|Publication number||US6997910 B2|
|Application number||US 10/838,101|
|Publication date||Feb 14, 2006|
|Filing date||May 3, 2004|
|Priority date||May 3, 2004|
|Also published as||CA2565531A1, CA2565531C, CN1980706A, CN1980706B, CN101559247A, EP1742686A2, EP1742686A4, US7048720, US20050245880, US20060100590, US20080319400, WO2005110516A2, WO2005110516A3|
|Publication number||10838101, 838101, US 6997910 B2, US 6997910B2, US-B2-6997910, US6997910 B2, US6997910B2|
|Inventors||Michael Wallace Howlett, James Victor Mercer, Gale H. Thorne, Jr., Gale H. Thorne|
|Original Assignee||Infusive Technologies, Llc|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (31), Non-Patent Citations (2), Referenced by (59), Classifications (14), Legal Events (6)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
This invention relates to multi-chamber syringes and, in particular, to syringes which dispense fluid from each chamber sequentially.
During the last forty years, parenteral drug delivery has become increasingly common and sophisticated. It is currently estimated that nearly 90% of hospital patients receive IV medications, often through a variety of apparatus, including expensive electronic IV pumps and multi-channel infusion systems. Home care patients may receive antibiotics through an elastomeric “ball” pump. Syringe pumps are common in many hospital and alternate site settings and are often used as a low cost alternative to more expensive IV pumps.
Virtually all IV medications must be flushed into the vascular system with saline or a similar compatible flushing fluid. Such flushing assures that the patient receive a full dose of medication, some of which otherwise might remain in an associated IV tubing or catheter. Flushing also assures that a subsequently infused incompatible medication does not come in contact with a previous one. It is well known in the infusion art that flush solutions are also used to keep an infusion line patent or open.
With rising healthcare costs, and an ever increasing shortage of nurses and pharmacists, streamlining basic procedures, such as IV catheter flushing can save significant clinician time. Noting that flushing usually necessitates use of a second flushing syringe (which is often currently factory filled), the flushing syringe represents added cost, not only in clinician time, but in terms of required additional syringes. Use of multiple syringes also increases risk of medication error (incorrect selection of flushing liquid) and introduction of microorganisms (a function of number of IV line or catheter accesses).
As an example, it is currently estimated that there are over 500 million antibiotic and chemotherapy medications administered annually in the United States. Each of these administrations require a follow-on flush, necessitating use of a second syringe. Combining antibiotic or chemotherapy and flush medications in one multi-chamber, sequential dose syringe promises to save on the order of one-half billion syringes and the additional time required for two syringe delivery yearly in the United States alone.
Multi-chamber syringes in various forms are well known. Commonly, multi-chamber syringes are offered for use as mixing syringes and for sequential delivery of disparate fluids, maintaining the fluids separate until delivered. Mixing syringes most often provide features for mixing contents of the chambers and for delivering the mixed fluids simultaneously. This invention is not related to mixing syringes.
Generally, within each serial delivery syringe, chambers are separated by an intermediate sliding stopper which receives motive force communicated through an intermediate fluid from a primary stopper which is part of a plunger assembly against which an external force is applied. For the disparate fluids to be dispensed sequentially or serially, each intermediate stopper must provide a fluid tight seal until all fluid from a distal chamber is evacuated from the syringe. Once the syringe is so purged, that intermediate stopper must be breached or bypassed to permit dispensing of the contents of a proximal or intermediate chamber.
An example of a multi-chamber syringe is provided in U.S. Pat. No. 4,929,230 titled SYRINGE CONSTRUCTION and issued May 29, 1990 to Frederick W. Pfleger (Pfleger). Pfleger teaches a distortable piston which is used as the intermediate stopper. The piston of Pfleger collapses upon contact with a distal end of a syringe to provide a fluid pathway to dispense contents from the intermediate chamber.
While a syringe made, as an example, according to Pfleger appears to provide a solution for sequentially dispensing disparate fluids, there are a series of concerns which would necessarily be associated with using such a syringe to dispense sequential doses of medications. A first concern arises, for example, when it is recognized that such a syringe may be used to dispense an accurately measured dose of a very expensive medication into an IV apparatus from a distal chamber of a multi-chamber syringe. Then, immediately following dispensing the first medication, a volume of a following solution is dispensed through the IV line to flush the first solution fully.
