|Publication number||US7028688 B1|
|Application number||US 11/100,233|
|Publication date||Apr 18, 2006|
|Filing date||Apr 5, 2005|
|Priority date||Apr 5, 2005|
|Publication number||100233, 11100233, US 7028688 B1, US 7028688B1, US-B1-7028688, US7028688 B1, US7028688B1|
|Inventors||Corey M. Grove, Stephen E. Chase|
|Original Assignee||The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Army|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (10), Referenced by (14), Classifications (9), Legal Events (4)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
The invention described herein may be manufactured, licensed, and used by or for the U.S. Government.
1. Field of the Invention
This present invention relates to chemical-biological protective equipment. More particularly, the present invention relates to improved gas masks for protection from chemical-biological hazards, wherein said masks can be tailored or adapted for different operational capabilities.
2. Brief Description of the Related Art
Problematic with current chemical and/or biological protective masks is the lack of comfort and balance. Previously, chemical and/or biological combat masks were generally fitted with face-mounted filters for providing filtered air to the mask face-piece. Such combat mask filtration systems are capable of filtering particulate, gas and vapor hazards. In addition, some commercial masks are designed to permit the incorporation of additional face-mounted filters by stacking the filters in series, i.e., so that air flow passes through each filter before reaching the user, as required based on the hazard. Typically, these masks use canisters which may be connected to one another in series. However, these face-mounted filters adversely affect the center-of-gravity of the mask, reduce downward field-of-view, and interfere with weapon and display sights. Furthermore, stacking face mounted filters in series further exacerbates these problems and also adds breathing resistance to the wearer. Still other masks include the addition of a face-mounted blower to assist with breathing resistance. However, such face mounted blowers also exacerbate the aforementioned problems. In contrast, chemical-biological aircrew and combat vehicle masks generally have body-mounted filters for providing air to the mask. As with the masks referred to above, additional body-mounted filters may be incorporated by stacking the filters in series, or a body-mounted blower may be added. However, these body-mounted filters require a hose assembly that adds bulk, restricts movement, and interferes with body-mounted systems. Stacking filters with these body-mounted blowers also further exacerbates these problems. For example, stacking filters in series adds breathing resistance to the wearer, which has already been increased with the addition of a hose assembly.
Thus, there is a need for improved chemical-biological protective masks which can provide a balanced center-of-gravity, greater field-of-view and comfort, and decreased breathing resistance and stress on the wearer. The present invention addresses these and other needs.
The present invention provides a chemical-biological protective mask having a head covering effective for fully covering the wearer's head, wherein the aft top section of the head covering comprises a hood, and the front section of said head covering comprises a face piece having at least one visor, and wherein said hood and said face piece are integrally connected, an air supply port positioned at the rear of the head covering or hood for permitting air supply into the head covering, one or more filters mounted in combination with the rear mounted air supply port to cleanse air flowing into the head covering, and ducting from the rear-mounted air supply port to the face piece conductively adjacent to the head covering for transfer of the filtered air into the face piece. In a most preferred embodiment, one or more additional filters are mounted within the side of the head covering. Advantageously, the present invention may also include blowers or other like systems to aid in the flow of ambient air through the filters and into the head covering and face piece.
The present invention increases the comfort, balance and visual field-of-view of the wearer over known protective masks by shifting the center-of-gravity from the front of the protective mask to a point closer to the center of the wearer's head and over the shoulders.
The present invention provides improvements in the art of chemical-biological protective masks. In particular, the chemical-biological protective mask of the present invention comprises a mask having improved head comfort and center-of-gravity while maintaining chemical-biological protection for the wearer (also referred to herein as the “user”) and reducing breathing resistance by providing alternative filtered airflow patterns.
