would not have any role in QoS multiplexing in UMTS. The retransmission between the MS and the core network cannot be easily justified. The main source of the errors is the radio interface, and RLC has the responsibility to correct those errors.
However, the removal of LLC will cause a lack of flow control between the MS and the core network. The flow control in the uplink is not a problem, because the radio interface will be the bottleneck and flow control of RLC takes care of it. In the downlink, RLC will handle the RNC—MS part. Between RNC and the core network, there is no flow control. But this is not a much worse situation than in GPRS, because GPRS does not have any flow control inside the core network (between GGSN and SGSN).
Adequate data transfer between 3G-GGSN and RNC relies on large enough buffers, traffic policing in 3G-GGSN and end-to-end flow control, e.g., Transmission Control Protocol (TCP). In general, the removing of LLC streamlines the protocol stack and makes it easier to achieve higher data rates and reduces required processing power.
The location of the UMTS counterpart to L3CE (SNDCP in GPRS) called Packet Data Convergence Protocol (PDCP) is under consideration. Unlike in GPRS the PDCP layer is located in RNC instead of SGSN. The protocol inter alia takes care of optimization, e.g., by header compression, which is a form of optimization algorithm. Some header compression algorithms are based on the principle that disappearance of a few packets may cause undesirable additional packet loss due to the algorithm itself. This degrades packet transfer because more retransmissions are needed to be done. By locating it to the RNC, the retransmission time is short and the TCP level retransmission (due to TCP timers) can be avoided.
Network layer protocols are intended to be capable of operating over services derived from a wide variety of subnetworks and data links. The PDCP supports several network layer protocols providing protocol transparency for the users of the service. An introduction of new network layer protocols to be transferred over PDCP should be possible without any changes to other UMTS protocols. Therefore, all functions related to transferring of Network Layer Protocol Data Units (N-PDUs) are carried out in a transparent way by the network entities. Another requirement for PDCP is to provide functions that improve data and channel efficiency. This is done by different kind of optimization algorithms or methods, e.g., the above-mentioned header compression.
UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunications System), as shown in
In either case, the negotiated parameters will relate to such optimization algorithm parameters, for example, to the use of headers and data compression. The GSM/GPRS method for arranging an XID negotiation is to insert the proposed parameters into certain messages in an LLC protocol layer and to use corresponding LLC-level answering messages to either acknowledge or reject the proposed SNDCP parameters.
The XID negotiation is usually made when SNDCP and LLC in GPRS are initialized (values for XID parameters are no longer valid). This initialization is made, e.g., when the MS is powered on or the location of network side protocols changes in handover.
The main problem of the currently-proposed XID negotiation method for UMTS is that the location of PDCP is different from the location of SNDCP and LLC protocol. PDCP locates in the radio access network while comparable GPRS protocols locate in core networks. This means that the location of PDCP changes far more often than the locations of SNDCP and LLC. Because XID messages may be relatively large, this adds much more overhead to the air interface in UMTS than in GPRS.
Another problem is that UMTS has also real time packet connections. This means that negotiations such as XID should be as fast as possible, because otherwise it may cause delays or at least more overhead in the air interface (header compression cannot be used after handover until XID negotiation is successfully made).
The object of the invention is to provide for improved UMTS as well as GSM/GPRS negotiation methods.
This invention improves any negotiation, such as optimization algorithm parameter negotiation, e.g., XID negotiation, by reducing the overhead over the air interface and making the negotiation procedure faster. The basic idea of the invention is that during handover, parameters such as XID, containing parameter information about optimization methods to be supported, are transferred from the old entity to the new entity on the network side. If the parameters were appropriate in the new entity, the actual negotiation between the MS and the network is not needed, thus saving resources on the air interface. This method is also considerably faster than, for instance, normal XID negotiation.
According to the present invention, a method of negotiating such as negotiating optimization algorithm parameters, for instance exchange identification (XID) parameters during connection handover of a mobile station between radio network subsystems, comprises the steps of signaling from a source radio network subsystem to a core network or to a target radio network subsystem that said handover is required, signaling from the core network or from the target radio network subsystem to the source radio network subsystem that said handover is to proceed, and transmitting said parameters from said source radio network subsystem to said target radio network subsystem directly or via the core network without any need for renegotiating over an air interface between said mobile station and said target radio network subsystem.
In further accord with the present invention, wherein during initial establishment of said connection between the mobile station and the source radio network subsystem, the optimization algorithm paramaters such as exchange identification parameters may include various optional sets of parameters, only one of which is accepted by the source radio network subsystem, said method further comprising the step of storing all of said optional sets of parameters wherein said step of transmitting said parameter includes transmitting all of said optional sets of parameters.