Clearly, a deformable piston, having a hollow center, such as the stopper of Pfleger would not have zero dead space. Also, it is well known that filling procedures for contents of the proximal chamber may permit a quantity of air (or other gas) to be trapped therein. It may be noted that even if such gas is not trapped during filling, free gas may be found in the proximal chamber simply as a result of out-gassing. Pfleger does not teach a way of purging the proximal chamber of gas, making such a system unacceptable for use in directly administering liquid medications to a patient. While other art may provide more effective ways to deal with the dead space issue, there is no known art which teaches a way of delivering only liquid from the proximal or intermediate chambers. That such may be a problem is recognized by U.S. Pat. No. 5,236,420 titled BYPASS, PRESSURIZED PISTON FOR CHAMBERS issued Aug. 17, 1993, also to Frederick W. Pfleger, discloses a valved plunger which may be used to evacuate gas from a proximal syringe chamber.
Other art, such as U.S. Pat. No. 6,027,481 issued Feb. 22, 2000 to Laurent Barrelle, et al. (Barrelle) and U.S. Pat. No. 5,851,200 issued Dec. 22, 1998 to Tetsure Higashikawa, et al. (Hagashikawa) disclose multi-chamber syringes with sliding valves. However, in each case Barrelle and Higashikawa teach special structure imposed upon a syringe barrel (a channel in the case of Barrelle and a bulge in the case of Higashikawa) which is used to provide a fluid pathway about a stopper.
Another U.S. Pat. No. 6,723,074 B1, titled SEQUENTIAL DELIVERY SYRINGE and issued Apr. 20, 2004 to Thor R. Halseth (Halseth) teaches a sequential delivery syringe which utilizes a modification to a discharge opening of a syringe for providing access to a rear chamber of a two chamber syringe. The modification comprises affixing a piercing member at the discharge opening. The piercing member punctures a “mid-piston” and a collapsible bag disposed in a rear chamber to provide access to fluid in the bag. Access occurs when the mid-piston is displaced by action of a plunger and stopper piston to cause the mid-piston and bag to contact the piercing member.
In brief summary, this novel invention alleviates all known problems related to providing an effective multi-chamber, sequential dose dispensing syringe. Inherently, the invention involves a stopper assembly which operates within a standard, substantially constant diameter syringe barrel to separate a distal chamber from a proximal chamber. Before dispensing, the distal chamber contains a first volume of liquid. The proximal chamber contains a disparate second volume of fluid. A closed valve in the stopper assembly keeps the contents of each chamber separate from the other.
The stopper assembly comprises two elements, a valved stopper and a valve actuator. The valved stopper contains the valve mechanism. Action upon a plunger associated with the syringe communicates through the second volume of fluid to displace the stopper assembly thereby dispensing liquid from the distal chamber. Upon complete evacuation of the liquid from the distal chamber, the valve is opened by action of the valve actuator to permit sequential and selective dispensing of liquid contents from the proximal chamber.
In a preferred embodiment of the invention, the valve closure mechanism is a slit through the distal face of the valved stopper. It should be noted that a stopper assembly according to the instant invention operates in an unmodified standard syringe barrel, requiring no special barrel features. Examples of some previously cited special features which may be placed in modified syringe barrels are found in Barelle and Hagashikawa.
Selective opening of the valve is based upon a common geometry of all known, currently commercially available standard syringe barrels. All such syringe barrels have a substantially constant diameter hollow barrel abruptly closed at a distally disposed inner surface. Distally, the inner surface comprises an orifice through which fluid is dispensed from the barrel. Generally, a plunger with an associated stopper affixed thereto is provided for displacing fluid through the barrel and orifice.
To prevent premature mixing of the disparate solutions in the two chambers, the stopper assembly must open only upon being displaced to the most distal end of the syringe barrel. For this reason, the actuator comprises a member which detects collision between a surface of the distal wall of the valved stopper and the distal inner surface and reacts to open the valve. In addition, to assure that the valve remains absolutely closed until fluid is dispensed from the distal chamber, the detecting member is disposed to apply a closing force upon the valve until displaced by the collision.
To assure effective displacement of the detecting member to open the valve, the valve actuator must be displaced as the valved stopper is displaced. As is well understood in fluid mechanics, displacement of a substantially incompressible fluid in a proximal chamber of a syringe barrel interposed between a combination of a proximally disposed plunger and associated stopper and a distally disposed valve assembly, results in measured displacement of the valve assembly as the plunger and associated stopper are displaced. The valved stopper and valve actuator comprise an interlocking interface which causes the valve actuator to be displaced as the valved stopper is displaced.
Opening a slit valve can be accomplished by outward displacement of a portion of the valved stopper transverse to the split. To accomplish this, the valve actuator comprises a body part, which is securely affixed, via the interlocking interface, to the valved stopper and an associated collision detecting arm. The arm is hingedly affixed to the body part. Upon collision between the valved stopper and inner surface of the syringe barrel, the detecting arm articulates about the hinge to displace a portion of the valved stopper and, thereby, open the slit valve.
