Publication number | US7013448 B1 |

Publication type | Grant |

Application number | US 10/285,758 |

Publication date | Mar 14, 2006 |

Filing date | Oct 31, 2002 |

Priority date | Jun 4, 2002 |

Fee status | Paid |

Also published as | US6915499, US6931608, US6948144, US6978432, US7000209, US7058917, US7073151, US7246338 |

Publication number | 10285758, 285758, US 7013448 B1, US 7013448B1, US-B1-7013448, US7013448 B1, US7013448B1 |

Inventors | Steven Teig, Andrew Caldwell |

Original Assignee | Cadence Design Systems, Inc. |

Export Citation | BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan |

Patent Citations (73), Non-Patent Citations (114), Classifications (8), Legal Events (3) | |

External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet | |

US 7013448 B1

Abstract

Some embodiments of the invention provide a method of expanding a path in a space with dimensional states. In some embodiments, the space includes a set of states and a transition map that specifies a set of states that can be reached from each particular state. The method identifies a first expansion for the path from a start state to a first destination state. It then specifies a first cost function that expresses the cost of the first expansion. The first cost function is defined over the destination state. The method also identifies a second expansion for the path from a first portion of the first destination state to a second destination state. From a portion of the first cost function that is defined over the first portion of the first destination state, the method computes a second cost function that specifies the cost of the second expansion.

Claims(20)

1. A method of expanding a path in a space, said space having a plurality of states, the method comprising:

a) identifying a first expansion for the path from a start state to a first destination state, said first destination state having at least one dimension;

b) specifying a first cost function that specifies the cost of the first expansion, wherein the first cost function is defined over the first destination state;

c) identifying a second expansion for the path from a first portion of the first destination state to a second destination state, wherein said first portion is less than the entirety of said first destination state; and

d) from a particular portion of the first cost function that is defined over the first portion of the first destination state, computing a second cost function that specifies the cost of the second expansion, wherein said particular portion of the first cost function does not represent the entirety of said first cost function.

2. The method of claim 1 further comprising:

identifying portions of the first destination state where the value of the first cost function is less than the value of a filter function that is defined over the first destination state and that expresses the lowest cost of expansions that were previously identified to the first destination state,

wherein the first portion is one of the identified portions.

3. The method of claim 2 , wherein the cost functions are piecewise linear functions.

4. The method of claim 3 , wherein identifying the portions comprises filtering the first cost function by the filter function.

5. The method of claim 2 , wherein identifying the portions includes identifying a plurality of portions, wherein the method further comprises:

specifying path-search identifiers for each identified portion;

storing the specified path-search identifiers other than the path-search identifier for the first portion.

6. The method of claim 5 further comprising:

after computing the second cost function, retrieving a path-search identifier for a second portion from the storage structure;

identifying a third expansion for the path from the second portion of the first destination state to the second destination state;

from a portion of the first cost function that is defined over the second portion of the first destination state, computing a third cost function that specifies the cost of the third expansion.

7. The method of claim 5 further comprising:

after computing the second cost function, retrieving a path-search identifier for a second portion from the storage structure;

identifying a third expansion for the path from the second portion of the first destination state to a third destination state;

from a portion of the first cost function that is defined over the second portion of the first destination state, computing a third cost function that specifies the cost of the third expansion.

8. The method of claim 1 , wherein the space further includes a zero-dimensional state.

9. The method of claim 1 , wherein at least one of the start, first destination, and second destination states is a line.

10. The method of claim 1 , wherein at least one of the start, first destination, and second destination states is a surface.

11. A computer readable medium that stores a computer program having executable code, the computer program for expanding a path in a space, said space having a plurality of states, the computer program comprising sets of instructions for:

a) identifying a first expansion for the path from a start state to a first destination state, said first destination state having at least one dimension;

b) specifying a first cost function that specifies the cost of the first expansion, wherein the first cost function is defined over the first destination state;

c) identifying a second expansion for the path from a first portion of the first destination state to a second destination state, wherein said first portion is less than the entirely of said first destination state; and

d) from a particular portion of the first cost function that is defined over the first portion of the first destination state, computing a second cost function that specifies the cost of the second expansion, wherein said particular portion of the first cost function does not represent the entirety of said first cost function.

12. The computer readable medium of claim 11 ,

wherein the computer program further comprises a set of instructions for identifying portions of the first destination state where the value of the first cost function is less than the value of a filter function that is defined over the first destination state and that expresses the lowest cost of expansions that were previously identified to the first destination state,

wherein the first portion is one of the identified portions.

13. The computer readable medium of claim 12 , wherein the cost functions are piecewise linear functions.

14. The computer readable medium of claim 13 , wherein the set of instructions for identifying the portions comprises a set of instructions for filtering the first cost function by the filter function.

15. The computer readable medium of claim 12 , wherein the set of instructions for identifying the portions includes a set of instructions for identifying a plurality of portions, wherein the computer program further comprises sets of instructions for:

specifying path-search identifiers for each identified portion;

storing the specified path-search identifiers other than the path-search identifier for the first portion.

16. The computer readable medium of claim 15 , wherein the computer program further comprises sets of instructions for:

retrieving, after computing the second cost function, a path-search identifier for a second portion from the storage structure;

identifying a third expansion for the path from the second portion of the first destination state to the second destination state;

from a portion of the first cost function that is defined over the second portion of the first destination state, computing a third cost function that specifies the cost of the third expansion.

17. The computer readable medium of claim 15 , wherein the computer program further comprises sets of instructions for:
from a portion of the first cost function that is defined over the second portion of the first destination state, computing a third cost function that specifies the cost of the third expansion.

retrieving, after computing the second cost function, a path-search identifier for a second portion from the storage structure;

identifying a third expansion for the path from the second portion of the first destination state to a third destination state;

18. The computer readable medium of claim 11 , wherein the space further includes a zero-dimensional state.

19. The computer readable medium of claim 11 , wherein at least one of the start, first destination, and second destination states is a line.

20. The computer readable medium of claim 11 , wherein at least one of the start, first destination, and second destination states is a surface.

Description

This patent application is a continuation of the U.S. patent application Ser. No. 10/215,923, filed Aug. 9, 2002, which is incorporated herein by reference. This application also claims the benefit of the U.S. Provisional patent application 60/396,571, filed Jul. 15, 2002; U.S. Provisional Patent Application 60/388,518, filed Jun. 12, 2002; and U.S. Provisional patent application 60/385,975, and filed Jun. 4, 2002.

The invention is directed towards method and apparatus for propagating cost functions.

A best-first search is an iterative search that at each iteration tries to extend the partial solution with the best estimated cost. Best-first searches have often been used to identify the shortest path between source and target points in a multi-point search space. One such best-first search is the A* search. To identify a path between source and target points, the A* search starts one or more paths from the source and/or target points. It then iteratively identifies one or more path expansions about the lowest cost path, until it identifies a path that connects the source and target points. The typical cost of a path expansion in an A* search is an {circumflex over (F)} cost, which is the cost of the path leading up to the path expansion plus an estimated cost of reaching a target point from the path expansion.

**105** and a target point **110** in a region **120**. The source and target points are part of a multi-point grid **115** that is imposed over the region.

As shown in **105** to four points **202**–**208** that neighbor the source point in the Manhattan directions. In

The search process specifies four drops **210**–**216** for the expansions to the four points **202**–**208**, as illustrated in **218** for the source point **105**. The source point drop **218** is the previous drop of drops **210**–**216**. The source point drop's previous drop is null, as it is the first drop in the path search.

For each drop **210**–**216**, the search process computes an {circumflex over (F)} cost based on the following formula:

*{circumflex over (F)}=G+Ĥ. *

where (1) G specifies the cost of a path from the source point to the drop's grid point through the sequence of expansions that led to the drop, and (2) Ĥ specifies the estimated lower-bound cost from the drop's grid point to the target point. When computed in this manner, the {circumflex over (F)} cost of a drop is the estimated cost of the cheapest path that starts at the source point, traverses through the sequence of expansions that led to the drop, and traverses from the drop to the target point.

To simplify the description of the example illustrated in **210**–**216** is 1, as the grid point of each of these drops is one grid unit away from the source point. In **210**, **212**, **214**, and **216** are respectively one, three, three, and three, as these distances are respectively the Manhattan distances of the points of these drops from the target point.

After costing these drops, the search process stores the drops **210**–**216** in a priority queue that is sorted based on their {circumflex over (F)} costs. It then retrieves the drop with the lowest {circumflex over (F)} cost from the priority queue. This drop is drop **210**. Since this drop's corresponding point (i.e., point **202**) is not the target point, the search process then identifies a path expansion from the retrieved drop's point **202** to point **305**. As shown in this figure, this expansion is the only viable expansion from the retrieved drop's point **202** as the search has previously reached all other unblocked neighboring grid points (i.e., the grid points that are not blocked by an obstacle **315**) through less expensive paths. The search process specifies a drop **310** for this expansion, and computes this drop's G, Ĥ, and {circumflex over (F)} costs, which are respectively 2, 2, and 4. It then stores this specified drop in the priority queue.

After storing drop **310** in the priority queue, the search process might retrieve either drop **310**, drop **212**, or drop **214** from the priority queue, as each of these drops has an {circumflex over (F)} cost of 4. However, if the search process retrieved drop **310**, it will not expand from this drop to its neighboring points that are not blocked by obstacle **315** since all these neighboring points were previously reached less expensively. Also, if the search process retrieves drop **214**, it will identify drops that will be more expensive than drop **212**.

When the search process retrieves drop **212** from the priority queue, it checks whether this drop's point is the target point. When it discovers that it is not, the process (1) identifies expansions to three neighboring points **402**–**406** about this drop's point, as shown in **408**–**412** for the three identified expansions, as shown in **212**), and (5) stores each newly specified drop in the priority queue based on its {circumflex over (F)} cost.

Next, as illustrated respectively in **408** and then for drop **510**, since these two drops are the ones with the lowest {circumflex over (F)} costs during the next two iterations of the search process. As illustrated in **510** is specified for an expansion about drop **408**'s point **402**.

As shown in **510** reaches the point **110**. The search process creates, costs, and stores a drop **615** for this expansion. It then retrieves this drop in its next iteration, and then realizes that this drop's point is the target point. Accordingly, at this juncture, it terminates its path search operation. It then commences a path-embedding, back-trace operation that uses the previous-drop references of the drops **615**, **510**, **408**, **212**, and **218** to identify the sequence of drops that reached the target point **110** from the source point **105**. This operation embeds a path along the grid points associated with the identified sequence of drops.

The A* search is not suitable for finding the lowest-cost path in a graph with non-zero dimensional states. This is because the A* search computes a single cost value for the expansion to any state in the graph, while the actual cost can vary across a non-zero dimensional state. Accordingly, there is a need for a path search process that can identify the lowest-cost path in a graph with non-zero dimensional states.

Some embodiments of the invention provide a method of expanding a path in a space with dimensional states. In some embodiments, the space includes a set of states and a transition map that specifies a set of states that can be reached from each particular state. The method identifies a first expansion for the path from a start state to a first destination state. It then specifies a first cost function that expresses the cost of the first expansion. The first cost function is defined over the destination state. The method also identifies a second expansion for the path from a first portion of the first destination state to a second destination state. From a portion of the first cost function that is defined over the first portion of the first destination state, the method computes a second cost function that specifies the cost of the second expansion.

The novel features of the invention are set forth in the appended claims. However, for purpose of explanation, several embodiments of the invention are set forth in the following figures.

In the following description, numerous details are set forth for purpose of explanation. However, one of ordinary skill in the art will realize that the invention may be practiced without the use of these specific details. In other instances, well-known structures and devices are shown in block diagram form in order not to obscure the description of the invention with unnecessary detail.

Some embodiments of the invention provide a path search process that can identify the lowest-cost path between source and target states in a multi-layer graph with non-zero dimensional states. Such a path traverses through intermediate states often but not always. In some embodiments described below, a zero-dimensional state is a point, a one-dimensional state is a line, a two-dimensional state is a surface, a three-dimensional state is a volume, etc.

The invention's path search can be used in many different applications. However, the embodiments described below use the path search in a topological router that defines topological routes for nets in a design layout of an integrated circuit. Accordingly, in these embodiments, the multi-layer graph that the invention's path search explores is a tessellated region of an IC layout. In this tessellated region, the source, intermediate, and target states for a path search are zero-, one-, or two-dimensional topological particles. In other embodiments, the source, target, and intermediate states might be higher dimensional states (e.g., three-dimensional volumes, etc.).

The invention's path search operations can be used in different types of path searches, such as breadth-first searches, best-first searches, etc. In the embodiments described below, however, the invention's path search is described as a best-first search. This best-first search is referred to below as the Q* search. The following sections provide (i) an overview of the tessellated layout region that the Q* search explores, (ii) an overview of the Q* search, (iii) the overall flow of the Q* search, (iv) an example of a Q* search, (v) a description of the Q* search's costing of an expansion about a path, (vi) a description of the mathematical operations used by the Q* search, (vii) a description of an Ĥ function computed by the Q* engine.

In the embodiments described below, the Q* search process is used in a topological router that defines topological routes that connect the routable elements (e.g., pins) of nets in a region of a design layout. One such topological router is described in United States patent application entitled “Method and Apparatus for Routing Nets in an Integrated Circuit Layout”, having the Ser. No. 10/215,563 and filed on Aug. 9, 2002. This application is incorporated in the present application by reference.

The topological router that is described in the above-incorporated application initially tessellates the IC-layout region, and then embeds topological routes in the tessellated region. At times, this router further tessellates the region after embedding a route. The topological router can tessellate (i.e., decompose) the region in different types of polygons, such as rectangles, etc. In the embodiments described below, each layer of the IC-layout region is decomposed into triangular faces. The above-incorporated application describes in detail the triangulation and embedding operations. However, the triangulation and embedding operations are briefly described below, to describe the tessellated region that Q* search explores in some embodiments.

A. Triangulated Region After the Initial Triangulation

The initial triangulation results in numerous triangular faces. Each resulting face has 3 edges, 3 nodes, a space representing the topological regions inside the face, and possibly a set of holes representing potential vias within the space. Nodes, edges, spaces, and holes are illustrated in

Some embodiments define nodes at the four corners of the layout region on each layer, at the vertices of the obstacle and pin geometries in the region, and at some or all virtual pins in the region (where virtual pins or “vpins” are points defined at the boundary of the region to account for the propagation of previously defined global routes into the region). Edges are defined between certain pairs of nodes in order to triangulate the region. Some embodiments define each edge as an ordered list of topological particles in the tessellated region. After the initial triangulation, each edge's ordered list starts and ends with a node, and has a topological particle, called an “exit,” between the two nodes. For each edge,

The topological router defines a hole between each overlapping pair of spaces that have sufficiently large overlap to accommodate a via. To determine whether two spaces have sufficient overlap, the topological router maintains for each space a polygon that specifies the legal area where the center of vias can be in the space. The topological router then identifies the intersection of the polygons of each pair of overlapping spaces. For each overlapping space pair that has a sufficiently large polygon intersection, the router then specifies a hole to represent a potential via that can be anywhere in the identified polygonal intersection. A hole is part of both spaces that it connects. A space can contain several holes, one for each sufficiently overlapping space in an adjacent layer.

