|Publication number||US7057486 B2|
|Application number||US 10/000,877|
|Publication date||Jun 6, 2006|
|Filing date||Nov 14, 2001|
|Priority date||Nov 14, 2001|
|Also published as||CA2466706A1, CN1310258C, CN1596452A, US20040150500, WO2003043034A1|
|Publication number||000877, 10000877, US 7057486 B2, US 7057486B2, US-B2-7057486, US7057486 B2, US7057486B2|
|Inventors||Frederick J. Kiko|
|Original Assignee||Pulse Engineering, Inc.|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (35), Referenced by (74), Classifications (18), Legal Events (8)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
1. Field of the Invention
The present invention relates generally to inductive circuit elements, and more particularly to a controllable-inductance inductor or transformer architecture and a method of manufacturing the same.
2. Description of Related Technology
As is well known in the art, inductive components are electronic devices which provide the property of inductance (i.e., storage of energy in a magnetic field) within an alternating current circuit. Inductors are one well-known type of inductive device, and are formed typically using one or more coils or windings which may or may not be wrapped around a magnetically permeable core. So-called “dual winding” inductors utilize two windings wrapped around a common core.
Transformers are another type of inductive component that are used to transfer energy from one alternating current (AC) circuit to another by magnetic coupling. Generally, transformers are formed by winding two or more wires around a ferrous core. One wire acts as a primary winding and conductively couples energy to and from a first circuit. Another wire, also wound around the core so as to be magnetically coupled with the first wire, acts as a secondary winding and conductively couples energy to and from a second circuit. AC energy applied to the primary windings causes AC energy in the secondary windings and vice versa. A transformer may be used to transform between voltage magnitudes and current magnitudes, to create a phase shift, and to transform between impedance levels.
Ferrite-cored inductors and transformers are commonly used in modern broadband telecommunications circuits to include ISDN (integrated services digital network) transceivers, DSL (digital subscriber line) modems and cable modems. These devices provide any number of functions including shielding, control of longitudinal inductance (leakage), and impedance matching and safety isolation between broadband communication devices and the communication lines to which they are connected. Ferrite-core inductive device technology is driven by the need to provide miniaturization while at the same time meeting performance specifications set by chip-set manufactures and standards bodies such as the ITU-T. For example, in DSL modems, microminiature transformers are desired that can allow a DSL signal to pass through while introducing a minimal THD (total harmonic distortion) over the DSL signal bandwidth. As another example, dual-winding inductors can be used in telephone line filters to provide shielding and high longitudinal inductance (high leakage).
A common prior art ferrite-cored inductive device is known as the EP-core device.
When completely assembled, the device 100 is mounted on top of a terminal array 114 generally with the windings 112 a, 112 b (i.e., the truncated portions 116 of the half-pieces 104, 106) being adjacent to the terminal array 114, which is subsequently mated to the printed circuit board (PCB) when the device 100 is surface mounted as shown in
Magnet wire is commonly used to wind transformers and inductive devices (such as inductors and transformers, including the aforementioned EP-type device). Magnet wire is made of copper or other conductive material coated by a thin polymer insulating film or a combination of polymer films such as polyurethane, polyester, polyimide (aka “Kapton™”), and the like. The thickness and the composition of the film coating determine the dielectric strength capability of the wire. Magnet wire in the range of 31 to 42 AWG is most commonly used in microelectronic transformer applications, although other sizes may be used in certain applications.
Prior art EP inductive devices have several other shortcomings. A major difficulty with EP devices is the complexity of their manufacturing process, which gives rise to a higher cost. Also, the EP core half pieces themselves are relatively costly to mold and produce. For example, by the time the EP transformer is assembled and tested, its volume production cost is high (currently ranging from approximately $0.5;0 to −$0.70). It would be desirable to produce a device having performance characteristics at least equivalent to those of an EP transformer, but at a significantly lower cost.
The shielding of prior art EP core devices is also less than optimal, due ill large part to the shielding not being uniform around the device (i.e., magnetic flux permeating the “open” lower portion of the device).
Another disadvantage to prior art EP core inductors and transformers is the inability to individually control both the leakage inductance and the differential inductance of the transformer. The leakage inductance, also known as the common mode inductance, involves the inductive coupling loss between the transformer's windings. Control of the leakage inductance is important to many telecommunication applications. For example, the FCC imposes on-hook impedance limitations on circuits interfacing to telephone lines. The ETSI Specification requires a minimal “longitudinal impedance” (such as 10 KOhm) depending on frequency from each of tip and ring to ground. “Tip” and “ring” correspond to the two wires of a two-wire current loop as provided on a copper telephone wire. When designing with an EP transformers and inductors, in order to meet ETSI specifications, a second transformer is typically needed so that a pair of transformers is able to meet both a signal path transfer function requirement and a longitudinal inductance requirement. This can be very costly since the total DC resistance budget often requires all of the transformers to be larger to reduce the DC resistance of each transformer. The larger transformers are more expensive, physically consume more space, and have more parasitic capacitance. The increased parasitic capacitance results in lower bandwidth. It would be desirable to have a transformer that has a controllable common mode inductance so that the second transformer could be eliminated. This would provide smaller, less expensive transformer solutions that also have reduced parasitic capacitances and improved signal path frequency responses.
The main inductance of concern in a transformer is its differential inductance. The differential inductance is the inductance measured with the winding in series. While techniques to control the leakage inductance exist in EP transformers, an adjustment made to control of the differential inductance tends to have little effect on the leakage inductance. This lack of the ability to separately control the leakage inductances gives rise for the aforementioned need for two transformers to provide a transformer-system solution that meets both the signal path specification and the longitudinal inductance specification. It would be desirable to have a transformer architecture that could provide even partially independent control of both the differential and leakage inductances.