In one embodiment, an outwardly distending arm is rigidly affixed to the detecting arm to extend into to contact with a portion of the inner surface of the valved stopper. Before the collision, the distending arm is in compressive contact with the inner surface of the valved stopper, adding to the forces which act upon the slit to keep it closed. As the detecting arm is articulated, the outwardly distending arm is arcuately displaced proximally until compressive forces received from the inner surface of the valved stopper act to retain the slit valve in an open state. In this manner, once opened, the slit valve requires no additional force to stay open and operation of the plunger and associated stopper need no additional force to keep the valve open. Thus, a slit valve is maintained in a closed position until the valve assembly collides with the inner proximal surface of the end of the syringe barrel and is thereafter effectively opened to permit dispensing of fluid from the proximal chamber.
However, when prefilled doses are stored in the proximal chamber for ultimate use, it is not uncommon for gas (most commonly air) to collect in a non-significant bubble size there inside. It is not good medical practice to dispense that gas into a patient line (e.g. IV line). To preclude such an occurrence, the body comprises a gas separator. The gas separator is formed in a centrally disposed portion of the body and may be made as a hollow frustoconical shape, being open at the bottom. A series of very small, closely spaced holes are dispersed about the conical sides of the separator. The top of the frustoconical shape is closed except for a hole which is sufficiently large to permit purging gas from the separator. The open bottom of the separator (frustoconical shape) is disposed distally within the valved stopper into contact with the inner surface of the stopper about the slit. An outwardly projecting rim about the bottom of the separator provides an interlocking surface for a complimentary groove molded into the valved stopper about the slit.
Also, stability of a freely displaced valve assembly within the barrel of a syringe must be considered. The body of the actuator is provided with sufficient radially extending appendages to maintain the valved stopper in a stable state such that the plane of the slit is transverse to the plane of the barrel of the syringe throughout displacement of the valve assembly.
Of considerable importance is the opportunity to use more than one valve assembly in a syringe barrel. For example, if two valve assemblies are so used, a proximal, a distal and an intermediate chamber so created yields an opportunity to replace three syringes with one syringe.
The valve assembly may be made from only two parts. The valved stopper may be molded from flexible synthetic resinous material, consistent with material used in plunger stoppers. The valve actuator may be injection molded from semi rigid synthetic resinous material from which living hinges may be molded and which is appropriately inert and non-interactive with solutions stored in the proximal chamber. Such a material may be polypropylene.
In summary, the valve assembly:
Accordingly, it is a primary object to provide a valve assembly which partitions a standard commercial syringe to make a multi-chamber syringe.
It is a fundamental object to provide a valve assembly for a syringe which keeps two disparate fluids apart until one of the fluids has been dispensed.
It is an important object to provide a valve assembly which has a low dead space for liquid dispensed from a distal chamber.
It is another important object to provide a valve assembly having an operable slit valve.
It is yet another object to provide a valve actuator which senses collision between a valve assembly and an inner surface at the end of a syringe to force a valving slit open.
It is another primary object to provide a valve assembly which opens to dispense liquid from a proximal chamber only after liquid from a distal chamber has been dispensed.
It is a basic object to provide a valve assembly to separate gas from liquid in the proximal chamber such that only liquid is dispensed from the proximal chamber.
It is a very important object to provide a valve actuator which is a stabilizer for an associated valved stopper in a syringe barrel.
It is an object to provide an interlock which latches an opened valve to the open state.
It is an object to provide an interface between a valved stopper and a valve actuator such that displacement of the valved stopper likewise displaces the valve actuator.
It is an object to provide a valve assembly which may be used in plural numbers in a syringe.
These and other objects and features of the present invention will be apparent from the detailed description taken with reference to accompanying drawings.
In this description, the term proximal is used to indicate the segment of a device normally closest to a clinician using the device. The term distal refers to the opposite end. Primes of numbers are used to represent parts which are similar, but not identical to other parts having the same numbers. Reference is now made to embodiments illustrated in
As used herein, the term “fluid” is defined to be a substance (either liquid or gas) which tends to flow or to take the shape of its container. The term “gas” is defined to be a fluid that expands indefinitely and which may be understood in most circumstances within the scope of this document to be consistent with air. The term “liquid” is a substance which is free flowing like water, but which is neither solid nor gaseous.
Prior art syringes (as exemplified by syringe 10) in
As seen in
A valve assembly 50, apart from a barrel 20, is seen in
Additional details of valved stopper 80 and valve actuator 90 are seen in
Valve actuator 90 comprises a proximal stabilizing disk 100, a medially disposed stabilizing plate 110, a pair of actuator arms, 120 and 120′, a medially disposed support body 130, into which is formed a gas separator vessel 140 and an annular connecting lip 150. Valve actuator 90 is displaced into well 92 as indicated by dashed lines 152 and 152′.