B. Triangulated Region with Embedded Routes

After the initial triangulation, the topological router embeds topological routes in the decomposed topological region. The topological router defines a topological route as an ordered list of topological particles in the decomposed topological region. Each embedded topological route is a graph that has several vertices and one or more wire segments that connect some or all the vertices. In the embodiments described below, the wire segments are referred to as walls and the vertices can be nodes, holes, “joints,” “via nodes,” and “Steiners.”

A “joint” is a topological particle that the topological router defines along an edge (i.e., in the edge's ordered list) when this router embeds a path that crosses the edge. A joint divides a previously undivided exit of an edge into two exits. Via nodes are topological particles that the router creates when it embeds a topological path (all or some of a topological route) that utilizes a hole. Specifically, to embed a path of a net that uses a hole, the router converts the hole into two via nodes, one in each space connected by the hole, and establishes an association between the two via nodes (e.g., has them refer to one another). A Steiner is a Steiner point (i.e., a vertex that connects to more than two walls) that is generated at the juncture between a pre-existing path of a net and a newly embedded path of the net. When the router embeds a path that crosses an edge, it defines a joint at the intersection of the edge and the net's path. A joint divides a previously undivided exit of an edge into two exits.

**1000** and **1002**. Both of these paths traverse several triangular faces on layer **2**. Path **1000** also traverses two triangular faces on layer **3**, as it is a multi-layer route. Path **1000** is specified by the following ordered list of particles: node **1004**, wall **1006**, joint **1008**, wall **1010**, joint **1012**, wall **1014**, via node **1016**, via node **1018**, wall **1020**, joint **1022**, wall **1024**, and node **1026**. Path **1002** is specified by the following ordered list of particles: node **1028**, wall **1030**, joint **1032**, wall **1034**, joint **1036**, wall **1038**, Steiner **1040**, wall **1042**, and node **1044**. **1046** of another portion of path **1002**'s route.

As shown in this figure, the embedded routes divide the faces that they completely cross into several spaces. For instance, these paths divide the face formed by vertices **1004**, **1048**, and **1050** into three spaces. Also, this figure illustrates that each joint is at the intersection of a route with an edge, and abuts two exits on its edge. The Steiner **1040** of path **1002** connects walls **1038**, **1042**, and **1046**. In addition, multi-layer route **1000** includes two via nodes **1016** and **1018**. These via nodes enable this path to traverse layers **2** and **3**. The topological router generated these two via nodes from the hole **905** of **1000**.

Each net has a representation of its connectivity and topology. Each edge has an ordered list of the routes that cross it. In other words, a route's topological particles that are on edges appear on their edge's ordered list (e.g., linked list) in the topological order that their route crosses their edge. For the example illustrated in **1048** and **1050** as an ordered list of the following particles: node **1050**, exit **1052**, joint **1008**, exit **1054**, joint **1036**, exit **1056**, and node **1048**. In this edge's ordered list, joints **1008** and **1036** of paths **1000** and **1002** appear in the order that their routes cross this edge.

Every particle that is within a face or is on an edge of the face is associated with one or more spaces of the face. Some particles can be part of multiple spaces. Each space contains its face's nodes and exits just after the initial triangulation. The topological router stores each edge's capacity and length, and also stores the wire flow (route flow) across each edge.

In the embodiments described below, certain particles (such as joints, via nodes, walls, and Steiners) that define a route are moveable, while other route-defining particles (such as pin-geometry nodes) have a fixed location. The topological router does not need to specify and store the location of moveable route-defining particles, as the routes are topologically defined. However, in the embodiments described below, the topological router specifies and stores locations for the route-defining particles in order to be able to compute wirelength accurately.

The Q* path search can identify the lowest-cost path between source and target states in a multi-layer graph with non-zero dimensional states. In the embodiments described below, the source, intermediate, and target states in the graph are zero-, one-, or two- dimensional topological particles in the tessellate region. In other words, these states are points (i.e., nodes), lines (i.e., edge- and wall-segments to which a path can expand), and surfaces (i.e., portions of holes polygons to which a path can expand).

In some embodiments, the Q* search process has two phases: (1) a path exploration phase, during which the process identifies a path between the specified source and target particles, and (2) a path-embedding phase, during which the process embeds the identified path. During the path exploration phase, the Q* search starts at one or more paths from the source and/or target particles. It then iteratively identifies one or more expansions about the lowest cost path, until it identifies a path that connects the source and target states. Each identified expansion about a path is from a “current particle” (also called “start particle”), reached by the path, to a “destination particle” that neighbors the current particle.

The embodiments described below cost each expansion based on an {circumflex over (F)} cost that can be expressed as:

*{circumflex over (F)}=G+Ĥ.* (1)

The {circumflex over (F)}, Ĝ, and Ĥ are functions that are defined over the entire destination particle of an expansion or one or more portions of this destination particle. Specifically, the {circumflex over (F)} cost is a function that expresses the estimated cost of a path that traverses from a source through the expansion's destination particle to a target. The G cost is a function that expresses the cost of the path that has reached the expansion's destination particle. The Ĥ cost is a function that expresses an estimated cost of a path from the expansion's destination particle to the target set. In the embodiments described below, the Ĥ cost function expresses the lower-bound estimate of the shortest path from the expansion's destination particle to the target set. Accordingly, in these embodiments, the {circumflex over (F)} cost function expresses the estimated cost of a lowest-cost path from the source through the expansion's destination particle to a target. Also, in these embodiments, the G function and hence the {circumflex over (F)} function account for several different types of path costs, such as a distance cost, route-piercing cost, via cost, wire-shoving costs, etc. Hence, the {circumflex over (F)} function of equation (1) allows the embodiments described below to identify the lowest-cost path between the source and target sets. Other embodiments, however, might utilize a different {circumflex over (F)} function, as further described below.

In the embodiments described below, the G, Ĥ, and {circumflex over (F)} functions are convex piecewise linear functions (“PLF”), although in other embodiments they might be other types of functions. In the embodiments described below, each PLF's domain is either a point, a line, or a surface in the tessellated region. In the discussion below, PLF's that are defined over a point are called point PLF's, PLF's that are defined across lines are called line PLF's, and PLF's that are defined across surfaces are called surface PLF's.

A point PLF maps the point over which it is defined to a single value. A line PLF is a PLF with a domain that is a line. Such a PLF can be specified by a sequence of vertices, called knots, that represent the endpoints of its line segments. **1110** that has four line segments. This PLF specifies a PLF-value for each point P that is offset by an amount Q along an edge **1105** (i.e., for each real number Q that defines a point P on the edge at Q•u, where u is a unit vector of L). Each knot of a line PLF can be specified in terms of an offset value Q and a PLF-value V. Also, the knots of a line PLF can be sorted in an order based on their offset values. Accordingly, the five knots K**1**–K**5** that are at the endpoints of PLF **1110**'s four line segments can represent this PLF of **1**, V**1**), (Q**2**, V**2**), (Q**3**, V**3**), (Q**4**, V**4**), (Q**5**, V**5**).

A surface PLF is a set of one or more planar surfaces, called facets. **1210** has four facets (F**1**–F**4**), each of which has a different slope. This PLF is defined across a surface **1205**. For each x-y value in the surface **1205**, the surface PLF **1210** provides a PLF-value (V).

Each surface PLF can be represented by a set of knots, a set of edges between the knots, and a set of facets defined by the edges. Using this approach, the surface PLF **1210** of **1**–K**10**, a list of edges E**1**–E**13**, and a list of facets F**1**–F**4**. Some embodiments represent (1) a surface-PLF knot with an x,y coordinate, a PLF-value at that coordinate, and a list of edges that are incident upon the knot, (2) a surface-PLF edge by a pair of references to two knots that the edge connects, and (3) a surface-PLF facet by a list of edges, a normal vector (e.g., x, y, z coordinate values), and a z-intercept, where z is the axis in which the PLF-values are defined. For instance, in the example in **1** specifies edges E**1** and E**2**, the list of knots for edge E**4** specifies knots K**3** and K**4**, and the list of edges for facet F**1** identifies edges E**1**–E**4**. For facet F**1**, a normal vector Ni and a z-intercept are also specified.

In the embodiments described below, the Q* search maintains another function for each topological particle that can serve as a source, intermediate, or target state in the tessellated region. This function is called a filter function. In the embodiments described below, the filter function is a PLF. A particle's filter function expresses the lowest path cost that the search process has been able to identify from the source set to each point on the particle during a path search. As further described below, the Q* search in the embodiments described below uses the particle filter functions to determine whether a potential expansion to a destination particle is a viable one (i.e., whether the expansion provides a cheaper path to any portion of the destination particle than previously identified expansions to the destination particle). This search makes this determination for an expansion when it initially identifies the expansion and also later if it expands about it.

Filtering is when a first PLF F**1** (a filtered PLF) is compared with a second PLF F**2** (a filter PLF) to determine whether any portion of the F**1** needs to be discarded. The filter and filtered PLF's have overlapping domains (i.e., domain(F**1**)∩domain(F**2**)≠null). In the embodiments described below, filtering discards the portion of the filtered PLF F**1** that is larger than the corresponding portion of the filter PLF (i.e., discards every portion of F**1** where F**1**(V)≧F**2**(V)). **1305** by a second filter PLF **1310**, where both PLF's are defined across a line **1350**. Each PLF is represented by its sequence of knots, which is sorted by the domain-offset values. Knots K**1**–K**5** specify the first PLF while knots K**6**–K**10** specify the second PLF **1310**. As shown in this figure, this filtering discards portion **1315** of PLF **1305** as the PLF-values of this portion are larger than the PLF-values of the corresponding portion **1320** of filter PLF **1310**. After the filtering operation, two portions **1325** and **1330** of the PLF **1305** remain. Knots K**1**–K**3** and K**11** specify the first remaining portion **1325**, while knots K**12** and K**5** specify the second remaining portion (where knots K**11** and K**12** are at the intersection of the PLF's **1305** and **1310**).

Filtering PLF's will be further described below. The filtering that is described below not only filters the first PLF, but also defines the second filter PLF to be the minimum of the first and second PLF's. A minimum of two PLF's F**1** and F**3** is another PLF F**3** that specifies a PLF-value for each location V in the intersection of F**1**'s domain and F**2**'s domain that is equal to the smallest PLF-value specified by the first and second PLF's for that location (i.e., F**3**(V)≡min(F**1**(V), F**2**(V)). **1405** for the two PLF's **1305** and **1310** of **1325** and **1330** of this minimum function corresponds to the remaining portion of the filtered PLF **1305**, while the portion **1320** of this minimum function is from the original filter PLF **1310**. Knots K**1**–K**3**, K**11**, K**8**, K**9**, K**12**, and K**5** specify the minimum function **1405**.

For some embodiments, **1500** initially sets (at **1502**) a variable Current_Drop to null. The process **1500** uses drops to represent path expansions. Specifically, this process represents an expansion from one topological particle (called a “start particle” or “current particle”) to another topological particle (called a “destination particle”) by a “drop” that associates with the destination particle and refers back to the drop of the start particle. One of ordinary skill will realize that other embodiments might not use drops or might implement drops differently.

At **1504**, the process **1500** initializes filter and Ĥ PLF's for each topological particle in the tessellated region that can serve as a start, intermediate, or target particle for a path search. For each such topological particle, the process **1500** maintains (1) the filter PLF to express the lowest path cost that the process has been able to identify from the source set to the particle during a path search, and (2) the Ĥ PLF to express the estimated distance between the particle and the target set. The process **1500** stores the Ĥ PLF for each particle so that it only has to compute the Ĥ PLF once for each particle. In some embodiments, the process initializes the filter and Ĥ PLF's to “infinite”. Also, in the embodiments described below, nodes, exits, and holes are the topological particles that can serve as start particles during a path search, while nodes, holes, exits, and walls are the topological particles that can serve as intermediate and target particles during the path search.

Next, for each source particle of the path search, the process **1500** (at **1506**) identifies and sets the particle's Ĥ PLF and sets the particle's filter PLF to zero. The generation of a particle's Ĥ PLF is described below. At **1506**, for each source particle, the process **1500** also specifies a drop, defines the source particle as the drop's particle, defines the drop's prior drop as null, sets the drop's G PLF to zero, and sets the drop's {circumflex over (F)} PLF equal to the source particle's Ĥ PLF. The process stores the specified drops in a storage structure. In the embodiments described below, the storage structure is a priority queue (e.g., a heap) that is sorted based on the minimum of the {circumflex over (F)} PLF of each drop.

At **1508**, the process then retrieves from the priority queue a drop with the smallest minimum {circumflex over (F)} value. Next, the process filters (at **1510**) the retrieved drop's G PLF with the filter PLF of this drop's particle. As further described below, the process performs this filtering operation to ensure that the retrieved drop is still valid. After the process **1500** stored the retrieved drop in the priority queue, it might have created and stored other drops that represent cheaper expansions to the retrieved drop's particle. These cheaper expansions would have modified the filter PLF of the retrieved drop's particle.

**1605** of a first expansion to a line **1610**. This G PLF is also the filter function of the line **1610** after the first expansion. **1615** of a second expansion to the line **1610**. The second expansion's G PLF **1615** is smaller than the first expansion's G PLF **1605** over the entire line **1610** except for the portion **1625** of the line. After the second expansion is identified, the filter function of the line **1610** is set to the minimum of the second expansion's G PLF and the filter function's original PLF (which, as mentioned above, is identical to the first expansion's G PLF). This new filter function is the PLF **1620** in

Accordingly, after retrieving a drop from the priority queue, the process **1500** filters (at **1510**) the drop's G PLF with its particle's filter function to ensure that the drop still represents the best valid expansion to one or more portions of its particle. In the example illustrated in **1605** of the first expansion to (i.e., the first drop on) the line **1610** with the line's filter PLF **1620** after the second expansion results in the PLF **1630**. This PLF **1630** corresponds to the portion of the original PLF **1605** of the first expansion that is smaller than the second-expansion's PLF **1615**. This PLF **1630** is defined over a much smaller domain (i.e., segment **1625**) than the original PLF **1605** for the first expansion. Filtering one function against another will be further described below.

At **1512**, the process determines whether any portion of the Current_Drop's G PLF remains after the filtering operation. If the process determines (at **1512**) that at least one portion of the Current_Drop's G PLF remains after the filtering, the process determines (at **1514**) whether the filtering operation at **1510** resulted in two or more convex pieces of the retrieved drop's G PLF.

If the filtering did not result in two or more convex pieces, the process specifies (at **1516**) the retrieved drop's {circumflex over (F)} PLF again, as some portions of this drop's G PLF might have been discarded because of the filtering operation, and such a modification would discard some portions of this drop's {circumflex over (F)} PLF. Next, the process determines (at **1518**) whether the retrieved drop's {circumflex over (F)} PLF minimum is greater than the lowest {circumflex over (F)} PLF minimum of the drops that are currently stored in the priority queue. If so, the process stores (at **1522**) the retrieved drop again in the priority queue, and then transitions back to **1508** to select another drop. Otherwise, the process specifies (at **1520**) the retrieved drop as the Current_Drop and then transitions to **1532**, which will be further described below.

If the process determines (at **1514**) that the filtering at **1510** resulted in two or more convex pieces of the retrieved drop's G PLF, the process specifies (at **1524**) a drop for each remaining piece and sets their parameters as follows. The process defines each specified drop's particle as the retrieved drop's particle. It also sets each specified drop's previous drop identically to the retrieved drop's previous drop (which might be null). The process also sets each specified drop's G PLF equal to the portion of the retrieved drop's G PLF for which the drop was specified. It also sets each specified drop's {circumflex over (F)} PLF equal to the sum of (1) the specified drop's G PLF, and (2) the portion of the retrieved drop's {circumflex over (F)} PLF with the same domain as the specified drop's G PLF.

