|Publication number||US6979105 B2|
|Application number||US 10/346,488|
|Publication date||Dec 27, 2005|
|Filing date||Jan 17, 2003|
|Priority date||Jan 18, 2002|
|Also published as||US20030137845|
|Publication number||10346488, 346488, US 6979105 B2, US 6979105B2, US-B2-6979105, US6979105 B2, US6979105B2|
|Inventors||Joseph A. Leysath|
|Original Assignee||Leysath Joseph A|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (18), Non-Patent Citations (1), Referenced by (12), Classifications (14), Legal Events (5)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
This application claims the benefit of U.S. Provisional Patent Application No. 60/350,266 filed Jan. 18, 2002, where this provisional application is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety.
1. Field of the Invention
The disclosed embodiments of the invention relate generally to a filter to be added to lighting fixtures and around light sources used for illumination purposes, and more particularly, to lighting fixtures and diode light sources used in buildings and transportation vehicles (i.e. automobiles, motorcycles, trains and planes) for the purpose of general illumination and accent illumination.
2. Description of the Related Art
General illumination in buildings and within transportation vehicles is primarily from lighting fixtures. These lighting fixtures use either fluorescent, incandescent or a HID lighting source.
When a lighting source lamp burns-out, it must be replaced. Typically a fluorescent lamp will need to be replaced every 15,000 hours, an incandescent lamp every 2000 hours, and a high intensity discharge (HID) lamp every 20,000 hours. Associated ballast replacement occurs every five years. The cost to conduct such maintenance and replacement can be expensive as well as disruptive to the occupants.
Lighting fixtures also deteriorate over time. Fixtures, and particularly metal fixtures, can be scraped or bent during maintenance or when an object strikes the fixture. This deterioration over time reduces fixture performance and fixture aesthetics.
Lighting fixture physical depth is critical in construction. Fixtures that encroach excessively into the cavity above the ceiling can interfere with construction of electrical and other systems.
In addition to maintenance, the cost of operating a fixture is tied directly to its energy use. Many municipalities also have restrictions on the amount of energy that can be allocated to general and accent illumination by lighting fixtures.
Light sources produce light at a specific range of wavelengths. Light at certain wavelengths is not desirable because it can shift the color of the object being viewed. In buildings true color (as viewed in sunlight) is the standard reference and thus the desirable color. The light produced by light emitting diodes (LED) is within a wide range of wavelengths. In many applications a specific range of light wavelengths is required for optimum performance, and present LED sources are unable to produce light in the specific range.
Another disadvantage of present LED designs is that LEDs are forward facing and the viewer can thus see the individual LED light sources. Typically these light sources appear as dots, which are not visually appealing and tend to not meet the criteria for illumination appearance desired by most users.
Thus it would be a great benefit to have a building lighting fixture that is virtually maintenance free, is resistant to deterioration of performance over its life span, has a shallow depth, has reduced power consumption, has a softer appearance and can adjust light to a specified range of wavelengths.
Replacing existing fixtures with fixtures containing color-corrected lamps can be quite expensive. In new construction providing fixtures containing color-corrected lamps can also be quite expensive. Color corrected lamps are available but the cost can be high for the lamp and in certain cases expensive for the special ballast needed to drive the color corrected lamp.
Thus there is a need for a filter that can either be added to the fixture and/or surround the lamp source to block undesirable wavelengths while allowing desirable wavelengths through.
The illumination source of transportation vehicle headlight fixtures and interior cab light fixtures is primarily by incandescent and HID lamps, and with limited use of fluorescent lighting. Transportation headlight fixtures are subject to deterioration caused by adverse environments such as rain, soot, and vibration. It would be advantageous to have transportation vehicle headlight fixtures and transportation vehicle interior cab light fixtures that are virtually maintenance free, resistant to deterioration of performance over the life span, have a softer appearance, and can adjust light to a specified range of wavelengths.
In one embodiment of the invention, a light fixture is provided that includes a light reflector, a socket mounted on the reflector and configured to receive a lamp, and a photonic filter mounted on the reflector in a position such that light emitting directly from a lamp coupled to the socket and light from the lamp reflecting from the reflector impinges on a first surface of the filter, the filter configured to transmit therethrough light of a selected range of wavelengths and to attenuate light of wavelengths outside of the selected range.
According to one embodiment of the invention, the socket is configured to receive a fluorescent lamp.
According to another embodiment of the invention, the socket is configured to receive an incandescent lamp.
According to another embodiment of the invention, the socket is configured to receive a HID lamp.
According to a further embodiment of the invention, the socket is configured to receive a light emitting diode.