From the foregoing, it will be realized that the present invention indeed saves resources for the air interface and makes any kind of negotiation, including negotiation of parameters relating to optimization methods such as XID faster, which is advantageous for real time connections.
These and other objects, features and advantages of the present invention will become more apparent in light of the detailed description of a best mode embodiment thereof, as illustrated in the accompanying drawing.
The first XID negotiation after the MS is connected to the network is always a normal GPRS type of XID negotiation, as in the prior art. The GPRS XID parameter negotiation as part of the SNDCP protocol is defined in TS 101 297 v.6.4.0 (1999–08) (GSM 04.65 version 6.4.0 Release 1997 (chapter 6.8)).
Similarly, during inter RNC handover (SRNS relocation), according to the currently-proposed evolution of the GSM platform towards UMTS, the control point of data transfer moves from a source RNC (RNC 1) to a target RNC (RNC 2) and thus a new PDCP entity is established to the target RNC network element. However this new PDCP entity should negotiate XID parameters, before it starts data transfer towards the MS (PDCP can transfer data before it knows negotiated XID parameters, but then it is allowed only use default values of XID parameters -> no optimization is allowed, e.g., header compression).
The prior art basic solution (as in GPRS) is still that the target RNC makes normal XID negotiation between itself and the MS and after that starts data transfer.
A more advantageous solution according to the present invention, and as illustrated in
Each RNC is responsible for the resources of its set of cells. For each connection between a user equipment, such as the mobile station MS 10 of
According to the present invention, rather than renegotiating, such as renegotiating optimization algorithm parameters, for instance PDCP parameters all over again, the RNC1 16 transfers the already-negotiated PDCP parameters to RNC2 20, as indicated on a line 24, which transfer may take place over the Iur interface or through the core network 14, e.g., via a serving GPRS support node (SGSN) 26.
However, the MS requires information about the validity of the PDCP parameters before it can send data to the RNC (MS can't otherwise know whether PDCP parameters were alright in the RNC). There are two options:
Preferable solution: RNC informs the MS about validity of XID parameter during/before RLC restart within separate message, e.g., during step 44 of
Another solution: It can be guaranteed, that PDCP parameter negotiation can be made before data transfer (preferably before RLC restart step 44), if it is needed. (This might cause delays to SRNC relocation, however.)
This retrieval of PDCP parameters from the source RNC, as described so far, has one disadvantage. The target RNC can't know if the MS can handle ‘better’ PDCP parameters, e.g., better compression methods than originally negotiated between the MS and the source RNC 16 (RNC 1).
Because PDCP negotiation is made originally by RNC 1, only header compression A is negotiated for use. After SRNC relocation, RNC 2 checks the validity of the PDCP parameters. In the example they are valid, because RNC 2 can handle header compression A. The problem is that, in this situation, PDCP negotiation between MS is not made and header compression B is not taken up for use. If the header compression B is significantly better, it causes inefficiency. (Normal PDCP negotiation takes always the best XID parameters for use.)
This problem can be avoided, according further to the invention, with the following enhancements:
Firstly, the initial XID negotiation (first XID negotiation after MS is connected to the network) is always started from the MS side. (This is a normal situation in GPRS). The MS defines and puts suitable PDCP parameters into the PDCP message. Then the peer entity, i.e., RNC, negotiates, i.e., selects appropriate PDCP parameters and sets suitable values to them. After that the RNC returns negotiated XID parameters to the MS and the negotiated parameters are taken up for use.
However, if the RNC stores in addition to negotiated PDCP parameters also the ‘not used’ or discarded PDCP parameters (in the example, it stores information on header compression B), when SRNC relocation is made, the ‘not used’ PDCP parameters are retrieved from storage and are also transferred to the target RNC. (The same SRNC relocation messages are used then on transfer or negotiated PDCP parameters.) According to this information, the target RNC can decide if those ‘not used’ XID parameters are ‘better’ (in the example, header compression B) than currently negotiated and make PDCP negotiation between MS to take up for use new and ‘better’ XID parameters.
A few examples of Negotiation of Header Compression (HC) parameters according to the invention will now be given.
An example of negotiation of header compression (HC) parameters is shown in
After comparing the network's own and these received parameters, the network makes a decision of the HC-method to be used, also taking into consideration the QoS requirements. Thus it is possible to choose the most probable HC method (in other words, according to QoS requirements the first configured method can be chosen to be real-time traffic optimized method or not). After the network has made the decision it configures its own compressor, generates the OPT value table and commands using RRC messages RADIO BEARER SETUP (
Because the network knows (
Because the network maintains the information of all possible methods for use at both the UE and the network and because only the most probable method is being configured, it is possible to leave the compressors of other methods to be configured later if needed.