At **1526**, the process then determines whether any of the drops created at **1524** has the lowest {circumflex over (F)} PLF minimum of all the drops stored in the priority queue. If not, the process stores (at **1528**) the drops specified at **1524** in the priority queue based on the minimum of the {circumflex over (F)} PLF of each drop. From **1528**, the process transitions back to **1508** to select another drop. On the other hand, if the process determines (at **1526**) that at least one drop specified at **1524** has the lowest {circumflex over (F)} PLF minimum of all the drops stored in the priority queue, the process identifies (at **1530**) as the Current_Drop a drop that was specified at **1524** and that has the lowest {circumflex over (F)} PLF minimum. At **1530**, the process also stores the remaining specified drops in the priority queue based on the minimum of the {circumflex over (F)} PLF of each drop.

From **1530**, the process transitions to **1532**. The process also transitions to **1532** from **1520**. At **1532**, the process determines whether the Current_Drop's particle is a target. If not, the process tries (at **1534**) to expand the path search about the Current_Drop. Specifically, at **1534**, the process tries to identify one or more potential expansions about the Current_Drop. Some embodiments identify potential expansions about the Current_Drop by (1) identifying a set of valid spaces to which a path can expand from the Current_Drop's particle, and (2) identifying destination particles in each identified space. A valid space is one that contains the Current_Drop's particle but does not contain the particle of the prior drop in a path search (i.e., does not contain the particle of the Current_Drop's previous drop). **1705** that has a last drop **1710** and a second-to-last drop **1715**. The particles of both these drops are part of space **1725**. The particle of drop **1710** is also part of space **1720**. Consequently, space **1720** is a valid expansion space for drop **1710**, but space **1725** is not. There can be multiple viable expansion spaces as a retrieved drop's particle (such as a node) can be in multiple spaces. One of ordinary skill will realize that other embodiments might identify potential expansions about the Current_Drop differently. For instance, some embodiments might define a valid space for an expansion differently. One such embodiment might not require that the Current_Drop's particle to be part of the valid space.

After the process identifies (at **1534**) a set of valid spaces to which the path can expand from the Current_Drop's particle, it identifies (at **1534**) potential destination particles in each identified space. In some embodiments, a path can expand towards exits, walls and holes, as well as the selected net's nodes, in a valid expansion space. One of ordinary skill will realize that other embodiments might specify other potential expansion particles in a valid expansion space.

In the example illustrated in **1710** to exit **1745**, hole **1750**, and wall **1725**. Wall **1725** belongs to a route **1730** of another net. The path generation process **1500** might allow a path expansion to the wall of another net's previously defined path because it might allow later defined routes to rip up earlier defined routes. In such cases, expanding to the walls of another net's path is assessed a penalty, as further described below.

In some situations, the process **1500** cannot identify (at **1534**) any potential expansions to another particle. However, when the process identifies one or more potential expansions at **1534**, the process performs the following four operations at **1534**. First, it specifies the Ĥ PLF of each potential expansion's destination particle if it had not previously been set for the path search. The generation of the Ĥ PLF is described below. Second, the process specifies a G PLF for each potential expansion. The generation of the G PLF for an expansion (i.e., the costing of an expansion) is described below. Third, it filters the G PLF of each potential expansion with the filter PLF of the expansion's destination particle. This filtering operation also sets the destination particle's filter PLF equal to the minimum of the filtered G PLF and the destination particle's previous filter PLF. Filtering two PLF's is described below. Fourth, the process specifies a drop for each convex piece (if any) of a G PLF of a potential expansion that remains after the filtering operation. For each specified drop, the process (1) sets the drop's G PLF equal to the remaining piece of the filtered G PLF for which the drop was created, (2) associates the drop with its expansion's destination particle, (3) sets the drop's previous drop to the Current-Drop, and (4) sets the drop's {circumflex over (F)} PLF to the sum of the drop's G PLF and the portion of its destination particle's Ĥ PLF that is defined over the domain of the drop's G PLF. The process stores each drop it creates at **1534** in the priority queue.

From **1534**, the process transitions to **1536**. The process also transitions to **1536** if it determines at **1512** that no portion of a retrieved drop's G PLF remains after the filtering at **1510**. At **1536**, the process determines whether the priority queue that stores the drops is empty. If so, the process has failed to find a path between the specified source and target sets. Accordingly, it returns (at **1538**) a notification specifying its failure and then ends. On the other hand, when the process determines (at **1536**) that the priority queue is not empty, the process transitions back to **1508** to retrieve the next lowest-cost drop from this priority queue and then to perform the subsequent operations for this drop.

The process has found a path between the source and target sets when it determines (at **1532**) that the Current_Drop's particle is a target. In this situation, the process transitions from **1532** to **1540**. At **1540**, the process **1500** performs a back trace operation to embed topologically the identified path between the source set and the target. Starting at the Current_Drop on the target, this operation “back traces” the sequence of drops that reached the target and generates an ordered list of topological particles that define the topological path. Generation of such an ordered list entails creation of wall particles between each pair of non-wall, non-via particles in the topological path, and can also entail the creation of joints, Steiners, and via nodes. In some embodiments, this operation also specifies coordinates for each topological particle that it creates. The back trace operation is further described in the above-incorporated application.

One of ordinary skill will realize that the Q* path-generation process might be implemented differently in other embodiments. For instance, some embodiments might utilize non-convex PLF's. Also, in some embodiments, the Ĥ cost function might not specify a lower bound on the shortest path between a drop's particle and a target set. In addition, some embodiments might compute the {circumflex over (F)} function slightly differently. For instance, some embodiments might express the {circumflex over (F)} function as:

*{circumflex over (F)}=G+*2**Ĥ. *

Such a function would bias the search process to expand about the drops that are closer to the target set. Alternative embodiments might express the {circumflex over (F)} function as:

*{circumflex over (F)}=G+Ĥ+Ĵ, *

where Ĵ represents the estimated computational effort needed to complete the path from the current drop. The embodiments that use alternative {circumflex over (F)} function do not satisfy the admissibility requirement (i.e., they do not produce consistently the lowest-cost path between source and target sets). On the other hand, the embodiments that use the {circumflex over (F)} function of equation (1) do satisfy this requirement.

**1805** and a set of target nodes **1810** in a triangulated graph **1800**. To simplify this example, the only source and target particles are nodes, and the only intermediate particles are edges. Also, this example accounts only for the distance costs, and ignores spacing constraints on edges due to obstacles.

**1** *a*, **1** *b*, **2**, **3** *a*, **3** *b*, **4** *a*, **4** *b*, **5**–**7**, **8** *a*, **8** *b*, **9**, **10**, and **11**. In this example, the Q* path search starts by identifying and storing drops **1** *a *and **1** *b *about the source node **1805**. This process then successively identifies the sequence of drops **2**, **3** *a *and **3** *b*, and **4** *a *and **4** *b*. It identifies this sequence by successively (1) identifying each of the drops **1** *a*, **2**, and **3** *a *as the drops in the priority queue with the lowest {circumflex over (F)} function minimum, and (2) identifying viable expansions about each of the edges of these drops. Once the process creates and stores expansion drops **4** *a *and **4** *b *as viable expansions from drop **3** *a*, the process identifies drop **1** *b *as the drop with the lowest {circumflex over (F)} function minimum in the priority queue. Accordingly, it then successively identifies the sequence of drops **5**, **6**, **7**, **8** *a*, **8** *b*, **9**, **10**, and **11** that reaches the target set **1810**. The process identifies this sequence by successively (1) identifying each of the drops **5**, **6**, **7**, **8** *a*, **9** as the drops in the priority queue with the lowest {circumflex over (F)} function minimum, and (2) identifying viable expansions about the edge of each of these drops.

In this example, two expansions are identified to each of the following four edges **1825**, **1830**, **1835**, and **1840**. The search process identifies the first expansions (i.e., identifies drops **3** *a*, **3** *b*, **4** *a*, and **4** *b*) to these edges when it expands about drops **1** *a*, **2**, **3** *a*, **3** *b*, and **4** *a*, while it identifies the second expansions (i.e., identifies drops **6**, **7**, **8** *a*, and **8** *b*) to these edges when it expands about drops **5**, **6**, and **7**. The second set of drops (i.e., drops **6**, **7**, and **8** *b*) that are identified for the edges **1825**, **1830**, and **1840** are only specified over portions **1845**, **1850**, and **1855** of these edges. This is because the filtering operations that were performed to assess the viability of these second expansions to edges **1825**, **1830**, and **1840** resulted in the filtering of their G PLF's outside of the portions **1845**, **1850**, and **1855**. However, the second drop **8** *a *on edge **1835** is defined over the entire edge, as the filtering operation that the process performs before identifying this drop does not filter any portion of this expansion's G PLF. This is because the entirety of the edge **1835** can be reached more cheaply through the sequence of drops **1** *b*, **5**, **6**, and **7** than through the sequence of drops **1** *a*, **2**, and **3** *a. *

In the example illustrated in **11**, **9**, **8** *a*, **7**, **6**, **5**, **1** *b*, and **12**, where drop **12** is the drop created for the source node **1805**. After identifying this sequence of drops, the Q* search process embeds a path for this sequence. An approximation of this embedded path is illustrated in

When the process **1500** identifies (at **1534**) a potential expansion from the Current_Drop's particle to a destination particle, this process specifies (at **1534**) a G PLF for such a potential expansion. In some embodiments, the process **1500** computes this G PLF by (1) propagating the Current_Drop's G PLF to the destination particle, and (2) for certain expansions, adding one or more penalty costs to the PLF resulting from the propagation.

A. Propagation

Propagating the Current_Drop's G PLF to an expansion's destination particle generates a PLF that expresses the distance and penalty costs of reaching the Current_Drop's particle plus the distance cost of reaching the expansion's particle from the Current_Drop's particle. In other words, the propagation accounts for the extra distance cost of going from the Current_Drop's particle to the expansion's particle.

Some embodiments limit each propagation operation to only the portion of the expansion's destination particle to which a path can expand from the Current_Drop. The discussion below uses the phrase “destination state” to refer to the portion of an expansion's destination particle to which a path can expand from the Current_Drop. This discussion also uses the phrases “the Current_Drop's domain” or “the start domain” to refer to the domain of the Current_Drop's G PLF.

Nine different propagation operations are described below for nine pair-wise combinations of expansions between points, line, and surfaces. In these propagation operations, points represent nodes, lines represent edge- and wall-segments to which a path can expand, and surfaces represent portions of holes to which a path can expand.

As mentioned above, a hole is specified between each pair of overlapping spaces when the intersection of the two polygons of the overlapping spaces is larger than a threshold size. Such a hole represents a potential via that can be anywhere in the polygonal intersection of the two polygons of the two overlapping spaces. In some embodiments, a path for a net can expand to each portion of a hole. These embodiments might specify the same width and spacing constraints for all nets being routed at a given time, or might construct each hole for the worst case of constraints (e.g., construct the polygons of the hole's overlapping spaces for the worst case of constraints). Alternatively, some embodiments construct each hole based on the best case of constraints (e.g., construct the polygons of the hole's overlapping spaces for the best case of constraints). For an expansion of a path of a net to a hole, these embodiments then identify a sub-set of the hole's polygon (i.e., the polygonal surface represented by the hole) to which the net's path can expand given the spacing constraints for the net. One manner for identifying the sub-set of hole polygons is described in the above-incorporated application.

1. Expansion From Point to Point

To perform a propagation operation for an expansion that goes from an expansion start point to an expansion destination point (e.g., goes from one node to another node), the process **1500** identifies the distance between the two points and adds this distance to the G PLF of the start point (i.e., to the Current_Drop's G PLF). In some embodiments, the process measures the distance between two points in an IC layout using only a specified set of wiring directions that are specified by the layout's wiring model. For instance, when two points are on an octilinear layer that can have horizontal, vertical, and ±45° diagonal interconnect lines, the distance between the two points is the shortest distance that can be traversed by using horizontal, vertical, and ±45° diagonal interconnect lines. As disclosed in United States patent application entitled “Hierarchical Routing Method and Apparatus that Utilize Diagonal Routes,” and having Ser. No. 10/013,813, the shortest distance between two points for such an octilinear wiring model:

Distance=*L+S**(sqrt(2)−1), (2)

where L and S respectively represent the long and short sides of a rectangular bounding box that is aligned with the layout's x-y axes and that encompasses the two points. This manner of computing the shortest distance does not disfavor or penalize any preferred wiring direction over another preferred wiring direction.

Numerous other operations below require the computation of the distance between two points. The embodiments described below compute each such distance according to the above-described equation (2).

2. Expansion from Point to Line or Point to Surface

**2000** that propagates a PLF that is defined over a point to a line or a surface. This process is described below by reference to

As show in **2000** initially projects (at **2005**) vectors in all available interconnect directions from the Current_Drop's point. These vectors are referred to below as propagation vectors. The embodiments described below utilize a wiring model that specifies horizontal, vertical, and +45° diagonal interconnect lines on each layer. Accordingly, these embodiments project vectors in the 0°, 45°, 90°, 135°, 180°, 225°, 270°, and 315° directions.

At **2010**, the process then identifies the intersection of the projected propagation vectors and the destination line or surface. A propagation vector intersects with a line at a point that is the location of a knot of the destination's line PLF. **2105**, **2110**, and **2115** at three points **2120**, **2125**, and **2130** along line L. A propagation vector intersects a surface either (1) at only a vertex of the surface, or (2) at two points on the surface boundary and an edge that runs through the surface. **2215** and **2220** with the surface S along edges **2270** and **2275**, which respectively terminate on boundary point pair **2225** and **2230** and point pair **2235** and **2240**.

Next, for the expansion to the destination state, the process **2000** then specifies (at **2015**) a G PLF with knots at the intersections identified at **2010**. Specifically, for a destination line, the process **2000** specifies (at **2015**) a knot at each point of the destination line that a propagation vector intersects. **2145** with three knots **2150**, **2155**, and **2160** for the three intersection points **2120**, **2125**, and **2130**. For a destination surface, the process **2000** specifies (at **2015**) a knot at each surface vertex intersected by a propagation vector and a knot at each surface boundary point intersected by a propagation vector. **2260** with four knots **2280**, **2282**, **2284**, and **2286** that are defined for four boundary intersection points **2225**, **2230**, **2235**, and **2240**.

At **2015**, the process **2000** sets the PLF-value of each knot that it specifies at **2015**. The PLF-value of a knot specified at **2015** equals (1) the Current_Drop's PLF-value at the start point, plus (2) the distance between the knot's x,y coordinates and the start point P, where this distance is measured along the direction of the propagation vector that was used to identify the knot. For example, in **4155** equals the PLF-value at point P plus the distance D between point P and intersection point **4125** along the direction of propagation vector **4110**. In **2286** equals the PLF-value at point P plus the distance D between point P and intersection point **2240** along the direction of propagation vector **2220**.

At **2020**, the process specifies knots for the expansion's G PLF at the location of any unexamined vertex of the destination state. The vertices of a destination line are its endpoints. A line endpoint is an unexamined vertex if none of the projected propagation vectors intersect the destination line at the endpoint. The PLF-value of an unexamined endpoint of a destination line equals (1) the Current_Drop's PLF-value at the start point, plus (2) the distance (according to the equation (2)) between the start point and the endpoint. For instance, in **4165** and **4170** at the endpoints **4175** and **4180** of the line L, and specifies the PLF-value of each of these knots as the PLF-value at point P plus the distance (according to equation (2)) between point P and each knot location **4175** or **4180**.