As seen in
In one preferred embodiment where no filters are located at the front of the head covering 10, the elimination of filters from the front of the head covering 10 permits the visor 32 part of the head covering 10 to remain unobstructed by any forward filters. As such, the visor 32 provides an improved and substantial visual field-of-view for the wearer. Additionally, the removal of the forward filters allow for the incorporation of an expanded visor 32, when desired, to further expand the field of view. This field-of-view may include views in downward or lateral directions, or combinations of these directions. A substantial visual field-of-view includes views to the wearer without the interference of a filter located in the front part of the head covering 10. As such, views may be increased significantly over views hindered by such forward filter configurations, for example, improving the viewing area through the visor 32 with increases of 10% to 20% or more. The visor 32 may be appropriately configured for a given purpose, for example, with a configuration of a contoured shape, with a contour related to the wearer's facial contours preferred. A contoured configuration of the visor 32 allows for the lens portion of the visor 32 to be positioned closer to the wearer's eyes while eliminating the normally obstructed field-of-view caused when individual lenses are clamped or bonded into a mask. Additionally, the visor 32 may be specifically contoured for particular uses. Visor 32 contours may accommodate eye glasses, special operational equipment such as navigational or gun sights and the like, and other such uses that are determinable by those skilled in the art in light of the present disclosure.
The mask system 100 preferably contains a face seal 34 for sealing the face piece 30 and integral visor 32 to the face of the wearer and thereby protecting the face and eyes of the wearer. A standard strap suspension system attached to said face piece 30 may be used to secure the face seal 34 to the face of the wearer. Assembly of the visor 32 to the face piece 30 and face seal 34 can be readily accomplished as the assembly interface area is generally away from the lens of the visor 32. Possible assembly techniques for attaching the visor 32 to the seal 34 include bonding, insert casting, co-casting, insert molding, co-molding and/or other similar attaching techniques well known to those of ordinary skill in the art, and combinations thereof. Visor 32 construction materials include appropriate transparent materials that isolate the wearer from outside elements, with durability to adverse environments in which the mask 100 is used, such as, for example, polycarbonate, polyurethane and the like. Face seal 34 construction materials include compositions such as silicone and thermoplastic elastomers, and other appropriate elastomeric or rubber materials. Representative transparent materials for visor 32 include for example, without limitation, Sim 2058 optical polyurethane manufactured by Simula Technologies of Phoenix, Ariz. Representative face seal 34 materials include for example, without limitation, Rhodorsil 1556 manufactured by Rhodia Silicone of Cranbury, N.J. Representative bonding adhesives for attaching visor 32 to face seal 34 include for example, without limitation, NuSil Med I-4013 heat cure silicone adhesive manufactured by NuSil Silicone of Carpinteria, Calif.
Exhalation valve 40, preferably located within a nose-cup 42, is used to exhaust air from the interior of the head covering 10 to the ambient outside environment. On the other hand, air directed into the hood 20 is used to over-pressurize the hood 20, and after doing so ultimately leaks to ambient. As shown in
Filters 56 which are integrated into hood 20 are preferably designed to provide low breathing resistance. One particularly desirable filter 56 media includes a combination of carbon loaded composite media for vapor and gas filtration, and electrostatic media for particulate filtration. As such, the sorbent layers used for vapor and gas filtration of the filters 56 may be made from a carbon loaded composite media. Representative composite media for carbon loading includes, for example, without limitation, the composite media manufactured by KX Industries under the tradename PLEKX. Representative carbon loading materials include, for example, without limitation, ground carbon manufactured by Calgon under the tradename ASZM-TEDA carbon. This combination of carbon and composite media offers excellent sorbent filtration and low pressure drop characteristics. Preferably, the media is loaded to at least 1000 grams/m2 of carbon and layered to provide the needed operational chemical protection, such as functioning within set safety standards. Use of four (4) layers is preferred for the redundant protection that is afforded to the wearer. Carbon mesh sizes can be varied to improve filter capacity or to reduce breathing resistance. The filter 56 surface area for the mask 100 of the present invention may comprise appropriate surface area for effective filtration of contaminants, with typical surface areas of the filters 56 ranging from about 50 cm2 to about 500 cm2, more preferably from about 100 cm2 to about 350 cm2, still more preferably from about 150 cm2 to about 300 cm2, and most preferably from about 200 cm2 to about 250 cm2.
