US 700155 A
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No. 700,155. l Patented Ma'y I3, |902.
F. H. RICHARDS.
MNUFACTUBE F'GLF BALLS.
ryill" Imis. n T mi. C# i E UNITED i vISTATES PATENT OFFICE.
FRANCIS H. RICHARDS, OE HARTFORD, CONNECTICUT, ASSIGNOR TO THE KEMPSHALL MANUFACTURING COMPANY, A CORPORATION OF NEW JERSEY.
*MANU FACT use oF -c LII-BALLS; y l
SPECIFICATION forming part of Letters Patent No. 700,1 55, dated May. 13, 1902. Application filed March 17. 1902. Serial No. 98,557. (No model.)
To @ZZ whom, t may concern:
Be it known that I, FRANCIS H. RICHARDS, a citizen of the United States, residing at Hartford, in the county of Hartford and State of Connecticut, have invented certain, new and useful Improvements in the Manufacture'of Golf-Balls, of whichthe followingisa specifi-A cation.
This invention relatest'o balls such as used in golf and other games; and its object is to produce aball which is capable of absorbing from an implement a greatl momentum and in which there is an improved and more uniform cooperative actionbetween the several portions of the ball. I
In PatentNo. 696,354, granted to me March 25, 1902, a hard shell is formed upon a springy filling, the latter consisting of a rubber sphere expanded by gutta-percha, kandthe shell being preferably made of Celluloid, which is tough, smooth, moisture-proof, springy, and durable, While'the gutta-perchagivesthe ball the property of iiying al greatdistance when struck ahard blow by an implement. In said application the'shell is illustrated as made in sections and While' hot and plastic is compressed upon the core, vcausing the segments to weld, the shell being hardened under pressure and holding the core under compression, so that the conditionof the ball. throughout is tense, thus augmenting itsl eectiven'ess.l In finishing the ball according to said application the material of the shell worksi'nto the bramble marks or pits in the dies before'. the latter completely close, so that during the final portion of the die-closing action .the brambles ofthe shell are shifted, particularly' at the equatorial `portion of .the ball, there being thus a tendency to draw andtear the shell. Moreover, it is found difficult to properly close the dies which compressthe shell, upon the previously-formed core, owing to thef tendency of the shell material to squeeze out between the approaching edges of .the dies,i thus forming aash or fin and tendingto interfere with the completion of the die action especially if the die is made in morethan two parts. By my present improvements the'se' difficulties are overcome, and the necessity of always making a shell in segments is avoided,and the expense of production is decreased.
In the accompanying drawings, Figure lis a cross-section, and Fig. 2 a perspective, partly broken away, of one form oi'a rubber shell-blank. Fig. 3 illustrates a stage in the production of aball. Figs. 4 and 5 illustrate `later stages.' Fig. 6 is a` finished. ball made v'in accordance with my present-improvements and partly broken away, so as `to exhibit its construction.
In the several views. similar parts are designated by similar characters of reference.
Preferably I employfaA hollow sphere A, made of sott-india-rubber, preferablya compoundv having firmness or toughness and highly vulcanized. An opening B may communicatewith' thefliollowC of the sphere, which may be made either integral or otherwise. Upon this sphereI form loosely a thick coating 'or shell D of plastic material, such as gutta-percha orcelluloid, preferably the latter. The shelliD .should be slightly under size or smaller than theball as subsequently completed. The more elastic sphereA may be still smaller in proportion, leaving an airspace at E between A and D. The latter may also having an openingB, registering with B. I place the ball thus formed in a spherical chamber F, formed in a mold consisting of o'pposing halves G and H, having registering 'dowels J andclamped together by'any suitable 'Ineans' Each of said members G and H mayhave one-half of the chamber F, which .is Vpreferably somewhat'larger than the celluloid" shell D. The "chamber is suitably g- Vured,l in this instance having brarnble-pits F. vInto the openings B B,'I insert the mouth of a funnel J', which is shown as penetrating into .the hollow 'C, although this is not important `in allcases. By means of said funnel the interiorA C of the sphere is placed in communijcation with a vessel or receptacle K, formed .o'r provided in the apparatus above thecham- .be'r,F, said receptacle preferably being round vandhavin'g a closely-fitting plunger L. The `blanks may lbe, formed without the openings 1B and B', and a pointed injectormay be forced thereinto.