The vertices of a destination surface are the vertices of the edges that define the surface's external boundary. Such a vertex is an unexamined vertex if none of the propagation vectors intersect the destination surface at the vertex. In **2265**, all of which are “unexamined” as they are not at the intersection of the propagation vectors and the surface. Accordingly, five knots **2290** are specified at the unexamined vertices **2265**. The PLF-value for each such knot equals (1) the distance (according to equation (2)) between the start point and the surface's vertex that corresponds to the knot, plus (2) the Current_Drop's PLF-value at the start point. For instance, the PLF-value of knot **2290** *a *equals the PLF-value at the start point P plus the distance (according to equation (2)) between point P and vertex **2265** *a. *

For a destination surface, the process **2000** uses (at **2025**) the knots specified at **2015** and **2020** to specify the edges and facets of the surface PLF that is defined over the destination surface. For each facet, the process defines a normal and a z-intercept. Standard plane-defining techniques can be used to derive the normal and z-intercept values of a facet from three points on the facet. For each facet, the process **2000** identified at least three knots at **2015** and **2020**.

3. Line to Line or Surface to Line

**2300** for propagating a PLF from a line to another line or from a surface to a line. This process is described by reference to **2405** to another line **2410**, and **2502** to a line **2504**.

As shown in **2300** initially identifies (at **2305**) the propagation vectors that emanate from the locations on the Current_Drop's domain that are locations of knots in the Current_Drop's G PLF. The identification of these propagation vectors is further described below by reference to **2415** and **2420** on line **2405**. In **2506**–**2518** of surface **2502**.

Next, at **2310**, the process **2300** projects the propagation vectors identified at **2305**. **2415** and five propagation vectors from knot-location **2420**. In **2506**, **2512**, and **2514**, two propagation vectors are projected from each of the vertices **2508** and **2518**, and one propagation vector is projected from each of the vertices **2510** and **2516**. In some embodiments, the process **2300** does not project (at **2310**) vectors in all interconnect directions. Instead, it projects only the propagation vectors that will intersect the destination state. In these embodiments, this process projects propagation vectors that fall within a triangle defined by the knot-location and the leftmost and rightmost vertices of the destination line or surface.

The process **2300** identifies (at **2315**) the intersection of the destination line and the propagation vectors that were projected at **2310**. **2430** and **2435** and the line **2410** at points **2450** and **2455**. **2522**, **2524**, and **2526** and the line **2504** at points **2530**, **2532**, and **2534**.

Each intersection identified at **2315** is a knot in the expansion's G PLF. Accordingly, for the expansion to the destination line, the process specifies (at **2320**) a line G PLF with a knot at each intersection identified at **2315**. At **2320**, the process computes the PLF-value of each knot specified at **2320**. The PLF-value of each destination-state knot equals (1) the PLF-value of the Current_Drop's knot that was used to identify the destination-state knot, plus (2) the distance between the x,y coordinates of the Current_Drop and destination-state knots, where this distance is measured along the projected propagation vector that identified the destination-state knot.

For instance, in **2472**, which is defined at the intersection **2450** of the propagation vector **2430** and the line **2410**, equals (1) the PLF-value of the Current_Drop's G PLF at **2420** on the line **2405**, plus (2) the distance D**1** between points **2420** and **2450** along the direction of the propagation vector **2430**. Similarly, in **2524**, which is defined at the intersection **2532** of the propagation vector **2524** and the line **2504**, equals (1) the PLF-value of the Current_Drop's G PLF at **2512** on the surface **2502**, plus (2) the distance D**2** between points **2512** and **2532** along the direction of the propagation vector **2524**.

At **2325**, the process specifies knots for the expansion's G PLF at the location of unexamined vertices of the destination line, and then terminates. As mentioned above, an unexamined vertex of a destination line is an endpoint of the line that does not intersect any of the projected propagation vectors. An unexamined destination-line vertex can be in either (1) a “wedge” that is defined by two propagation vectors that emanate from the same location on the Current_Drop's domain, (2) a “channel” that is defined by two parallel propagation vectors that emanate from two different locations on the Current_Drop's domain. The PLF-value of a knot specified for an unexamined vertex that is within a wedge defined by two propagation vectors emanating from the same start-state location equals (1) the PLF-value of Current_Drop's G PLF at the start-state location, plus (2) the distance (according to the equation (2)) between the start-state location and the unexamined vertex. On the other hand, the PLF-value of a knot specified for an unexamined vertex that is within a channel defined equals (1) the length of a line segment that is parallel to the two channel-defining vectors and that starts at the unexamined vertex and terminates at the start domain, plus (2) the PLF-value of the Current_Drop's G PLF at the point that the line segment terminates on the start domain. The line segment terminates on the start domain on a second line segment that is between the two knot locations from which the two channel-defining vectors emanate. When the start domain is a surface, the second line segment (1) is an edge on the boundary of the surface if the two knot locations are boundary vertices of the surface, and (2) is a line segment within the surface if the two channel-defining knot locations are within the surface.

For instance, in **2445** of the line **2405** falls within a channel defined by propagation vectors **2425** and **2430**. The distance between endpoint **2445** and line **2405** is the length D**3** of a line segment **2440** that is parallel to vectors **2425** and **2430**. Accordingly, the PLF-value of the knot **2476** specified at endpoint **2445** equals the length D**3** plus the PLF-value of the Current_Drop's G PLF at point **2480**, which is the location that line segment **2440** intersects line **2405**. The endpoint **2460**, on the other hand, is within a wedge defined by two propagation vectors **2435** and **2482** that emanate from the start-state location **2420** on the line **2405**. Accordingly, the PLF-value for the knot **2478** that is specified at **2460** equals (1) the PLF-value of the Current_Drop's G PLF at the start-state location, plus (2) the distance between points **2460** and **2420** according to the equation (2).

In **2554** falls within a channel defined by propagation vectors **2520** and **2522**. The distance between endpoint **2554** and surface **2502** is the length D**4** of a line segment **2560** that is parallel to vectors **2520** and **2522**. Accordingly, the PLF-value of the knot **2550** specified at point **2554** equals the length D**4** plus the PLF-value of the Current_Drop's G PLF at point **2562**, which is the location that the line segment **2560** intersects the surface boundary. The endpoint **2556**, on the other hand, is within a wedge defined by two propagation vectors **2526** and **2564** that emanate from the start-state location **2512**. Accordingly, the PLF-value for the knot **2552** that is specified at **2556** equals (1) the PLF-value of the Current_Drop's G PLF at the start-state location **2512**, plus (2) the distance between points **2512** and **2556** according to the above-described equation (2).

As mentioned above, each wedge is defined by two propagation vectors that emanate from the same knot location. Two wedges are abutting wedges when they share a propagation vector, while two wedges are adjacent wedges when they have parallel propagation vectors. For instance, **2650**–**2664** that are defined about five knot locations **2625**–**2645** from a surface PLF's domain **2600**. In this figure, there are three abutting wedge pairs, and five adjacent wedge pairs. For instance, wedges **2658** and **2656** are abutting wedges as they share vector **2666**, while wedges **2654** and **2656** are adjacent wedges as their vectors **2668** and **2670** are parallel.

The parallel propagation vectors of two adjacent wedges define a freeway. For instance, a freeway **2672** exits between adjacent wedge pairs **2662** and **2664** in

Some embodiments define the direction of the propagation vectors that emanate from an a Current_Drop's domain by performing the following three operations. First, they identify the knot location for each wedge. Second, these embodiments identify one or more freeways between adjacent wedge pairs. Third, for each identified freeway, these embodiments determine whether to treat the freeway as one channel, or to define additional channels within the freeway by defining one or more propagation vectors that are parallel to the freeway-defining vectors and that emanate from knot location(s) that fall within the freeway. The first operation (i.e., the identification of the knot location for each wedge) is described below by reference to

**2800** that identifies the knot location for each propagation-vector wedge that emanates from the Current_Drop's domain, which can be a line or a surface. This process will be described by reference to an example illustrated in **2600** of

The process **2800** initially selects (at **2805**) a wedge. There are eight wedges when the octilinear wiring model that specifies horizontal, vertical, and +45° diagonal interconnect lines on each layer is used. The process then selects (at **2810**) a knot location as the first candidate location for the source of the selected wedge, and records this knot location as the current best (Current_Best) location for the selected wedge. **2660** and a first candidate knot location **2610**. Next, at **2815**, the process selects a second candidate knot location for the source of the selected wedge and records it as Next_Candidate location. In **2625**.

At **2820**, the process then determines whether the Current_Best knot location is a better candidate location than the Next_Candidate location. This determination ensures that all locations in the wedge are best reached from the source of that wedge, when both distance and PLF-value is considered. To make this determination, the process performs the following four operations. First, the process uses the selected wedge's “vector,” which in some embodiments is defined to be a unit vector that bisects the wedge (i.e., it is midway between the two vectors that define the wedge). **2705** of the selected wedge **2660**.

Second, the process computes the dot product of the selected wedge's vector and a vector that starts from Current_Best knot location and terminates on Next_Candidate knot location. This computation quantifies whether the Next_Candidate knot location is closer to an arbitrary point in the wedge than the Current_Best knot location. **2710** from the Current_Best location **2610** to the Next_Candidate location **2625**.

Third, after computing the dot product, the process computes a Cost_Delta, which is the difference in the PLF-values of Next_Candidate location and the Current_Best location according to the Current_Drop's G PLF (Cost_Delta=G PLF(Next_Candidate)−G PLF(Current_Best)). For the example in **2625** and **2610**.

Fourth, the process determines whether the computed dot product is greater than the Cost_Delta. If not, the Current_Best location is better than the Next_Candidate location, and the process transitions from **2820** to **2830**, which is further described below. If so, the Next_Candidate location is a better location for the wedge than Current_Best location, and the process transitions from **2820** to **2825**. At **2825**, the process sets the Current_Best location equal to the Next_Candidate location, and then transitions to **2830**. At **2830**, the process determines whether it has examined all knot locations for the wedge selected at **2805**. If not, the process selects (at **2835**) another knot location, sets this knot location as the Next_Candidate, and transitions to **2820** to compare this newly selected Next_Candidate with the Current_Best.

When the process determines at **2830** that it has examined all the locations of knots in the Current_Drop's G PLF, the process defines (at **2840**) Current_Best as the knot location for the selected wedge. The process then determines (at **2845**) whether it has examined all the wedges. If not, it returns to **2805** to select another wedge and to repeat its operations for this wedge. Otherwise, it ends.

After identifying the locations of the wedges, the Q* engine has to specify the channels between the wedges. When two wedges abut (i.e., when they share a propagation vector), no channel can exist between the wedges. However, when two wedges are adjacent wedges (i.e., when they have parallel propagation vectors) one or more channels can be defined in the freeway defined by the parallel vectors of the adjacent wedge pairs.

If the Current_Drop's domain is a line, the Q* engine examines each adjacent wedge pair that is defined along the line. If no knot location exists on the line segment between the adjacent wedge pair, then the Q* engine defines the freeway between the adjacent wedge pair as a channel. If one or more knot locations exist on the line segment between an adjacent wedge pair, the Q* engine examines each knot location to determine whether they are sources of propagation vectors. The engine initially sorts in descending order the PLF-values of the knot locations between the adjacent wedge pair. If there is only one knot location between the adjacent wedge pair, the engine simply adds this PLF-value to its sorted list. The engine then selects the largest PLF-value on the sorted list. The Q* engine then identifies the channel that contains the knot location corresponding to the selected PLF-value. This channel is the freeway formed by the adjacent wedge pair when the knot location is the first location between the wedge pair that is examined. When the knot location is not the first location between the wedge pair, the channel might be formed by one or two propagation vectors that the engine specified for knot locations (between the wedge pair) that it previously examined.

The engine next determines whether the selected PLF-value for the knot location is less than the PLF-value that can be obtained by linearly interpolating between the values at the knot locations of the vectors that define the channel that contains the selected PLF-value's knot location (i.e., determines if the selected value is below a line that connects the PLF-values at the knot locations from which the identified-channel's vectors emanate). If so, the engine specifies a channel-defining vector at the knot location associated with the selected PLF-value. This specified vector is parallel to the parallel vectors of the adjacent wedge pair.

**2930** that is between two adjacent wedge pairs (where one pair is formed by wedges **2910** and **2915** and one pair is formed by wedges **2920** and **2925**). This knot location is examined for each of these adjacent wedge pairs. When the engine examines location **2930** for adjacent wedges **2910** and **2915**, it determines whether the PLF-value of this location is smaller than the PLF-value that can be obtained for this location by linearly interpolating between the PLF-values at knot locations **2945** and **2950** that serves as the emanating location of the wedges **2910** and **2915**. In **2930** is less than the PLF-value that can be obtained through the linear interpolation. Accordingly, two propagation vectors **2935** and **2940** are defined for the knot location **2930**. The propagation vector **2935** is parallel to the parallel vectors of adjacent wedges **2910** and **2915**, while the propagation vector **2940** is parallel to the parallel vectors of adjacent wedges **2920** and **2925**.

**3000** for defining channels between adjacent wedge pairs when the Current_Drop's domain is a surface. This process will be described by reference to **3100** of a surface PLF. The process **3000** initially identifies (at **3005**) all adjacent wedge pairs. It then selects (at **3010**) one of the adjacent wedge pairs. In **3105** and **3110**.

Next, at **3015**, the process projects each location of a knot (in the Current_Drop's G PLF), which falls within the freeway that the selected wedge pair defines, towards a line that connects the knot locations from which the wedge pair emanates. The projection is in a direction that is parallel to the adjacent-wedge-pair vectors that define the freeway. In **3120**, **3125**, **3130**, **3135**, **3140**, and **3142** fall within the freeway **3115** between the adjacent wedges **3105** and **3110**. Also, the two wedges emanate from knot locations **3145** and **3150**, and an edge **3170** exists between these two locations. Knot location **3120** lies on the edge **3170**, and hence does not need to be projected towards this line segment. On the other hand, knot locations **3125**, **3130**, **3135**, **3140**, and **3142** need to be projected towards this line segment in the direction of the vectors **3155** and **3160** that define the freeway **3115**. **3125** towards this edge.

At **3015**, the process then computes a cost at the intersection of each projection with the line. The cost at each intersection point equals the sum of the PLF-value of the G PLF at the intersection point plus the distance between the projected knot location and the intersection of the knot-location's projection and the line. In **3125** is point **3165** on the edge **3150**. Its computed cost equals the distance D between knot location **3125** and point **3165** and the value of the G PLF at the point **3165**. The distance D between a projected knot location and the intersection of its projection and the line might be a positive or a negative value depending on position of the knot location with respect to the line that connects the knot locations from which the adjacent wedge pair emanates. For instance, **3175** within the domain **3180** of a surface PLF. This edge connects to adjacent wedge pair **3182** and **3184**. **3186** and **3188** that fall within the freeway **3190** (defined by the wedge pair **3182** and **3184**) on opposing sides of the edge **3175**. The distance D**1** between knot location **3186** and this knot's projection point **3192** on the edge **3175** is positive, but the distance D**2** between the knot location **3188** and this knot's projection point **3194** on the edge **3175** is negative. The distance D**2** is negative because the knot location **3188** is on the side of the edge **3175** that is in the direction of the freeway-defining wedge vectors.