In case of SRNS relocation, as detailed in
Again, when the Mobile Station connects to the network RRCs with the UE CAPABILITY INFORMATION message of
The network chooses the methods that can be supported based on its own supported methods as well as those of the UE. After this the network could send the parameters of all the supported methods at the same time with a message to the UE. This would mean that both the network and the UE would know which methods can be supported. In this case also the OPT table indicating different packet types of different methods is generated to be similar at both ends. This information transfer can be carried out by using RRC's RADIO BEARER SETUP, as shown in
In case the configured compressor is, e.g., TCP/IP but afterwards RTP/UDP/IP real-time packets are recognized, PDCP recognizes the situation and generates a new compressor for those. This new RTP/UDP/IP compressor is configured and inside the compressor the stream-based contexts are generated and stream-based Full Headers (FH) are sent to the other end. The link layer informs using the OPT-field about what compression method is in question and that it deals with that method's Full Header (FH). The other end notices the situation, configures the decompressor and generates (using FHs) the correct internal contexts for existing streams. In this situation no RADIO BEARER RECONFIGURATION messages need to be sent. After this the compressor is able to send compressed packets without further acts. This solution works independently of the transmission end (UE/network).
Another solution is that for all supported methods each end's own compressors are configured immediately in the beginning, meaning that compressor configuration is done only once. In this case inside the compressor only the own specific stream-based contexts are generated and stream-based Full Headers (FH) are sent to the other end. Also if the same compressor supports two methods the configuration is not needed but only one's own stream-based compressor contexts are generated and FHs sent to the other end.
Again, in SRNS relocation after SRNC—relocation—Commit message, as shown in
It is also possible that network informs the UE about the methods it supports when connecting to the network and in case of SRNS relocation after SRNC—relocation—Commit message. In this case UE begins the transmission of compressor parameters using some RADIO BEARER SETUP (
The current (prior art) solution in GPRS is that XID negotiation is made again when the location of SGSN changes (inter SGSN handover). This negotiation is required, because the SNDCP and LLC protocols locate in SGSN and the old XID parameters are not known in the new SGSN (and they may also be non-applicable). XID negotiation is made for certain (most, but not all) LLC and SNDCP parameters, e.g., header compression parameters.
However, this approach is not very suitable for UMTS.
Note: PDCP parameter negotiation is probably not to be named XID-negotiation, just PDCP parameter negotiation in UMTS.
Possible alternatives to make PDCP negotiation between UE and target RNC:
In the following, SRNS relocation is described in detail. All necessary information is transferred from the source RNC to the target RNC.
1) One solution is that network commands (RRC protocol in RNC), what parameters are used in the UE (in different radio layer protocols, L1, MAC; RLC, PDCP). This is not an actual two-way negotiation like XID negotiation. However the network shall know what parameters the UE is able to support (because the network can't command what the UE can't support). This UE capability can be transferred from source SRNC (suggested) or requested from the UE by ‘UE capability enquiry’ (see RRC specification—TS 25.331 v1.5.0: Chapters 8.1.6 and 8.1.7). Now the target SRNC can negotiate (command) new parameters for the UE. The current (prior art) solution is that the parameters are transferred within ‘Radio Bearer Setup/Reconfiguration’ messages (see TS 25.332: Chapter 8.2). Actual PDCP parameters should probably be named as ‘PDCP Info’ like ‘RLC info’ (see table in chapter 10.1.5.4). Also other messages (new or existing ones) are possible.
In a case where the parameters were OK in the target SRNC:
In a case when parameters were not OK in the target SRNC:
In this solution, there is no time saving, because negotiation is one way.
2) In this solution, PDCP parameter negotiation is two-way between the network (RNC) and the UE. In this case, UE capability information is not mandatory (but such may help the target SRNC, when it negotiates new parameters). After SRNC receives the to be negotiated parameters, it checks the suitability of the parameters.
In a case where parameters are OK in target SRNC:
In a case where parameters were not OK in target SRNC:
In this solution, time is saved, because two-way negotiation needs to be made only when parameters weren't OK.
Note: In both solutions it is assumed that the RRC makes the PDCP negotiation and after negotiation (if needed) RRC informs new parameters to PDCP. An alternative solution is that PDCP makes the negotiation by itself. Then RRC messages are not used, but PDCP uses its own PDUs for negotiation. However the basic principles are the same also in this case.