' I place in the receptacle K a'quantity ot' material, preferably gutta-percha, which may by the action of heat be reduced to a plastic or liuid condition, as at M, Fig. 4. This material flows down the funnel J' into the hollow of the sphere A and drives out the air through a vent N, which in this instance is illustrated as a groove formed in the side wall of the main openings B and B and lying without the funnel J'. ln the portion Il of the mold there may be provided a vent O, communicating at P with the ball-vent- N, so the air escaping from the ball may be conducted out of the apparatus. The fluid or plastic gutta-percha may therefore settle or be forced by the plunger L through the funnel J, so as to completely fill the interior of the sphere A, whereupon the vent O in the mold may be closed by a screw-plug Q, Fig. 5, the overflow of the material into or through said Vent indicating to the workman that the hollow C has been filled. By means of suitable appliances the plunger L may be pressed still farther down, so as to force more of the fillingr material into the interiorof the sphere, causing the walls thereof to yield and expanding the sphere until it not only fills the celluloid shell D, but also causes the latter to expand until it completely fills the chamber F in the mold. The heat of the mold renders the celluloid plastic, and it works into the bramblemarks in the mold, and thus becomes embossed, as at Figs. 5 and 6. The air may escape from the chamber through a vent R.
Sufficient force may be applied to the plun-V ger L to subject the entire ball to great pressure, thereby compacting and improving the Celluloid shell and subjecting the expanded rubber sphere to high compression. The gutta-percha or other filling material is allowed to pass from a liquid into a dry or hard condition while the plunger is still pressed down with great force, so that the expanded condition of both the rubber sphere and the Celluloid shell is made permanent, as indicated at Figs. 5 and 6, the core being closely joined to the rubber and the latter to the shell. The mold may then be taken apart and the ball removed, the funnel J being withdrawn and the hole left thereby in the ball being filled with a Celluloid or other plug S, Fig. 6.
During the described operation the celluloid shell is expanded in all directions and caused to conform to the surface of the chamber F, and the brambles or other figures D2 are gradually formed upon the periphery of the ball, and since there is no movement of the dies there is no tendency to tear any of the brambles from the shell, nor is the material of the sphere itself likely to be torn or unduly thinned at any point. On the contrary, the pressure of the fluent mass is uniform in all directions throughout the interior of the shell, while owing to its elasticity the rubber tends to compensate for any unevenness or irregularity in the form of any of the parts. Since great pressure may be produced by said plunger, the shell may be thoroughly compacted, thereby conducing to its toughness,
durability, and springy properties, which are of great value in golf-balls. By reason of the fluent mass of gutta-percha being maintained at high pressure while the portion thereof within the sphere, as well as the sphere itself, cools or hardens the quality of the ball is improved. The core M differs from a guttapercha core which is compressed by dies in that it is in a more nearly uniform condition throughout, while the celluloid of the shell is compacted in radial directions all over the ball, and hence possesses an evenness of texture not present in externally-compressed shells.
Preferably the gu tta-percha in the receptacle K is kepthot, as well as under great pressure, during the hardening of all or the principal portion of thc celluloid shell and also during the hardening of the major portion of the core, the latter cooling first at its exterior and then gradually hardening toward the center. By this means the core is not only solidified, but also put in a condition of permanent com pression, in which condition it is held by the hardened celluloid shell.