At **3020**, the process sorts the computed PLF-values in descending order. It then selects (at **3025**) the largest PLF-value on the sorted list. The process then identifies (at **3030**) the channel that contains the intersection point corresponding to the PLF-value selected at **3025**. This channel is the freeway that the adjacent wedge pair selected at **3010** defines at the first iteration through **3030** for the selected wedge pair. In the subsequent iterations through **3030**, the propagation vectors that the process **3000** might identify for the knot locations between the adjacent wedge pair might define this channel partially or completely.

After **3030**, the process determines whether the selected PLF-value for the intersection point is less than the PLF-value that can be obtained by linearly interpolating between the values at the two knot locations of the vectors that define the channel that contains the intersection point (i.e., determines if the selected value is below a line that connects the PLF-values at the knot locations of the identified-channel's vectors). For instance, in **3100** has the PLF-value at the knot locations **3145** and **3150**. From these two PLF-values the process can linearly interpolate the value of any point on the line **3150** between these two locations. Accordingly, if the first selected PLF-value is the PLF-value at the intersection point **3165** for the knot location **3125**, the process determines (at **3130**) whether the cost computed for this knot location's projection onto point **3165** is less than the value that can be obtained for this point by linearly interpolating between the values specified at knot locations **3145** and **3150**.

If the process determines (at **3135**) that the selected PLF value is not less than the value that can be obtained through the linear interpolation, the process transitions to **3045**, which is further described below. Otherwise, the process specifies (at **3040**) a channel-defining vector at the knot location associated with the selected PLF-value. This specified vector is parallel to the parallel vectors of the adjacent wedge pair. From **3040**, the process transitions to **3045**.

At **3045**, the process determines whether it has examined all the knot locations that fall within the freeway defined by the adjacent wedge pair. If not, the process selects (at **3050**) the next largest PLF-value in the sorted list that it created at **3020**. The process then performs **3030** and **3035** for the intersection point that corresponds to the PLF-value selected at **3050**. As mentioned above, the first iteration through **3030** identifies the freeway as the channel that contains the intersection point corresponding to the PLF-value selected at **3025**. However, a subsequent iteration through **3030** from **3050** might identify a different channel that contains the intersection point corresponding to the PLF-value selected at **3050**. This is because, if the process iterates through **3040** one or more times, it defines more propagation vectors that break the freeway into smaller and smaller channels. When the process **3000** identifies (at **3030**) a smaller channel (i.e., a channel that covers only a portion of the freeway) that contains the intersection point corresponding to the selected PLF-value, it derives (at **3035**) the interpolated value based on PLF-value of the knot locations from which the vectors that define the channel emanate.

When the process determines at **3045** that it has examined all the knot locations that fall within the selected wedge pair's freeway, the process determines (at **3055**) whether it has examined all the adjacent wedge pairs. If not, the process transitions back to **3010** to select an unexamined wedge pair. Otherwise, the process terminates.

4. Line to Surface

**3200** for propagating a G PLF from a line to a surface. The process **3200** is quite similar to the process **2300** of **3200** has only a few minor differences with the process **2300**. Propagating a PLF to a surface results in a surface PLF. Hence, after **2325**, the process **3200** uses the attributes of the knots that it specifies to define edges and facets of a surface PLF, and to define the normal and z-intercept values of the facets.

Also, in process **3200**, a propagation vector intersects the destination surface either at only a vertex or along an edge that runs through the surface and connects two points on the boundary of the surface. For the case where the propagation vector intersects the surface only at a vertex, the process **3200** would specify (at **2320**) a knot at the vertex's x,y coordinates. For the case where the propagation vector runs through the surface, the process **3200** would specify (at **2320**) two knots at the surface boundary points where the propagation vector intersects the surface boundary.

**3305** to a surface **3310**. For such a propagation, the process **3200** would initially identify (at **2305**) the propagation vectors that emanate from the locations on the Current_Drop's line that are locations of knots in the Current_Drop's G PLF. These propagation vectors are identified based on the process described above by reference to **3315** and **3320** on line **3305**. From each of these points, five propagation vectors are projected. From these points, some embodiments would project only the propagation vectors that would intersect the destination surface, as mentioned above.

Next, at **2310** and **2315**, the process **3200** projects the propagation vectors identified at **2305**, and identifies their intersections with the destination surface. In **3325** and **3330** that emanate from points **3315** and **3320** intersect the destination surface along edges **3360** and **3362**, which respectively terminate on boundary point pair **3335** and **3340** and point pair **3345** and **3350**.

The process **3200** then starts to specify (at **2320**) a G PLF that is defined over the destination surface. Specifically, at **2320**, the process specifies a knot at each intersection of the propagation vectors and the boundary of the destination surface. In **3398** by specifying four knots **3352**, **3354**, **3356**, and **3358** at the identified intersections **3335**, **3340**, **3345**, and **3350**. The PLF-value of each specified destination knot equals (1) the PLF-value of the start knot that was used to identify the destination knot, plus (2) the distance between the x,y coordinates of the start and destination knots, where this distance is measured along the projected propagation vector that identified the destination knot. For instance, the PLF-value of knot **3354** that is specified for the location **3340** equals the distance D**1** between **3340** and **3315**, plus the PLF-value of the Current_Drop's G PLF at **3315**.

At **2325**, the process **3200** then specifies knots for the destination's PLF at the location of the unexamined vertices of the destination. In **3364**, **3366**, **3368**, and **3370**. For these vertices, the process **3200** specifies knots **3372**, **3374**, **3376**, and **3378**. The PLF-value of each of these knots is computed based on whether the knot's corresponding destination-surface vertex falls within a propagation-vector wedge or channel.

For instance, the unexamined vertex **3370** falls within a wedge defined by two propagation vectors **3325** and **3322** that project from **3315**. Accordingly, the PLF-value of knot **3378** at vertex **3370** equals (1) the PLF-value of the Current_Drop's G PLF at point **3315**, plus (2) the distance (according to equation (2)) between points **3315** and **3370**. On the other hand, the unexamined vertex **3368** falls within a channel defined by two parallel propagation vectors **3325** and **3330** that project from two different points **3315** and **3320**. The distance between the vertex **3368** and the line **3305** is the length D**2** of a line segment **3380** that is parallel to vectors **3325** and **3330**. This line segment intersects line **3305** at **3382**. Hence, the PLF-value of knot **3376** at vertex **3368** equals (1) the length D**2**, plus (2) the Current_Drop's G PLF-value at **3382**.

After **2325**, the process **3200** uses (at **3205**) the knots specified at **2320** and **2325** to specify the edges and facets of the surface PLF that is defined over the destination surface. For each facet, the process defines a normal and a z-intercept.

5. Surface to Point or Line to Point

**3400** for propagating a PLF from a line to a point or from a surface to a point. This process is described by reference to **3505** to a point **3520**, and **3602** to a point **3620**.

As shown in **3400** initially identifies (at **3405**) the propagation vectors that emanate from the locations on the Current_Drop's domain that are locations of knots in the Current_Drop's G PLF. The identification of these propagation vectors was described above by reference to **3510** and **3515** on line **3505**. In **3604**–**3616** of surface **3602**.

Next, at **3410**, the process **3400** projects the propagation vectors identified at **3405**. **3510** and four propagation vectors from knot-location **3515**. In **3606** and **3614**, two propagation vectors are projected from each of the vertices **3604**, **3608**, **3610**, and **3612**, and one propagation vector is projected from vertex **3616**.

The process **3400** then identifies (at **3415**) the propagation-vector wedge or channel that contains the destination point. As mentioned above, a propagation-vector “wedge” is defined by two propagation vectors that emanate from the same location on the start domain, while a “channel” is defined by two parallel propagation vectors that emanate from two different locations on the start domain. After identifying the wedge or channel in which the destination point falls, the process computes (at **3415**) the PLF-value at the destination point. The PLF-value at the destination point that is within a wedge equals (1) the PLF-value of Current_Drop's G PLF at the start domain vertex from which the wedge's propagation vectors emanate, plus (2) the distance (according to equation (2)) between this vertex and the destination point. On the other hand, the PLF-value at a destination point that is within a channel equals (1) the length of a line segment that is parallel to the two channel-defining vectors and that starts at the destination point and terminates at the start domain, plus (2) the PLF-value of the Current_Drop's G PLF at the point that the line segment terminates on the start domain. The line segment terminates on the start domain on a second line segment that is between the two knot locations from which the two channel-defining vectors emanate. When the start domain is a surface, the second line segment (1) is an edge on the boundary of the surface if the two knot locations are boundary vertices of the surface, and (2) is a line segment within the surface if the two channel-defining knot locations are within the surface.

For instance, in **3520** falls within a channel defined by two propagation vectors **3530** and **3535**. The distance between the destination point **3520** and line **3505** is the length D of a line segment **3550** that is parallel to vectors **3530** and **3535**. Accordingly, the PLF-value at destination point **3520** equals the length D plus the PLF-value of the Current_Drop's G PLF at point **3545**, which is the location that line segment **3550** intersects line **3505**. If the destination point was point **3525** that is within the wedge defined by propagation vectors **3530** and **3540**, the PLF-value at point **3525** would be (1) the PLF-value of the Current_Drop's G PLF at point **3515**, plus (2) the distance (according to equation (2)) between points **3515** and **3525**.

In **3620** falls within a channel defined by two propagation vectors **3624** and **3626**. The distance between the destination point **3620** and surface **3602** is the length D of a line segment **3630** that is parallel to vectors **3624** and **3626**. Accordingly, the PLF-value at destination point **3620** equals the length D plus the PLF-value of the Current_Drop's G PLF at point **3662**, which is the location that line segment **3630** intersects surface **3602**. If the destination point was point **3618** that is within the wedge defined by propagation vectors **3622** and **3624**, the PLF-value at point **3618** would be (1) the PLF-value of the Current_Drop's G PLF at point **3610**, plus (2) the distance (according to equation (2)) between points **3610** and **3618**.

After **3415**, the process **3400** terminates.

6. Expansion from Surface to Surface

A G PLF is propagated from a surface to another surface when, for example, the expansion is from one hole to another hole. In the embodiments described below, such an expansion would define a topologically stacked via, which is a topologically defined via that would start and end on two non-adjacent layers. A topologically defined stacked via does not always result in a geometrically stacked via.

A viable expansion from one hole to another would require that the start and destination surfaces (i.e., the portions of hole polygons to which a path can expand) have sufficient overlap. Some embodiments define the G PLF of such an expansion only over the region of the destination polygonal surface that overlaps the start polygonal surface (i.e., only at the intersection of the domains of the start and destination surfaces). In this region, the expansion's G PLF would be identical to the Current_Drop's G PLF for the corresponding region of the start polygonal surface. Of course, the expansion's G PLF might have new knots and might have modified edge and facet descriptions to account for the boundary of the overlapping regions.

**2** and **3** might contain the start surface, while two spaces in layers **3** and **4** might contain the destination surface. **3705** and a destination polygonal surface **3710**. This figure also illustrates a region **3715** that the polygons **3705** and **3710** overlap. It also illustrates the G PLF **3720** that is defined over the start surface **3705**. This figure illustrates a projected view of the G PLF **3720** onto the x,y plane, in order to simplify the visual presentation of this PLF.

In **3715** is sufficiently large. Hence, the expansion is viable, and a G PLF needs to be computed for the expansion. **3770** is defined only over the overlapping portion **3715**. This PLF **3770** is identical to the portion of the Current_Drop's G PLF **3720** that is defined across the overlapping region **3715**. However, the PLF **3770** has new knots and modified edge and facet descriptions in order to account for the boundary of the overlap region. In particular, the expansion's G PLF **3770** will include two facets **3725** and **3730**. Facets **3725** and **3730** have the same normal as the two facets **3740** and **3745** of the Current_Drop G PLF. However, these facets have slightly different knots and edges. Specifically, facet **3725** includes knots **3750**, **3754**, **3756**, **3764**, and **3766**, while facet **3730** includes knots **3756**, **3758**, **3760**, **3762**, and **3764**. All these knots specify the boundaries of facets **3725** and **3730**, which are smaller than the facets **3740** and **3745** of the Current_Drop's PLF. Also, the edge **3772** between facets **3725** and **3730** is shorter than the edge between facets **3740** and **3745**.

B. Penalty Cost

Propagating the Current_Drop's G PLF to a potential destination particle specifies an initial G PLF for a potential expansion. If the potential expansion needs to be penalized, the process **1500** adds to the initial G PLF one or more penalty costs associated with the potential expansion. Some embodiments penalize expansions to holes, expansions to overcongested edges and expansions to walls of other nets. Some embodiments also penalize expansions that shove routes of other nets along edges or within faces.

1. Penalty for Expansion to Overcongested Edges

Process **1500** allows a path to expand to the exits of overcongested edges. The route flow across an edge equals the width of the net routes crossing the edge plus the spacing between the crossing net routes and between the net routes and the edge nodes. **3800**. The two routes have widths W**1** and W**2** and spacing S**1** and S**3**, respectively, towards their adjacent edge nodes. Also, the spacing between the two routes is defined as S**2**. **3800** would look like after a third route is inserted across it. The flow of this edge equals the sum of the following: (1) the minimum spacing S**1** between net **1** and its adjacent node, (2) the width W**1** of net **1**, (3) the minimum spacing S**4** between nets **1** and **3**, (4) the width W**3** of net **3**, (5) the minimum spacing S**5** between nets **3** and **2**, (6) the width W**2** of net **2**, and (7) the minimum spacing S**3** between net **3** and its adjacent node.

When the route flow is equal to or less than the capacity of the edge, the expansion is allowed and legal. On the other hand, when this flow is larger than the edge capacity, the expansion is still allowed, but it is recorded as an illegal expansion. Some embodiments compute the capacity of each edge according to the processes described above by reference to

Some embodiments pretabulate in a storage structure the widths for each net on each layer and the spacing requirements between each net and every other net, pin, or obstacle on each layer. Accordingly, in these embodiments, the path-generation process **1500** retrieves these values from the storage structure when it needs them (e.g., when it is computing edge capacities).

An expansion to an edge that is overcongested before or after the expansion is assessed an extra penalty cost. This penalty is called a congestion penalty. In some embodiments, this congestion penalty is a pre-defined penalty constant. In other embodiments, this penalty is a constant that is derived based on the congestion of the edge. This constant is linearly or non-linearly (e.g., quadratically) proportional to the amount of over-congestion on the edge.

2. Expansion to Holes

Expansions to holes are also assessed a penalty cost. This penalty can be different for holes between different layer pairs if the cost introduced by a via between different layer pairs is different. A via introduces a variety of costs in a design, and the penalty can take into account all these costs. For instance, from a resistance or delay point of view, a via might cost fifty times more than the resistance or delay of a unit length of a wire. Accordingly, the penalty might be 50 (i.e., the via can be counted as a wire that is 50 units long). Alternatively, each via might reduce the manufacturing yield by some amount. This reduction can also be accounted for by equating it to a wirelength and adding it to the cost function.

3. Expansion to Walls of Other Nets

As mentioned above by reference to **1500** allows the path for one net to expand to the wall of another net (i.e., to specify a drop for an expansion to the wall of another net). The process, however, adds a rip penalty to the cost (i.e., G PLF) of an expansion to a wall of another net. This is because if such a drop is ever retrieved from the storage structure, the expansions that are defined about this drop will require piercing of the other net's route. In some embodiments, the rip penalty is larger than two via penalties. Such a penalty ensures that the path search only rips another net's route when it has reasonably exhausted all other viable expansions on the same layer or in the layers above or below.