Distal end 154 of valve assembly 50 is seen in
Greater detail of construction of well 92 is seen in
Reference is now made to
Stabilizing plate 110 has circularly formed outer edges, 180 and 182′. Edges 180 and 180′ are truncated by elongated planar edges 230 and 230′ to provide linear access between selected holes (disclosed in detail hereafter) between stabilizing disk 100 and arms 120 and 120′, respectively. Need for such access is also disclosed hereafter.
Each actuator arm 120 and 120′ is connected to body 130 through a living hinge 240 and 240′, respectively (see
Disposed radially outward from hinge 240 is protrusion 192 (again see
Referring once more to
Vessel 140 has an annular surface which is marked by a plurality of small holes, generally numbered 270. Holes 270 are sized to provide a lower resistant path for liquid into chamber 262 while imparting a much higher resistance to influent flow of gas from the outside of chamber 262 when chamber 262 is filled with liquid. Therefore, when chamber 262 is primed (filled with liquid), only liquid flows into chamber 262 from proximal chamber 60, thereby effectively separating gas from liquid from an externally disposed fluid and delivering only liquid through mouth 260.
To assure only liquid is contained within chamber 262, chamber 262 must be primed. Such priming is facilitated by filling proximal chamber 60 from an open stopper 40 end of barrel 20, barrel 20 being maintained in an upright state. Gas contained in chamber 262 is purged through hole 222, see
Size of holes 270 is critical to vessel 140 operating as a gas separator. Examples of such hole sizes are found in commercial filters made for water sprinkler applications. As examples, a Toro product package provides such a filter in a 570 fixed spray nozzle, model number 53320. Another example is a filter available in a Rainbird National Sales Corporation, 7590 Britannia Court, San Diego, Calif. 92154 model 15EST-C1 package. The Toro and Rainbird filters are manufactured by injection molding, having holes which are usually rectangular in form and which range from 0.5 to 1.0 millimeters on a side. It may be noted that holes 270 in
An assembled valve assembly 50 is seen in
A valve assembly 50′ is seen in
Reference is now made to
However, upon collision of distal face 310 against distal end 42 of syringe 20, actuator arms 120 and 120′ are canted proximally as seen in
To assure sufficient material is available to communicate displacement of extremities 204 and 204′ to likewise displace lips 320 and 320′ and thereby provide an open valve, an annular ring 330 which raises the surface of distal face 310 as seen in
It may be noted, in reference to
An assembly fixture 400 is seen to comprise an assembly well 410, an assembly piston and associated alignment disk 420 and a pair of alignment rods 430 and 430′. Well 410 comprises a depth limiting shelf 440 and a medially and outwardly disposed blade 450. To assemble valve assembly 50, valved stopper 80 is displaced into well along lines 460/460′ as seen in
It is important that arms 120 and 120′ are distally canted to assure proper assembly into valve assembly 50. For a similar reason, installation of valve assembly into a syringe barrel, e.g. barrel 20, must also be made with assurance that arms 120 and 120′ will remain so canted. For this reason, a syringe loading fixture which employs an assembly piston and disk 420 and alignment rods 430 and 430′ is recommended. However, no other alignment is required when installing valve assembly 50 in a syringe barrel.
As may be seen in
The invention may be embodied in other specific forms without departing from the spirit or essential characteristics thereof. The present embodiments are therefore to be considered in all respects as illustrative and not restrictive, the scope of the invention being indicated by the appended claims rather than by the foregoing description, and all changes which come within the meaning and range of equivalency of the claims are therefore intended to be embraced therein.
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|U.S. Classification||604/191, 604/231|
|International Classification||A61M5/28, A61M5/00, A61M5/315, A61M5/31|
|Cooperative Classification||A61M5/286, A61M5/31596, A61M2005/3128, A61M5/284, A61M5/285, A61M2005/1787|
|European Classification||A61M5/28M, A61M5/28S|
|May 3, 2004||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: THORNE MEDICAL, INC., UTAH
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:HOWLETT, MICHAEL W.;MERCE, JAMES V.;THORNE, GALE H., JR.;AND OTHERS;REEL/FRAME:015977/0328
Effective date: 20040503
|Jan 21, 2005||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: INFUSIVE TECHNOLOGIES, LLC, UTAH
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:THORNE MEDICAL, INC.;REEL/FRAME:016183/0111
Effective date: 20050114
|Aug 13, 2009||FPAY||Fee payment|
Year of fee payment: 4
|Sep 27, 2013||REMI||Maintenance fee reminder mailed|
|Feb 14, 2014||LAPS||Lapse for failure to pay maintenance fees|
|Apr 8, 2014||FP||Expired due to failure to pay maintenance fee|
Effective date: 20140214