A similar approach could be used also in future releases of GPRS.
SRNS relocation principles according to 3G TS 23.121 v 3.1.0 (1999–10) 3G PP Technical Specification Group Services and Systems Aspects; Architectural Requirements for Release 1999 at Section 18.104.22.168, as modified according to the present invention:
According to Chapter 22.214.171.124.1 of 3G TS 23.121, to carry out SRNS relocation, the source SRNC must launch the SRNS relocation procedure, since it is not the target SRNC but the source SRNC that knows the current services of a user. This is done only when this procedure has the least adverse effect on user traffic. The SRNC relocation procedures must ensure that there is only one Serving RNC for a user even if this user has services through more than one (IP or ISDN) domain.
The SRNS relocation procedure is split in two phases. In the first phase resources are reserved on the new IU interfaces and (if needed) inside the CN. Only when this first phase has been successfully carried out for all domains on which the user currently has some services, can the source SRNC launch the second phase, i.e., handover of the role of SRNC to the target SRNC.
The signaling procedures shown below do not represent the complete set of possibilities, according to the TS 23.121 specification, nor do they mandate this kind of operation. It should be understood according to the standard, that a set of elementary procedures should be specified for each interface, which may be combined in different ways in an implementation. Therefore the illustrative sequences are merely examples of a typical implementation. In these examples from the 3G TS 23.121 standard, MSC stands for 3G—MSC/VLR and SGSN stands for 3G—SGSN.
(UE connected to a single CN node, 3G—SGSN) followed by Location Registration in new Location Area as per Chapter 126.96.36.199.3 of 3G TS 23.121 as modified by the present invention.
This example shows SRNS relocation when source RNC and target RNC are connected to different 3G—SGSNs.
As shown in
After the SRNS relocation and location registration as shown in
At SRNS relocation:
The source and target SGSN exchange CN level information (CN classmark, list of established PDP contexts)
The source and target SRNC exchange UTRAN level information (UTRAN classmark, . . . ) and information used to ensure that no user packet is lost nor duplicated during the SRNS relocation procedure. According to the teachings of the present invention, this UTRAN level information also includes negotiated PDCP (XID) parameters.
During this phase, according further to Chapter 188.8.131.52.3 of 3G TS 23.121 v 3.1.0 (1999–10), the transmission of packets between GGSN and UE through the source SRNC goes on. The following numbered paragraphs correspond to the numbered steps in
The SGSN will then send a Forward SRNC relocation request to the applicable SGSN (e.g., SGSN2) including the information received from the Source SRNC (see above PDCP (XID) parameter information according to the invention) and necessary information for the change of SGSN (e.g., MM context, PDP context). The PDP context information contains the list of the PDP context (including PDP type, requested/negotiated QoS) currently established by the UE along with the address of the associated GGSN. It does not contain any information linked with packet transmission (sequence numbers) because such information is under the responsibility of the UTRAN.
When the Iu user plane transport bearers have been established, and the target RNC completed its preparation phase, SRNC Relocation Proceeding 1 message is sent to the SGSN2, as shown in
Before point (a), in
After transmission of the “SRNS relocation commit” to the target SRNC (after point (a) in
After point (c), in
Before resource release in source RNC (before T3-TUNNEL expiry), target SRNC may receive downstream packet from two paths. Packets remaining on the backbone are sent on the “old path” (via SGSN1 and RNC1) and forwarded by source RNC1 to target SRNC2 while packets received by the GGSN on its Gi interface are sent on the new path (via SGSN2) to target SRNC2.
Although the invention has been shown and described with respect to a best mode embodiment thereof, it should be understood by those skilled in the art that the foregoing and various other changes, omissions and additions in the form and detail thereof may be made therein without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention.
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|U.S. Classification||455/436, 370/331, 455/432.2, 455/439|
|Cooperative Classification||H04W36/0066, H04W36/12|
|Apr 9, 2001||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: NOKIA MOBILE PHONES LTD., FINLAND
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:SUUMAKI, JAN;KALLIO, HANS;AHMAVAARA, KALLE;AND OTHERS;REEL/FRAME:011721/0027;SIGNING DATES FROM 20010322 TO 20010328
|Apr 22, 2009||FPAY||Fee payment|
Year of fee payment: 4
|Mar 8, 2013||FPAY||Fee payment|
Year of fee payment: 8
|Jul 7, 2015||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: NOKIA TECHNOLOGIES OY, FINLAND
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:NOKIA CORPORATION;REEL/FRAME:036067/0222
Effective date: 20150116