4. Expansion that Shoves Previously Defined Routes

Some embodiments also penalize expansions that shove routes of other nets along edges or within faces.

a. Shoving Other Routes Along Edges

A potential expansion to an edge might cause the other net routes on the edge to have to be shoved along that edge. **3900** that generates a line PLF that expresses the extra shoving cost of an expansion to an exit on an edge with one or more net routes crossing it. This process is described by reference to **4002** on a first edge **4004** to an exit **4006** on a second edge **4008**. In **4010** of another net crosses the second edge **4008**. This route also crosses edges **4004** and **4028**. Joints **4018**, **4030**, and **4028** specify this route's crossing of edges **4004**, **4008**, and **4028**.

As shown in **3900** initially determines (at **3905**) whether the route of at least one other net intersects the edge that contains the destination exit. If not, the process terminates. Otherwise, the process **3900** selects (at **3907**) one of the routes that crosses the destination exit's edge.

Next, at **3910**, the process identifies the vectors to project from the selected route's joints on the edges that the shoved route crosses before and after the destination edge (i.e., before and after the edge containing the expansion's destination exit). Some embodiments project vectors in each available interconnect-line direction that falls within a four-sided polygon that is formed by the selected route's two joints and by two points that define the exit's domain (i.e., maximum possible boundaries) along its edge. The boundary-defining points are defined based on the spacing and width constraints and obstacle constraints on the destination exit's edge. For instance, in **4016** and **4024** are the two boundary-defining points of the exit. The destination exit's boundaries cannot be defined beyond these two points without violating required spacing and width constraints between the net routes crossing the edge and between the nets and obstacles near the edge.

The points **4016** and **4024** define a four-sided polygon along with joints **4018** and **4026**. Within this polygon, two vectors **4012** and **4014** are projected from joint **4018** on edge **4004**, and one vector **4020** is projected from joint **4026** on edge **4028**. By projecting vectors from the joints **4018** and **4026**, the process **3900** assumes that these joints will remain fixed as the route's joint **4030** is shoved along the edge **4008**. **4022** that emanates at a 135° angle from joint **4026**. This vector is not projected as it does not fall within the polygon defined by points **4016**, **4018**, **4024**, and **4026** (i.e., this vector would intersect the edge **4008** outside of the destination exit's domain).

After identifying (at **3910**) the vectors to project from the previous and next joints of the shoved route, the process **3900** identifies (at **3915**) the intersection of the identified vectors and the destination edge. In **4012**, **4014**, and **4020** intersect the destination edge at points **4034**, **4036**, and **4038**.

At **3915**, the process specifies a line PLF that is defined over the destination exit's domain and that expresses the cost of shoving the route along the destination exit's domain. The expansion to the destination exit necessarily requires the shoving of one or more routes on the edge when this exit's edge does not have any portion to which the path can expand without shoving the selected route. In this situation, the process specifies a knot in the line PLF for each intersection point identified at **3910**. In this situation, the process also specifies two knots for the two points that define the exit's maximum possible boundaries along its edge. For each knot that the process specifies in this situation, the process computes a PLF-value that equals (1) the distance (according to equation (2)) between the knot's location and the location of the selected route's joint on the previous edge, plus (2) the distance (according to equation (2)) between the knot's location and the location of the selected route's joint on the next edge, minus (3) the current length (according to equation (2)) of the route between its previous and next joints.

On the other hand, when the destination exit's edge has a segment to which the path can expand without shoving any route on the edge, the process specifies a knot at each identified intersection point that is outside the segment that can be expanded to without shoving other routes. In this situation, the process also specifies a knot at each of the two boundary points of this segment (i.e., the segment to which the path can expand without shoving any route) and sets the PLF-value of these knots to zero. The PLF-value of each of the other knots that the process specifies at this stage equals (1) the distance (according to equation (2)) between the knot's location and the location of the selected route's joint on the previous edge, plus (2) the distance (according to equation (2)) between the knot's location and the location of the selected route's joint on the next edge, minus (3) the current length (according to equation (2)) of the route between its previous and next joints.

In the example illustrated in **4038** is (1) the distance (according to equation (2)) between point **4038** and joint **4018**, plus (2) the distance (according to equation (2)) between point **4038** and joint **4026**, minus (3) the length (according to equation (2)) of the route between its joints **4018** and **4026**.

The line PLF that the process defines at **3915** expresses the additional wirelength due to shoving of the selected route along the edge. After **3915**, the process determines (at **3920**) whether it has generated such a line PLF for each route that crosses the destination exit's edge. If not, the process returns to **3907** to select another route and to repeat operations **3910**–**3920** for this newly selected route. When the process determines (at **3920**) that it has generated a line PLF for each route that crosses the destination exit's edge, it adds (**3925**) the PLF's that it generated if it generated more than one PLF. After **3925**, it then terminates.

b. Shoving Other Routes in a Face

A potential expansion to a surface (e.g., a hole or a portion of a hole) within a face might cause the other net routes that intersect the face to be shoved within the face. **4100** that generates a surface PLF that expresses the extra shoving cost of an expansion to a surface that has one or more other net routes crossing its face. This process is described by reference to **4202** on a first edge **4204** to a hole **4206** in a face **4208**. In **4210** of another net crosses the face **4208**. This route crosses the first edge **4204** and a second edge **4212** at two joints **4214** and **4216**.

As shown in **4100** initially determines (at **4105**) whether the route of at least one other net intersects the face that contains the destination hole. If not, the process terminates. Otherwise, the process **4100** selects (at **4110**) a route that intersects the destination surface's face. It then identifies (at **4115**) two locations from which to project vectors on the edges of the destination surface's face. In some embodiments, these two locations are a distance S away from the selected route's joints along the edges of these joints. The distance S accounts for the via width and the minimum spacing between the current net's route (i.e., the route of the net currently being routed) and the selected route. **4220** and **4222** that are a distance S away from joints **4214** and **4216** of the route **4210**.

Next, the process **4100** projects (at **4120**) vectors from the locations identified at **4105**. Some embodiments project vectors in each available interconnect-line direction that falls within the destination surface's face. **4224**, **4226**, and **4228** that are projected from location **4220** on edge **4204**, and (2) three vectors **4230**, **4232**, and **4234** that are projected from location **4222** on edge **4212**. By projecting vectors from locations **4220** and **4222** that are identified from joints **4214** and **4216**, the process **4100** assumes that the joints **4214** and **4216** will remain fixed as the route is shoved within face **4208**.

After projecting vectors at **4120**, the process **4100** identifies (at **4125**) the intersection of the projected vectors (1) with the boundary of the destination polygonal surface and (2) with each other within the boundary of the destination polygonal surface. In **4240** and **4242**. The projection vectors intersect the boundary of the destination surface at **4246**–**4256**.

At **4130**, the process specifies a surface PLF that is defined over the destination surface and that expresses the cost of shoving the route in this surface. The process specifies a knot at each identified intersection point, unless the intersection point is within a portion of the destination surface to which the path can expand without shoving the selected route. The process sets the PLF-value of each knot that is specified at such an intersection point equal to (1) the distance (according to equation (2)) between the knot's location and the location of the selected route's joint on one edge of the destination surface's face, plus (2) the distance (according to equation (2)) between the knot's location and the location of the selected route's joint on the other edge of the destination surface's face, minus (3) the current length (according to equation (2)) of the route between the two joints. For instance, the PLF-value of a knot specified at point **4240** is the (1) the distance between point **4240** and location **4220**, plus (2) the distance between point **4240** and location **4222**, minus (3) the length of the route between joints **4214** and **4216**. Similarly, the PLF-value of a knot specified at intersection point **4246** equals the sum of the distance between this point and points **4220** and **4222**, minus the length of the route between joints **4214** and **4216**.

The intersection of one or more projected vectors with each other or with the destination-surface boundary might fall within a portion of the destination surface to which a path can expand without shoving the route. Of these intersection points, knots are specified only for those points that might define the boundary between the destination-surface portion that a path can expand to without shoving the selected route and the destination-surface portion that a path can only expand to by shoving the selected route. In general, the process **4100** specifies three or more knots to define the facet for the destination-surface portion that a path can expand to without shoving the selected route. This facet is a zero-shove cost facet, and hence the PLF-value of its knots will be zero. In **4220**, **4254**, **4260**, and **4266** specify the portion of the destination surface to which a path can expand without shoving the route **4210**. In some cases, a destination surface will not have any portion to which a path can expand without shoving the selected route. At **4125**, the process also specifies knots at the remaining unexamined vertices of the destination surface. For instance, in the example illustrated in **4262** and **4264**.

After specifying all the knots, the process specifies (at **4130**) the edges and facets of the surface PLF from the specified knots and the vectors that were used to define these knots. The process also computes and specifies (at **4130**) the normal and z-intercept values for each specified facet. After **4130**, the process determines (at **4135**) whether it has generated a surface PLF for each route that crosses the destination-hole's face. If not, the process returns to **4110** to select another route and to repeat operations **4115**–**4135** for this newly selected route. When the process determines (at **4135**) that it has generated a surface PLF for each route that crosses the destination surface's face, it adds (**4140**) the PLF's that it generated if it generated more than one PLF. After **4140**, it then terminates.

A. Adding PLF's

The process **1500** adds point, line, and surface PLF's. Adding two PLF's at a point is trivial, as their values are simply added. A constant function can be added to a line or surface PLF by incrementing the PLF-values of all knots of the line or surface PLF by value of the constant function.

1. Adding Two Line PLF's

Adding two convex line PLF's that are defined across the same domain can also be efficiently done by taking advantage of the piecewise linear nature of the functions. At any point Q, the sum of two convex line PLF's PLF**1** and PLF**2** that are defined over the same line is the sum of PLF-values of PLF**1** and PLF**2** at that point, as illustrated by the equation below.

*V=PLF* **1**(*Q*)+*PLF* **2**(*Q*).

Accordingly, in some embodiments, the process **1500** adds two line PLF's by performing the following two operations. First, it initializes to null a PLF**3** that is to represent the sum of the two PLF's. Second, it specifies a knot in PLF**3** at each unique knot location in either PLF**1** or PL**2**. The value of each specified knot in PLF**3** is the sum of the PLF-values in PLF**1** and PLF**2** at the specified knot's location. In some embodiments, the process **1500** examines the knots of PLF**1** and PLF**2** based on the order that they appear, i.e. the process starts from one end of the line over which the PLF's are defined and traverses to the other end. If a first line PLF (F**1**) is defined over a larger portion of a line than a second line PLF (F**1**), the first and second PLF's can be summed over their overlapping portion of their domains by (1) specifying a third line PLF (F**3**) that is equal to the first PLF but is only defined over the overlapping portion, and (2) performing the above described approach to obtain the sum of the second and third PLF's (F**2** and F**3**).

2. Adding Two Surface PLF's

**4300** for adding two surface PLF's that have overlapping but potentially different domains. To add two surface PLF's, this process performs a line sweep operation that identifies the intersection of the two polygonizations. This process is described by reference to **4405** and **4410** are added to produce a third surface PLF **4415**. In

As shown in **4300** initializes (at **4305**) a new PLF (“result PLF”) that will eventually represent the sum of the two PLF's. Next, at **4310**, the process identifies the leftmost knot location in either PLF, and sets a variable CurX to the x-coordinate of the identified knot location. The process then selects (at **4315**) a knot in either PLF that has an x-coordinate equal to CurX. There might be several knots with a particular x-coordinate in each PLF. To address this situation, some embodiments use the convention that when two or more knots in a PLF have the same x-coordinate, the process should select (at **4315**) the knot that has the smallest y-coordinate and that has not yet been examined. At **4315**, the process specifies a knot in the result PLF at the x,y location of the selected knot, if one such knot has not already been specified. At **4315**, the process sets the PLF-value of the specified knot as the sum of the PLF-values of the two PLF's at the specified knot's x,y coordinates.

As further described below, each time the process **4300** encounters a knot that “opens” an edge (i.e., encounters a new edge) in its left-to-right sweep, it adds the edge to a list of open facets for the selected knot's PLF. Some embodiments use the convention that a knot opens an edge if (1) its x-coordinate is smaller than the x-coordinate of the other knot of its edge, or (2) its y-coordinate is smaller than the y-coordinate of the other knot of its edge when both edge knots have the same x-coordinate.

Before adding a new edge to the open list, the process **4300** determines (at **4320**) whether the selected knot closes any edge in the selected knot's PLF. In some embodiments, a knot closes an edge if (1) its x-coordinate is larger than the x-coordinate of the other knot of its edge, or (2) its y-coordinate is larger than the y-coordinate of the other knot of its edge when both edge knots have the same x-coordinate. If the process determines (at **4320**) that the selected knot does not close any edges, the process transitions to **4345**, which is further described below. If the selected knot does close an edge, the process selects (at **4325**) an edge that the selected knot closes. It then performs (at **4330**) an intersection operation between the closed edge and each edge on the open list of the other PLF.

**4500**. This process initially compares (at **4505**) the closed edge with each edge on the open list of the other PLF in order to identify each intersection of the closed edge with another edge. It then determines (at **4510**) whether it identified at **4505** the intersection at a point of the closed edge with any of the open edges of the other PLF.

If the process determines (at **4510**) that the closed edge does not intersect any open edge, the process adds (at **4515**) the closed edge to the result PLF and then terminates. Otherwise, the process specifies (at **4520**) a knot at each point that the closed edge intersects one of the open edges of the other PLF. The value of each specified knot is the sum of the two PLF's at the location of the specified knot. For instance, in **4458** and **4460** in the first PLF **4405** closes, the process **4500** identifies this edge's intersection with the edge between knots **4462** and **4464** in the second PLF **4410**. At the intersection of these two edges, the process **4500** identifies a knot **4455** in the third PLF **4415**. The value of the knot **4455** equals the sum of the values of PLF's **4405** and **4410** at this knot's x, y coordinates.

After specifying one or more knots at **4520**, the process **4500** defines (at **4525**) two or more collinear edges to replace the closed edge, and adds the collinear edges to the result PLF. In **4525**) two new edges, one between knots **4450** and **4455**, and one between knots **4455** and **4454**. It then adds these two edges to the definition of the third PLF **4415**, in place of adding the closed edge between knots **4450** and **4454**.

For each particular edge on the open list of the other PLF that intersects the closed edge, the intersection process **4500** (at **4530**) (1) defines two new edges, (2) adds one of the two edges to the result PLF, and (3) replaces the particular edge with the other of the two edges. The process uses the knot specified at **4520** at the intersection of the closed edge and an open edge to define the two new edges for the open edge. For instance, in **4530**) would define two edges for the open edge between knots **4462** and **4464**. One of the two edges is between knots **4462** and **4455**, and one edge is between knots **4455** and **4464**. The process would add the edge between knots **4455** and **4464** to the result PLF. It would also replace the edge between knots **4462** and **4464** on the open list of PLF **4410** with the edge between knots **4455** and **4464**. After **4530**, the process terminates.

After the process **4300** performs the intersection process at **4330**, the process **4300** removes (at **4335**) the selected closed edge from its open list. It then determines (at **4340**) whether it has examined all the edges that the selected knot (i.e., the knot selected at **4315**) closes. If not, the process transitions back to **4330** to select another closed edge.