In accordance with yet another embodiment of the invention, a lighting device is provided that includes a photonic filter configured to pass a selected range of wavelengths, and to attenuate light of wavelengths outside of the selected range, an LED light source positioned on one side of the filter, and a reflector positioned in a spaced-apart relationship with the filter on the same side, such that light emanating from the light source in a direction away from the filter is reflected back to the filter.
According to a further embodiment of the invention, the filter and LED light source are formed concurrently in a semiconductor substrate.
In accordance with a method of providing a lighting device of the invention, the steps include forming, in a semiconductor substrate, a light emitting diode configured to produce light in a visible spectrum and to radiate the light away from a first surface of the substrate, forming in the semiconductor substrate a photonic band-pass filter configured to admit light through the substrate in a selected range of frequencies; and to attenuate light outside the selected range of frequencies; and mounting a reflector in spaced relationship with the substrate such that light produced by the light emitting diode is reflected back to the substrate.
The foregoing embodiments of the invention will now be described with reference to the accompanying drawings, wherein:
A photonic filter is made by forming holes in a substrate. The holes are sized and positioned to accommodate specific wavelengths of light, and to restrict other wavelengths. By controlling the shape, pattern, and frequency of the holes, as well as the material used, the behavior of light impinging on the filter may be controlled. A discussion of photonic crystals used in formation of photonic filters, “Photonic Crystals: Semiconductors of Light,” may be found in the December 2001 issue of Scientific American, beginning on page 46.
As shown in
Light from the fluorescent tube 18 shines through the photonic band pass filter 12. The filter 12 blocks the undesired specific wavelengths of light while the desired wavelengths are allowed to pass though the filter 12. The optional lens 16 diffuses the transmitted light as originally intended by the fixture manufacturer.
Light from the lamp source 25 shines through the photonic band pass filter 22. The filter blocks the undesired specific wavelengths of light while the desired wavelengths are allowed to transmit though the filter. The optional lens 26 diffuses the transmitted light as originally intended by the fixture manufacturer.
Light from the LED assembly 46 passes through the photonic band pass filter 42 to present a softer appearance. The filter 42 is configured to allow only specific wavelengths of light to pass therethrough.
The photonic filter 80 may be constructed of a material formed with holes at a specific angle and diameter in a diamond tetrahedral configuration, as shown in
As illustrated in
The filter can be formed of a material that can be drilled to the desired configuration or it can be a crystal with patterns matching the desired configuration. The filter material can be composed of either ceramic, silicon, glass, metal or a polymer or a combination thereof. For most applications polymer will be the preferred material.
According to an embodiment of the invention, as illustrated in
A photonic filter 72 is mounted on the reflector 66 in a position such that light emitting directly from the lamps 70 coupled to the sockets 68 and light from the lamps 70 reflecting from the reflector 66 impinges on a first surface 74 of the filter 72. The filter is configured to transmit light of selected wavelengths therethrough to a second surface 76, and to attenuate light of non-selected wavelengths.
Descriptions of various materials and methods of manufacture of photonic devices may be found in the following patents: U.S. Pat. No. 6,002,522, issued to Todori, et al on Dec. 14, 1999; U.S. Pat. No. 6,040,936, issued to Kim, et al on Mar. 21, 2000; U.S. Pat. No. 6,064,511, issued to Fortmann, et al on May 16, 2000; and U.S. Pat. No. 6,111,472, issued to De Los Santos on Aug. 29, 2000.
With respect to the structure and behavior of photonic devices, some of the teachings of the above incorporated patents are presented herebelow.
While preferred embodiments of the invention have been illustrated and described, it is to be understood that other changes may be made without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention. For example, while a transparent polymer may be used as the encapsulate, other similar materials can be used or materials having similar properties. A transparent epoxy can also be used as the encapsulate.
All of the above U.S. patents, U.S. patent application publications, U.S. patent applications, foreign patents, foreign patent applications and non-patent publications referred to in this specification and/or listed in the Application Data Sheet, are incorporated herein by reference, in their entirety.
From the foregoing it will be appreciated that, although specific embodiments of the invention have been described herein for purposes of illustration, various modifications may be made without deviating from the spirit and scope of the invention. Accordingly, the invention is not limited except as by the appended claims and the equivalents thereof.