Not only is a ball thus produced extremely compact orsolid, but it will also be understood that the shell D powerfully grips the filling and that the material of the ball from center to peripheryisin an abnormal condition. The compressed core etfeetually lnaintains the shell in a true spherical form andimmediately and powerfully resists distortion thereof by a blow and by reaction aids in speeding the ball when struck by an implement. Thus an extremely active and powerful ball is produced. Moreover, the ball is nctundnlyscnsitive to a light touch from an implement, which renders it even more desirable for the game of golf. The original Celluloid shellblank D may be eitherjointed or seamless. y
Modifications and variations may be resorted to within the scope of my invention.
Having described my invention, I claiml. A process in producing playing-balls, consistingin inclosingahollow sphere of rubber in a harder shelland then forcing a fluent mass into said sphere.
2. A process in producing playing-balls, consisting in covering a yielding sphere with a shell of plastic material, forcing a fluent mass into the interior of said sphere and hardening said mass to form a core.
3. A process in producing playing-balls, consisting in covering a hollow sphere ofsoft rubber with a shell, reducing material to a fiuent condition, forcing it into said sphere so as to expand the latter, and Causing said material to harden so as to form a core.
4. A process in producing playing-balls, consisting in providing a soft-rubberenvelop with a plastic shell, and Aexpanding said envelop and shell by the injection of mobile material.
5. A process in producing playing-balls, consisting in providing a rubber sphere with IIO a plastic shell, injecting heated gutta-percha into said envelop, and causing said guttapercha to harden and form a core.
6. A process in producing a playing-ball, consisting in providing a highly-yielding sphere with a shell of plastic material, heating said shell, injecting plastic material into said sphere to an extent to expand both said sphere and said shell, confining said sphere during such injection so as to determine the shape of the ball, and causing said injected material to harden and form a core.
7. A process in producing a playing-ball, consisting in providing a hollow elastic sphere with a shell, forcing plastic materialinto said sphere to such an extent as to expand both said sphere and said shell and' cause said sphere to be compressed between said injected material and said shell, and maintaining the pressure upon said injected material until both the shell and the injected material harden.
8. A process in producing a playing-ball, consisting in incasing a rubber sphere with celluloid, placing the ball thus formed in a mold, heating the celluloid, and forcibly injecting mobile material into said sphere to an extent to compress the celluloid and place said sphere under compression between said injected material and said shell.
9. A process in producing a playing-ball, consisting in inclosing a hollow rubber sphere in a shell of celluloid, inclosing said shell in a larger mold, forcibly injecting uent material into said sphere to an extent to expand both said sphereand said shell to the limits of the mold, and also to compress said sphere between said injected material and said shell, and hardening said shell and said injected material While the pressure upon the latter is maintained.
l0. A process in producing a playing-ball,`
consisting in inclosing a hollow rubber sphere in a plastic shell, inclosing said shellin a larger mold, forcibly injecting heated guttapercha into said sphere to an extent to expand both said sphere and said shell to the limits of the 1nold,and causing said shell and said injected material to harden while the pressure upon the latter is maintained.
11. A process in producing aplaying-ball, consisting in loosely inclosing a hollow rubber sphere in a shell consisting at least partially of celluloid, inclosing said shell loosely in a larger mold, forcibly injecting heated gutta-percha into said sphere to an extent to expand both said sphere and said shell to the limits of said mold, and maintaining the pressure upon said gutta-percha shell until both the latter and said shell become hard.
12. A process in producing a playing-ball, consisting in forming a hollow soft-rubber sphere with a Vent, incasing said sphere in a celluloid shell also provided withV a vent, insertinga funnel through said shell and into said sphere, inclosing said shell in a larger mold, heating said shell, heating gutta percha, injecting said gutta-percha through said funnel into said sphere and forcing out the air through said vents, subjecting the gutta-percha to pressure to au extent to expand both said sphere and said shell to the limitsof the mold, preventing the escape of gutta-percha through said vent during the application of pressure, causing the gutta; percha and the celluloid shell both to harden while the pressure is maintained, withdrawing the funnel, and plugging the vents.
FRANCIS H. RICHARDS.
B. C. STIcKNEY, JOHN O. SEIFERT.