Otherwise, the process adds (at **4345**) any edge that the selected knot opens to the list of “open” edges for the selected knot's PLF. After **4345**, the process determines (at **4350**) whether it has examined each knot in each PLF with an x-coordinate CurX. If not, the process transitions back to **4315** to select another knot with the x-coordinate CurX. If so, the process transitions to **4355**, where it determines whether it has examined all the unique x-coordinates of knots in either PLF. If not, the process sets (at **4360**) CurX to the next leftmost x-coordinate of any knot in either PLF.

When the process determines (at **4355**) that it has examined all the unique x-coordinates of knot locations in both PLF's, it examines (at **4365**) the edges added to the result PLF and identifies facets formed by related sets of edges. At **4365**, the process also identifies the normal and z-intercept of each facet based on the knot values of the facet. When one (F**1**) of the PLF's being summed is defined over a larger portion of a surface than the other PLF (F**2**), the process **4300** can limit (at **4365**) the surface PLF's definition that represents the sum of these two PLF's to cover only the overlapping domain of the two PLF's. Alternatively, before **4305**, the process **4300** could generate a third PLF (F**3**) that is equal to the first PLF but is only defined over the domain of the second PLF (i.e., only defined over the portion of the surface that both PLF's F**1** and F**2** are defined).

**4405** and **4410**. In this figure, the first PLF **4405** has five boundary knots **4430**–**4438** that are at the same location as five boundary knots **4440**–**4448** of PLF **4410**. For these five pairs of knots, the process identifies five knots **4420**–**4428** in the third PLF **4415**. In the third PLF **4415**, the process also identifies four knots for the other four unique knots **4458**–**4462** in the two PLF's **4405** and **4410**. As described above, it also specifies a knot **4455** at the intersection of two non-boundary edges of the two PLF's. In turn, these knots specify **13** edges that define four facets **4466**–**4472**.

B. Filtering PLF's

After identifying the G PLF of a potential expansion, the path-generation process **1500** filters (at **1534**) the expansion's G PLF with the filter PLF of the destination particle. This filtering operation also sets the destination particle's filter PLF equal to the minimum of its original filter PLF and the expansion's G PLF. Filtering a point PLF for an expansion to a point is trivial. The expansion is discarded when its PLF-value is greater than the filter function value at that point. Otherwise, it is kept, and the point's filter function is set to the expansion's PLF-value.

1. Filtering two line PLF's and Identifying their minimum

**4600** that performs the filtering and minimum operations for an expansion to a line (i.e., an expansion to an exit or a wall). Specifically, this function filters a filtered PLF (PLF**1**) by a filter PLF (PLF**2**), which may be non-convex. In the embodiments described below, the filter PLF**2** is defined across a topological particle, while the filtered PLF**1** might be defined across only a portion of the topological particle. Accordingly, the process **4600** performs its filtering and minimum operations for only the portion of the particle over which the filtered PLF**1** is defined. Other embodiments might perform the filtering over the entire particle. In the embodiments described below, the filtering operation discards the portions of the filtered PLF that are larger than the corresponding portions of the filter PLF. Other embodiments, however, might not discard these portions, but rather might set the PLF-values in these portions to infinite. These embodiments then would not need to define several drops when several pieces of the filtered PLF remain after the filter.

As shown in **4600** initially sets (at **4605**) a state variable to “Unknown” and sets two PLF's PLF**3** and PLF**4** to null. The process uses PLF**3** to represent the minimum of the filtered and filter PLF, while it uses PLF**4** to keep track of the remaining portions of the filtered PLF. As the minimum, PLF**3** will represent at each offset Q along the line the minimum of PLF**1**(Q) and PLF**2**(Q). PLF**3** might end up being a non-convex PLF. As PLF**1** and PLF**2** are, PLF**3** is defined over the line and will be represented by a sequence of knots that is sorted based on the offset values of the knots.

Next, at **4610**, the process identifies the unique knot locations in both PLF**1** and PLF**2** and generates a set of unique knot locations that are sorted based on the offset values of the knots in this set. The process then selects (at **4615**) the first location in the sorted set. The process then determines (at **4620**) whether the filtered PLF**1** is greater than the filtered PLF**2** at the location selected at **4615**.

If not, the process determines (at **4625**) whether the state is PLF**1**_Lower or unknown. When the process determines at **4625** that the state is PLF**1**_Lower or is unknown, the process (at **4635**) specifies a knot at selected location, sets its value to the value of PLF**1**, and adds the specified knot to PLF**3** and PLF**4**. At **4635**, the process also sets the state to PLF**1**_Lower if the state was previously unknown. In this situation, the process performs these operations because (1) if the state is unknown, this knot is at the first knot location and it is from the filtered PLF**1**, and (2) if the state is PLF**1**_Lower, this knot is from the same PLF as the last knot added to PLF**3** (i.e., PLF**1** and PLF**2** have not crossed between the last knot added to PLF**3** and this knot, and during this internal PLF**1** has been the smaller PLF). From **4635**, the process transitions to **4655**, which will be further described below.

On the other hand, when the process determines at **4625** that the state is PLF**2**_Lower, the knot at selected location is from a different PLF than the last knot added to PLF**3**. Hence, PLF**1** and PLF**2** have crossed between the last knot added to PLF**3** and this knot. During this internal, PLF**2** started smaller and ended larger. Accordingly, the process transitions to **4630** to perform several operations to account for this crossing. At **4630**, the process initially sets the state to be PLF**1**_Lower. It then identifies the offset value Q along the edge where PLF**1** and PLF**2** intersected between the last knot added to PLF**3** and the knot at the location selected at **4615**. This intersection can be easily computed as it is an intersection between two line segments representing PLF**1** and PLF**2** between the last knot added to PLF**3** and the knot at selected location. The process then specifies a knot at intersection point Q and adds this knot to PLF**3** and PLF**4**. The PLF-value of this added knot is the PLF-value of either PLF**1** or PLF**2** at the offset-value of the intersection point Q. If the PLF-value of a knot at the selected knot location is smaller than the other PLF's value at this location, the process specifies a knot at the selected knot location, sets its value to the value of PLF**1**, and adds the specified knot to the description of PLF**3** and PLF**4**. From **4630**, the process then transitions to **4655**.

If the process determines (at **4620**) that the filtered PLF**1** is greater than the filter PLF**2** at the location selected at **4615**, the process determines (at **4640**) whether the state is PLF**2**_Lower or unknown. When the process determines at **4640** that the state is PLF**2**_Lower or unknown, the process (at **4645**) specifies a knot at selected location, sets its value to the value of PLF**2** at this location, and adds the specified knot to PLF**3**. At **4645**, the process also sets the state to PLF**2**_Lower if the state was previously unknown. The process performs these operations at **4645** because (1) if the state is unknown, this knot is the first knot selected, and it is from the filter PLF**2**, and (2) if the state is PLF**2**_Lower, this knot is from the same PLF as the last knot added to PLF**3** (i.e., the two PLF's have not crossed between the last knot added to PLF**3** and this knot, and during this interval PLF**2** has been the smaller PLF). From **4645**, the process transitions to **4655**.

On the other hand, when the process determines at **4640** that the state is PLF**1**_Lower, the knot at selected location is from a different PLF than the last knot added to PLF**3**. Hence, the two PLF's have crossed between the last knot added to PLF**3** and the knot selected at **4615**. During this interval, PLF**1** started smaller and ended larger. Accordingly, the process transitions to **4650** to perform several operations to account for this crossing. At **4650**, the process initially sets the state to be PLF**2**_Lower. It then identifies the offset value Q along the edge where PLF**1** and PLF**2** intersected between the last knot added to PLF**3** and the knot selected at **4615**. This intersection can be easily computed, as it is an intersection of two line segments representing PLF**1** and PLF**2** between the last knot added to PLF**3** and the knot at selected location. The process then specifies a knot at intersection point Q and adds this knot to PLF**3** and PLF**4**. The PLF-value of this added knot is the PLF-value of either PLF**1** or PLF**2** at the offset-value of the intersection point Q. If the PLF-value of a knot at the selected knot location is smaller than the other PLF's value at this location, the process specifies a knot at the selected location, sets its value to the value of PLF**2** at this location, and adds the specified knot to the description of PLF**3** and PLF**4**. The process then specifies a new PLF equal to PLF**4** and then reinitializes PLF**4**. The new PLF represents a remaining portion of the filtered PLF. From **4650**, the process transitions to **4655**.

At **4655**, the process determines whether it has examined all the unique knot locations in the sorted set produced at **4610**. If not, the process returns to **4615** to select the next unique knot location in the sorted set and to perform the subsequent operations for this newly selected knot location. On the other hand, when the process determines (at **4655**) that it has examined all the unique knot locations in the combined set, the process uses (at **4660**) PLF**3** to define the new filter function. As mentioned above, the filtered function PLF**1** might not be defined over the entire domain over which the filter function PLF**2** is defined. Because of this, the process **4600** performs its minimum operations for only the portion of the filter function's particle over which the filtered PLF**1** is defined.

When the filtered function PLF**1** and the original filter function PLF**2** have the same domain, the process sets (at **4660**) the particle's filter function to PLF**3**. On the other hand, when the filtered PLF**1** is defined over a smaller portion of the filter function's particle, the process replaces the portion of the filter function (PLF**2**) that is defined over the filtered function's (PLF**1**'s) domain with PLF**3**. The process leaves the portion of PLF**2** outside of PLF**1**'s domain intact. A boundary knot of PLF**3** will be removed if it is an original knot of the filter PLF**2** or if it is on a PLF segment in PLF**3** that has the same slope as the original filter PLF**2** at the boundary knot. At **4660**, the remaining portion or portions of the filtered PLF**1** are the PLF's that the process **4600** defines at **4650**.

As mentioned above, the path-generation process **1500** filters (at **1512**) the G PLF of a drop that it retrieves from the priority queue with the filter function of the drop's particle. For this filtering operation, the path-generation process uses a process that is identical to the process **4600** with the exception that unlike process **4600**, the filtering process at **1512** does not maintain PLF**3** as it does not need to identify the minimum of the filtered and filter PLF's at **1512**.

2. Filtering two Surface PLF's

**4700** for filtering two surface PLF's that have overlapping but potentially different domains. To filter two such surface PLF's, the process **4700** performs a plane sweep operation that identifies the intersection of the two polygonizations. This process starts by initializing (at **4705**) a Min PLF that it will use to record the minimum of the two surface PLF's that it is filtering.

It then identifies (at **4710**) the leftmost unique knot location (i.e., the unique knot location with the smallest x-coordinate) in either PLF, and sets a variable CurX to the x-coordinate of the identified knot location. The process then selects (at **4715**) a knot in either PLF that has an x-coordinate equal to CurX. There might be several knots with a particular x-coordinate in each PLF. To address this situation, some embodiments use the convention that when two or more knots in a PLF have the same x-coordinate, the process should select (at **4715**) the knot that has the smallest y-coordinate and that has not yet been examined.

As further described below, each time the process **4700** encounters a knot that “opens” a facet (i.e., encounters a new facet) in its left-to-right sweep, it adds the facet to a list of open facets for the selected knot's PLF. To address the case where the two knots of a facet have the same x-axis coordinate, some embodiments use the convention that a knot opens a facet if (1) it is the one with the smallest x-coordinate when all the facet's knots have different x-coordinates, or (2) it is the one with the smallest x-coordinate and the smallest y-coordinate when two facet's knots have the smallest x-coordinate of all knots of the facet.

Before adding a new facet to the open list, the process **4700** determines (at **4720**) whether the selected knot closes a facet in the selected knot's PLF. In some embodiments, a knot closes a facet if (1) the knot is the one with the largest x-coordinate when all the facet's knots have different x-coordinates, or (2) it is the one with the largest x-coordinate and the largest y-coordinate when two facet's knots have the largest x-coordinate of all knots of the facet. If the process determines that the selected knot does not close any facet, the process transitions to **4745**, which is further described below. However, if the selected knot closes at least one facet, the process selects (at **4725**) a facet that the selected knot closes. It then performs (at **4730**) a min operation between the closed facet and each facet on the open list of the other PLF.

**4800** for identifying the minimum of two facets F**1** and F**2** from two different PLF's. This process initially identifies (at **4805**) a polygon that represents the intersection of the domains of the two facets. Next, at each vertex of the polygon, the process (at **4810**) identifies and records the PLF that provides the minimum PLF-value. In case both PLF's provide the same value at a vertex, the process records the identity of the filtered PLF for the vertex at **4810**. At **4810**, the process also specifies a knot at each vertex of the intersection polygon. The PLF-value of a specified knot for a vertex is the value of the recorded PLF at the vertex.

Next, the process determines (at **4815**) whether one PLF provided all the lowest values at all the vertices of the polygon identified at **4805**. If not, the two facets intersect and the process performs **4820**–**4830** to account for this intersection. These operations will be described by reference to **4952** and **4954** that intersect. At **4820**, the process **4800** identifies an edge along which the two PLF's intersect, and identifies or specifies two knots that represent this edge. **4956** between the two facets **4952** and **4954**, and the two knots **4958** and **4960** that define this edge.

At **4825**, the process then (1) uses the knots identified at **4820** to specify two new facets F**3** and F**4** that represent the minimum of the intersected facets F**1** and F**2**, and (2) adds these new facets F**3** and F**4** to the Min PLF. The two new facets will include the two knots identified at **4820** and one or more knots that were specified (at **4810**) at the intersection polygon vertices. Each new facet will have edges between its knots.

**4962** and **4964**. Facet **4962** is the portion of facet **4954** that is below than the corresponding portion of the facet **4952**. Similarly, facet **4964** is the portion of facet **4952** that is below the corresponding portion of the facet **4954**. The facet **4962** is represented by edges between knots **4958**, **4960**, **4966**, and **4968**, while the facet **4964** is represented by edges between knots **4958**, **4960**, **4970**, and **4972**. The process can obtain the normal and z-intercept attributes of each specified facet **4962** and **4964** from the open or closed facet **4954** and **4952** that corresponds to the specified facet. Alternatively, the process can compute the normal and z-intercept of each facet that it specifies at **4825** from its knots.

Next, at **4830**, the process adds the facet that it specified at **4825** for the smaller portion of the filtered PLF to a list that stores all remaining facets of the filtered PLF. If the facet **4954** in **4830**) the facet **4962** to the list of the remaining facets of the filtered PLF.

If the process **4800** determines (at **4815**) that one PLF provided the lowest values at all vertices of the polygon identified at **4805**, the process specifies (at **4835**) a new facet that is defined over the polygon and that is identical to the PLF over this polygon. It sets the values at these knots and edges from the smaller PLF, and it sets the specified facet's normal and z-intercept identical to the facet of the smaller PLF. The process then writes (at **4840**) the facet specified at **4835** and its edges and knots into the Min PLF. If the smaller PLF is the filtered PLF, the process also adds (at **4845**) this information (i.e., the facet specified at **4835** and its edges and knots) to the facet list that stores the remaining facets of the filtered PLF. After **4830** and **4845**, the process **4800** terminates.

After the process **4700** performs (at **4735**) the min process **4730** for each combination of the closed facet and the open facets on the other PLF's list, the process **4700** removes (at **4735**) the selected closed facet from its open list. It then determines (at **4740**) whether it has examined all the facets that the selected knot (i.e., the knot selected at **4715**) closes. If not, the process transitions back to **4725** to select another closed facet. Otherwise, the process adds (at **4745**) any facet that the selected knot opens to the list of “open” facets for the selected knot's PLF. The process then determines (at **4750**) whether it has examined each knot in each PLF with an x-coordinate CurX. If not, the process transitions back to **4715** to select another knot with the x-coordinate CurX. If so, the process transitions to **4755**, where it determines whether it has examined all the unique x-coordinates of knots in either PLF. If not, the process sets (at **4760**) CurX to the next leftmost x-coordinate of any knot in either PLF.