|Cited Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US5111335 *||Oct 11, 1990||May 5, 1992||Anritsu Corporation||Ultra-black film and method of manufacturing the same|
|US5813753 *||May 27, 1997||Sep 29, 1998||Philips Electronics North America Corporation||UV/blue led-phosphor device with efficient conversion of UV/blues light to visible light|
|US5831382 *||Sep 27, 1996||Nov 3, 1998||Bilan; Frank Albert||Display device based on indirectly heated thermionic cathodes|
|US6002522||Jun 10, 1997||Dec 14, 1999||Kabushiki Kaisha Toshiba||Optical functional element comprising photonic crystal|
|US6040936||Oct 8, 1998||Mar 21, 2000||Nec Research Institute, Inc.||Optical transmission control apparatus utilizing metal films perforated with subwavelength-diameter holes|
|US6064511 *||Mar 31, 1998||May 16, 2000||The Research Foundation Of State University Of New York||Fabrication methods and structured materials for photonic devices|
|US6111472||Aug 19, 1998||Aug 29, 2000||Hughes Electronics Corporation||Quasi-optical amplifier|
|US6132072 *||Sep 4, 1998||Oct 17, 2000||Gentex Corporation||Led assembly|
|US6142647 *||Jul 15, 1997||Nov 7, 2000||Fuji Photo Film Co., Ltd.||Darkroom illumination equipment|
|US6307527 *||Jul 27, 1998||Oct 23, 2001||John S. Youngquist||LED display assembly|
|US6339030 *||Jan 5, 2000||Jan 15, 2002||The United States Of America As Represented By The United States Department Of Energy||Fabrication of photonic band gap materials|
|US6520654 *||Dec 29, 2000||Feb 18, 2003||Visteon Global Technologies, Inc.||Thin panel lit cluster|
|US6586775 *||Mar 20, 2000||Jul 1, 2003||Kabushiki Kaisha Toshiba||Light-emitting device and a display apparatus having a light-emitting device|
|US6729746 *||Mar 14, 2001||May 4, 2004||Toyoda Gosei Co., Ltd.||Light source device|
|US6812626 *||Apr 9, 2002||Nov 2, 2004||C.R.F. Societa Consortile Per Azioni||Light source with matrix of microfilaments|
|US20020051357 *||Sep 18, 2001||May 2, 2002||Elisabeth Truttmann-Battig||Illumination body for refrigeration devices|
|US20020114155 *||Nov 21, 2001||Aug 22, 2002||Masayuki Katogi||Illumination system and illumination unit|
|US20040070768 *||Dec 28, 2000||Apr 15, 2004||Mcdaniel Donald L.||Single-etalon, multi-point wavelength calibration reference|
|1||Yablonovitch, Eli, "Photonic Crystals: Semiconductors of Light," Scientific American, 285(6); pp. 47-55, Dec. 2001.|
|Citing Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US7625515||Jun 19, 2006||Dec 1, 2009||Iowa State University Research Foundation, Inc.||Fabrication of layer-by-layer photonic crystals using two polymer microtransfer molding|
|US7722421||Mar 31, 2006||May 25, 2010||General Electric Company||High temperature ceramic composite for selective emission|
|US7851985||Mar 31, 2006||Dec 14, 2010||General Electric Company||Article incorporating a high temperature ceramic composite for selective emission|
|US8044567||Mar 31, 2006||Oct 25, 2011||General Electric Company||Light source incorporating a high temperature ceramic composite and gas phase for selective emission|
|US8096671||Apr 6, 2009||Jan 17, 2012||Nmera, Llc||Light emitting diode illumination system|
|US8109659||Apr 13, 2009||Feb 7, 2012||D2 Lighting||Lighting fixture for an architectural surface structure|
|US8123378||May 15, 2009||Feb 28, 2012||Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V.||Heatsink for cooling at least one LED|
|US8292461||Feb 7, 2012||Oct 23, 2012||Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V.||Heatsink for cooling at least one LED|
|US8376582||Feb 19, 2013||Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V.||LED luminaire|
|US8414155||Mar 18, 2009||Apr 9, 2013||Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V.||LED luminaire|
|US8742406||Feb 16, 2012||Jun 3, 2014||Iowa State University Research Foundation, Inc.||Soft lithography microlens fabrication and array for enhanced light extraction from organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs)|
|US20050174760 *||Jan 17, 2003||Aug 11, 2005||Piero Perlo||Lighting device|
|U.S. Classification||362/293, 362/235, 313/110, 257/10, 385/901|
|Cooperative Classification||Y10S385/901, F21Y2103/00, F21W2131/40, B60Q3/0279, B60Q3/025, F21Y2101/02|
|European Classification||B60Q3/02N, B60Q3/02D2|
|Aug 22, 2006||CC||Certificate of correction|
|Dec 30, 2008||FPAY||Fee payment|
Year of fee payment: 4
|Aug 9, 2013||REMI||Maintenance fee reminder mailed|
|Dec 27, 2013||LAPS||Lapse for failure to pay maintenance fees|
|Feb 18, 2014||FP||Expired due to failure to pay maintenance fee|
Effective date: 20131227