In addition, the filters 56 include particulate layers made from an electrostatic media. Particulate filtration media are included as an additional layer along with the carbon loaded web structure. Representative electrostatic media include, for example, without limitation, Advanced Electret Media manufactured by 3M of Minneapolis, Minn. This material offers excellent aerosol and particulate filtration and very low pressure drop characteristics. Preferably the electrostatic media is optimized to provide near HEPA performance, as determinable by one skilled in the art, such as at a depth of approximately 0.1 inches. As seen in the filter cut-away, shown in
Additional features may be incorporated into the mask 100 of the present invention, such as front filters or low profile contoured filters 56 on the side and/or back of the mask 100. Although placement of front and/or side filters 52 on the mask 100, or additional filters 50 to the back, adds additional bulk to the mask, it also provides a significant increase in filtering surface area. Increases in surface area, over the original filter 50 system may be doubled or more. With this extension of the original filter 50 surface area, additional filter capacity is available or thinner filters 50, 52 and 56 may be used in one or more of the filter locations, e.g., the front and back or side and back locations. In addition, using the additional contoured filters 56, breathing resistance into the mask 100 may be further reduced to nearly half the resistance of a mask 100 using only the rear-mounted filters 50. Optionally, the separate front and/or side 52 filters may be used as primary or secondary filters in combination with the back filters 50, i.e., they may be used in parallel or series airflow patterns with the rear filter.
In a preferred embodiment, the present invention includes the head covering 10 with only rear mounted filters 50, as shown in
Various air flow configurations within the mask 100 provide operational flexibility to the present invention, with one or more air flow configurations being possible for a given mask 100 of the present invention. A combination of the features may also be incorporated into a single mask 100. For example, in addition to the rear mounted filters 50, the mask 100 may include either or both front and/or side filters 52 for extra capacity, and different airflow configurations may be used through the mask 100. In addition, a small fan or motor blower may be used to force air into mask 100 through the rear filters 50 thereby greatly reducing breathing resistance. As previously discussed, added features generally incorporate additional bulk to one portion of the mask 100 but provide advantages, such as additional filter capacity or protection in the mask 100.
As seen in
In the airflow 110 configuration represented in
In the airflow 110 pattern shown in
As further seen in the airflow 110 configuration in
Another alternative embodiment, as shown in
The airflow 110 pattern shown in
Alternative configurations allow for the incorporation of a head mounted blower and/or additional front mounted filters. This provides the wearer with options to tailor the protection and filter capacity to suit the mission. It is envisioned that the wearer could engage the filters collectively or as a primary and secondary filter option. It is also envisioned that the wearer could redirect blown air directly to the face piece or to the hood for additional cooling and protection. Unlike previously known mask systems, the present invention may be effectively adapted to utilize multiple filter configurations.
The chemical/biological protective mask 100 of the present invention provides a balanced system for dealing with contamination through improved center-of-gravity forces imparted onto the wearer that occurs with the adjustment of the weight distribution within the mask 100. The present invention provides the wearer of protective equipment an expanded visual field-of-view, lower breathing resistance, improved protection and improved compatibility. Because much of the facial bulk is removed, the lens or visor system can be expanded to improve visual field-of-view. Compatibility with external sighting systems and rifle firing is improved since the filters have been moved from the front of the mask. A larger filter surface area provides for lower breathing resistance and the potential for higher filter capacity. Protection is also improved by removing the weight of the filters from the face, which minimizes torque of the face-piece and allows for use of a softer seal material. Finally, alternative airflow patterns allow the mask to be tailored for particular applications, and the mask provides the ability for the user to modify the airflow as required. For example, the mask can be adjusted so that exhaled air is directed to the hood for over-pressurization rather than being exhaled to the outside environment.
The foregoing summary, description, and examples of the present invention are not intended to be limiting, but are only exemplary of the inventive features which are defined in the claims. Alternative materials and configurations to those described herein for the present invention may be used.
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|U.S. Classification||128/201.25, 128/206.15, 128/201.22, 128/206.17|
|Cooperative Classification||A62B17/04, A62B18/006|
|European Classification||A62B17/04, A62B18/00D|
|Sep 17, 2009||FPAY||Fee payment|
Year of fee payment: 4
|Nov 29, 2013||REMI||Maintenance fee reminder mailed|
|Apr 18, 2014||LAPS||Lapse for failure to pay maintenance fees|
|Jun 10, 2014||FP||Expired due to failure to pay maintenance fee|
Effective date: 20140418