When the process determines (at **4755**) that it has examined all the unique x-coordinates of knot locations in either PLF, it examines (**4765**) the facets added to the filtered list, and identifies connected sets of facet. Each connected sets of facets represents a remaining portion of the filtered PLF. It associated each connected sets of facet so that the set represents one remaining portion of the filtered PLF. It also removes any unnecessary edges and knots (if any) from each associated set and modifies the definition of one or more facets of the set accordingly.

At **4765**, the process also defines the filter PLF as the Min PLF. This Min PLF might include unnecessary edges and knots (e.g., at the boundaries of the facets that the process **4800** intersected). If so, before setting the filter PLF to the Min PLF, the process removes these unnecessary edges and knots at **4765** and modifies the definition of one or more facets of the Min PLF accordingly.

As mentioned above, the filter PLF might be defined over a larger domain than the filtered PLF. As an alternative to the above-described approach, some embodiment might perform the process **4700** for only the portion of the surface over which the filtered PLF**1** is defined. In these embodiments, the filter PLF would be defined over a larger domain than the Min PLF. Accordingly, for such cases, the process **4700** only sets the portion of the filter PLF that is defined over the same domain as the filtered PLF to the Min PLF. The process retains the portions of the filter PLF that falls outside of the domain of the filtered PLF. To account for the boundary between retained and replaced portions of the filter PLF, the process might need to add knots and edges to the filter PLF's description and might need to modify the filter PLF's description of facets at the boundaries.

As mentioned above, the path-generation process **1500** filters (at **1512**) the G PLF of a drop that it retrieves from the priority queue with the filter function of the drop's particle. For this filtering operation, the path-generation process uses a process that is identical to the process **4700** with the exception that unlike process **4700**, the filtering process at **1512** does not maintain Min as it does not need to identify the minimum of the filtered and filter PLF's at **1512**.

In some embodiments, the process **1500** specifies the Ĥ PLF of a particle as the lower-bound distance between the particle and a bounding octagon that encompasses the set of target particles for a path search. Some embodiments identify such a lower-bound distance by (1) identifying an axis-aligned rectangular box (i.e., a box that is aligned with the x-y coordinate axes of the layout) and a 45° rotated rectangular box (i.e., a box that is aligned with an s-t coordinate axes that is rotated by 45° with respect to the layout's x-y axes) that enclose the set of target particles, (2) identifying two PLF's that express the distance between the particle and each of these boxes, and then (3) defining the Ĥ PLF as the maximum of the two identified PLF's.

A. Identifying the Bounding Boxes

In some embodiments, the process identifies an axis-aligned bounding box by (1) identifying the minimum and maximum x- and y-coordinates (X_{MIN}, X_{MAX}, Y_{MIN}, and Y_{MAX}) of the set of points in the design layout's coordinate space, and (2) specifying the four vertices of the box as (X_{MIN}, Y_{MIN}), (X_{MIN}, Y_{MAX}), (X_{MAX}, Y_{MIN}), and (X_{MAX}, Y_{MAX}). In some embodiments, the process **1500** identifies the minimum and maximum x- and y-coordinates of the set of points by examining the x- and y-coordinates of vertex points in the set of target particles. Each standalone point in this set is a vertex point. Also, each point in the target set that is a vertex of a polygonal shape in the set is a vertex point of the set.

The rotated bounding box is defined with respect to a coordinate system that is rotated by 45° with respect to the layout's coordinate system. The rotated coordinate system includes an s-axis that is at 45° with respect to the x-axis of the layout's coordinate space, and a t-axis that is at **1350** with respect to the x-axis of the layout's coordinate space. To identify the 45° rotated bounding box, the process **1500** in some embodiments first maps the coordinates of the vertex points of the set of target particles from the layout's coordinate system to the 45° rotated coordinate system. The process performs this mapping by using the equation below.

In this equation, (1) X_{i }and Y_{1 }are the coordinates in the layout's x- and y-axes for the i-th vertex point in the target set, and (2) S_{1 }and T_{1 }are the coordinates in the rotated s- and t-axes for the i-th vertex point in the target set. If the rotated bounding box is rotated counterclockwise at an arbitrary angle θ with respect to the layout's coordinate system, the following equation could be used to perform the mapping.

After performing the mapping, the process **1500** then identifies a 45° bounding box that is defined with respect to the 45° rotated coordinate system and that surrounds the set of routed points in the s- and t-axes. In some embodiments, the process (1) identifies the minimum and maximum s- and t-coordinates (S_{MIN}, S_{MAX}, T_{MIN}, and T_{MAX}) of each vertex point in the set of routed points, and (2) specifies the four vertices of the rotated box as (S_{MIN}, T_{MIN}), (S_{MIN}, T_{MAX}), (S_{MAX}, T_{MIN}), and (S_{MAX}, T_{MAX}).

B. Computing the PLF's

In some embodiments, the process **1500** computes a PLF that represents the distance between a particle and a bounding box in an analogous manner to the propagating of a zero-cost function that is defined over the bounding box to the particle. **5005** and a 45° rotated bounding box **5010**. Three vectors are projected from each vertex of each bounding box. **5005** and **5010**. Some embodiments do not project vectors in all interconnect directions. Instead, they project only the propagation vectors that will intersect the destination particle. These propagation vectors are the vectors that fall within a triangle defined by the bounding box's vertex point and the leftmost and rightmost vertices of the destination particle.

If the topological particle is a point, the Ĥ PLF is a single value that is defined for the point. This value is the distance between the point and the bounding box. This distance is computed by (1) identifying the wedge or channel that contains the point, and (2) computing the distance according to the wedge and channel distance rules described above. For instance, in **5015**, which falls within a wedge defined by vectors **5020** and **5022** that emanate from vertex **5024**, is the distance between the point **5015** and the vertex **5024**. On the other hand, if the particle is point **5036** that falls within the channel defined by vectors **5026** and **5028** that emanate from the rotated box **5010**, Ĥ PLF-value is the length D of a line **5038** that is parallel to vectors **5026** and **5028** and that goes from the point **5036** to the edge **5032**.

If the topological particle is a line, the Ĥ PLF is a line PLF that is defined over the line. This line PLF will have knots at the intersections of the projected vectors and the line. The Ĥ PLF-value of each knot is simply the straightline distance between the intersection point and the vertex from which the intersecting vector projected. This straightline distance is along the direction of the projected intersecting vector. Also, a knot is specified at each unexamined endpoint of the line, and the value of such a knot depends on whether the endpoint falls within a channel or a wedge.

For instance, when the particle is line **5040**, two knots are specified at the intersections **5042** and **5044** of the projection vectors **5046** and **5048** with the line. The PLF-value of the knot at location **5042** is the distance D**1** to the vertex **5050** along the direction of vector **5046**, while the PLF-value of the knot at location **5044** is the distance D**2** to the vertex **5050** along the direction of vector **5048**. Two knots are also specified at the endpoints **5052** and **5054** of the line **5050**. The endpoint at **5052** falls within a wedge. Hence, the PLF-value of the knot specified at **5052** is based on the distance between point **5052** and vertex **5050**. The endpoint at **5054**, however, falls in a channel, and therefore the PLF-value of the knot defined at this point is the length D**3** of the 135° line segment **5056** between the point **5054** and edge **5058**.

If the topological particle is a surface, the Ĥ PLF is a surface PLF that is defined over the surface. This surface PLF will have knots at the intersections of the projected vectors and the boundary of the surface. It will also have knots at each unexamined vertex of the surface. It will further have edges between the knots, and one or more facets defined by the edges. A normal and z-intercept will also be specified for each facet. The values of each facet's normal and z-intercept will be determined by the PLF-values of the knots that define each facet.

The PLF-values of each knot that is defined at an intersection of a projected vector is simply the straightline distance between the intersection point and the vertex from which the intersecting vector projected. This straightline distance is along the direction of the projected intersecting vector. Also, the PLF-value of each knot that is specified at an unexamined vertex of the surface depends on whether the vertex falls within a channel or a wedge.

For instance, when the particle is a surface **5060** and the bounding box is box **5005**, four knots are specified at the intersection **5062**, **5064**, **5066**, and **5068** of the projection vectors **5070** and **5070** with the surface. The PLF-value of each of these knots is the distance between the knot's location and the vertex that was used to define the knot. For instance, the PLF-value of the knot at location **5062** is the distance D**5** between the vertex **5074** and point **5064** along the direction of vector **5070**. In this example, five other knots are specified at the unexamined vertices **5076**, **5078**, **5080**, **5082**, and **5084** of the surface. Of these vertices, only vertex **5080** falls within a channel. Accordingly, the PLF-value of the knot specified at the vertex **5080** is the length of the line segment **5086** that is parallel to vectors **5070** and **5072**. The PLF-value of the knot defined at each of the other four unexamined vertices is the distance between the knot's location and the bounding box vertex that projects the vector that defines the wedge containing the knot location. For instance, the PLF-value of the knot at **5082** is the distance between vertex **5082** and the vertex **5024** of the box **5005**.

The Ĥ PLF that is defined over the surface **5060** will have eleven edges. Nine of these edges will be defined about the boundary of the surface. Two of the edges **5088** and **5090** will be defined across the surface. These two edges in conjunction with the other nine boundary edges define three facets. The normal and z-intercept of each facet can be derived from the PLF-values of the knots that define the facet, by using standard plane-defining techniques.

C. Identifying the Maximum

After defining the Ĥ PLF's for the two bounding boxes, some embodiments identify the maximum of the two PLF's. Obtaining the maximum of two PLF's is analogous to obtaining the minimum of two PLF's, except that the portions that are discarded are the portions with the smaller PLF-values. Accordingly, the processes for computing the maximum of two line PLF's or two surface PLF's are analogous to the above-described processes for computing the minimum of such PLF's, except that the processes for computing the maximum retain the line segments or surface pieces that have the larger PLF-values.

D. Different Computation of the Ĥ PLF

Some embodiments specify the Ĥ PLF of a particle slightly differently. These embodiments first identify a bounding polygon by identifying and intersecting two bounding rectangular boxes that enclose the set of target particles. In some of these embodiments, one box is aligned with the x-y coordinate axes of the layout while the other box is aligned with an s-t coordinate axes that is 45° rotated with respect to the layout's x-y axes. **5125** that is identified by intersecting an axis-aligned box **5130** and a 45° rotated box **5135**.

After identifying such an octilinear bounding polygon, these embodiments identify a Ĥ PLF that expresses the distance between the particle and the octilinear bounding polygon. The identification of this PLF is analogous to propagating a zero-cost function that is defined over the octilinear bounding polygon to the particle. Specifically, one or more vectors are projected from each vertex of the octilinear bounding polygon. In **5120**, three vectors are projected from each of the vertices **5110** and **5115**, and two vectors are projected from vertex **5105**. These vectors are identified based on the following approach. For each vertex, two directions are identified that are perpendicular to the edges incident upon the vertex and that point away from the polygon, that is, they points left from an incoming clockwise edge, or right from an incoming counter-clockwise edge. Vectors are then projected from each vertex (1) in the two directions identified for the vertex, and (2) in any other direction that falls between the two identified directions. Some embodiments do not project vectors in all interconnect directions. Instead, they project only the propagation vectors that will intersect the destination particle. These propagation vectors are the vectors that fall within a triangle defined by the bounding polygon's vertex point and the leftmost and rightmost vertices of the destination particle.

After projecting the vectors from the vertices of the octilinear bounding polygon, the process then identifies a point PLF, a line PLF, or a surface PLF in the exact same manner as described above for the case of the axis-aligned and 45′-rotated bounding boxes. In other words, the same wedge and channel approach that was described above for the bounding boxes, can be used to identify the PLF's for the octilinear bounding polygons. One of ordinary skill will realize that the above-described Ĥ computation techniques (e.g., the wedge and channel distance computation technique) can be used with any type of bounding polygon, such as a convex hull or approximate convex hull.

**5200** includes a bus **5205**, a processor **5210**, a system memory **5215**, a read-only memory **5220**, a permanent storage device **5225**, input devices **5230**, and output devices **5235**.

The bus **5205** collectively represents all system, peripheral, and chipset buses that communicatively connect the numerous internal devices of the computer system **5200**. For instance, the bus **5205** communicatively connects the processor **5210** with the read-only memory **5220**, the system memory **5215**, and the permanent storage device **5225**.

From these various memory units, the processor **5210** retrieves instructions to execute and data to process in order to execute the processes of the invention. The read-only-memory (ROM) **5220** stores static data and instructions that are needed by the processor **5210** and other modules of the computer system. The permanent storage device **5225**, on the other hand, is read-and-write memory device. This device is a non-volatile memory unit that stores instruction and data even when the computer system **5200** is off. Some embodiments of the invention use a mass-storage device (such as a magnetic or optical disk and its corresponding disk drive) as the permanent storage device **5225**. Other embodiments use a removable storage device (such as a floppy disk or zip® disk, and its corresponding disk drive) as the permanent storage device.

Like the permanent storage device **5225**, the system memory **5215** is a read-and-write memory device. However, unlike storage device **5225**, the system memory is a volatile read-and-write memory, such as a random access memory. The system memory stores some of the instructions and data that the processor needs at runtime. In some embodiments, the invention's processes are stored in the system memory **5215**, the permanent storage device **5225**, and/or the read-only memory **5220**.

The bus **5205** also connects to the input and output devices **5230** and **5235**. The input devices enable the user to communicate information and select commands to the computer system. The input devices **5230** include alphanumeric keyboards and cursor-controllers. The output devices **5235** display images generated by the computer system. For instance, these devices display IC design layouts. The output devices include printers and display devices, such as cathode ray tubes (CRT) or liquid crystal displays (LCD).

Finally, as shown in **5205** also couples computer **5200** to a network **5265** through a network adapter (not shown). In this manner, the computer can be a part of a network of computers (such as a local area network (“LAN”), a wide area network (“WAN”), or an Intranet) or a network of networks (such as the Internet). Any or all of the components of computer system **5200** may be used in conjunction with the invention. However, one of ordinary skill in the art would appreciate that any other system configuration may also be used in conjunction with the present invention.

While the invention has been described with reference to numerous specific details, one of ordinary skill in the art will recognize that the invention can be embodied in other specific forms without departing from the spirit of the invention. For instance, the above-described embodiments propagate cost functions to one-dimensional lines and two-dimensional surfaces. Other embodiments might propagate cost functions to and from (1) a set of associated collinear points (i.e., a set of points that can be connect by a single line passing through the points) that form a one-dimensional state and/or (2) a set of associated co-planar points (i.e., a set of points that fall within a two dimensional surface) that form a two-dimensional state.

Some embodiments propagate functions to a set of associated points by examining each point independently. Specifically, for each point in the associated set, some embodiments compute a PLF-value by identifying the wedge and/or channel containing the point, and then computing the PLF-value according to the wedge and/or channel rules described above for **3415** of

Some embodiments propagate functions from a set of associated points by (1) using the above-described approach of

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Classifications

U.S. Classification | 716/12, 716/14, 716/13 |

International Classification | G06F19/00, G06F17/50, G06F9/45 |

Cooperative Classification | G06F17/5077 |

European Classification | G06F17/50L2 |

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