Based on the foregoing, it would be most desirable to provide an improved inductive component, related telecommunication circuits, and a method of manufacturing the improved inductive component. Such an improved device would involve a lower cost manufacturing process using inexpensive components to produce devices at a lower cost. It would also be advantageous if such a device could have independently controllable differential and leakage inductances to eliminate the need for a second device to control the leakage inductance as would otherwise be needed to satisfy a system-level longitudinal inductance specification. The elimination of the second device would further reduce costs at the system level and reduce the overall DC resistance, parasitic capacitance and footprint of the component. It would also be desirable for such an improved device to maintain desirable characteristics attributed to EP core devices such as small size, wideband performance, low THD, and also possess a high degree of electromagnetic shielding. Such an improved device could also be utilized in filter and splitter circuits to provide enhanced performance at lower cost that existing prior art solutions.
The present invention satisfies the aforementioned needs by providing an improved inductive device, and method of manufacturing the same.
In a first aspect of the invention, a shielded core assembly for use in an inductive device is disclosed. In one embodiment, the assembly comprises a first core and a second core, at least a portion of the cores comprising a magnetically permeable material and adapted to receive a first and second winding thereon, respectively; and a sleeve, at least a portion of the sleeve comprising a magnetically permeable material, the sleeve further being adapted to fit over at least a portion of the aforementioned cores and magnetically shield at least a portion of the windings and cores.
In a second aspect of the invention, a selectively controllable inductive core assembly for use in an inductive device is disclosed. In one embodiment, the assembly comprises a first core and a second core, at least a portion of the cores comprising a magnetically permeable material; and a sleeve, at least a portion of the sleeve comprising a magnetically permeable material, the sleeve further being adapted to fit over at least a portion of the cores. The first and second cores cooperate with the sleeve to form first and second side gaps when said core assembly is assembled. The side gaps are used to control the leakage (common mode) inductance of the device. Additionally, the first and second cores cooperate to form at least one end gap therebetween when the device is assembled, the end gap(s) being used to control the differential inductance of the device. Advantageously, the use of the foregoing gaps allows somewhat independent control of the common mode and differential inductances
In a third aspect of the invention, an improved dual-core inductive device is disclosed. In one embodiment, the device comprises a transformer incorporating the shielding and selectively controllable inductance features of the aforementioned core assemblies, and further includes first and second conductive windings wound upon the first and second cores, respectively. The first winding comprises a transformer primary, and the second a transformer secondary, thereby providing voltage transformation with independently controlled common mode and differential inductance and magnetic shielding within a unitary device. In another embodiment, the device comprises an isolation transformer having four windings (two per core) wound either in bifilar or layer fashion, thereby providing a low cost isolation transformer with independently controlled common mode and differential inductance, and suitable for applications such as DSL. In another application, the device comprises four windings (two per core), and is useful for DC/DC converter applications with dual drive and dual current limited outputs.
In a fourth aspect of the invention, an improved single core inductive device is disclosed. In one exemplary embodiment, the device comprises a single core fitted within a closed-end sleeve. The side and end gaps created between the outer periphery and the end surface of the core, respectively, and the sleeve are controlled to control the common mode and differential inductances of the device. In one variant, an electrically balanced device is provided through use of bifilar windings on the core, the two bifilar windings having matched inductance and resistance. In a second variant, an unbalanced device is produced through use of two separate layered windings which have independently controllable inductance and resistance.
In a fifth aspect of the invention, a circuit board assembly comprising a substrate (e.g., PCB) having a plurality of conductive traces and one or more of the aforementioned inductive devices mounted thereon. A terminal array comprising a plurality of electrically conductive terminals electrically interfaces the inductive device with the traces of the substrate.
In a sixth aspect of the invention, a circuit utilizing one or more of the he aforementioned inductive devices is disclosed. In one embodiment, the circuit comprises a DSL splitter circuit having one dual-core inductive device and two single-core inductive devices as described above. This configuration provides superior signal splitting performance at extremely low cost. In another embodiment, a T1E1-compliant filter circuit is disclosed. In one variant of the filter circuit, a dual-core inductor and dual-winding, single core inductor are used in series between the line and extension device (e.g., POTS telephone). In another variant of the filter, two separate standard drum core inductors are used in series with a dual winding, single core inductor.
In a seventh aspect of the invention, a method of manufacturing an inductive component is disclosed. In one exemplary embodiment, the method comprises determining one or more values of a first set of design parameters that cause the inductive component to meet a first set of specifications; determining one or more values of a second set of design parameters that cause the inductive component to meet one or more second specifications, the second set of parameters containing at least one parameter that can be adjusted to modify an inductance (e.g., longitudinal inductance) of the inductive component without requiring at least some of the values of the first set of parameters to be readjusted to maintain the first specification; and manufacturing the inductive component in accordance with the first and second sets of design parameters. In one particular variant, the method is adapted to a dual-core device and comprises: providing a quantity of cores; providing a quantity of sleeves; providing a quantity of wire; producing at least one sample dual-core inductive device by respectively wrapping a first and a second winding around first and second cores in accordance with a nominal turns number; arranging the first and second wound cores within a sleeve; electrically testing at least one inductive property of the sample(s); determining the production turns that produces a desired inductive property of the device; and producing a plurality of dual-core inductive devices in batches in accordance with the production turns.
The features, objectives, and advantages of the invention will become more apparent from the detailed description set forth below when taken in conjunction with the drawings, wherein:
Reference is now made to the drawings wherein like numerals refer to like parts throughout.
Referring now to
The two leads 215 a and 215 b of the embodiment of
In one configuration, the leads 215 a, 215 b are coupled directly from the bobbin 210 and formed as surface mount (SMT) leads, thereby providing the advantage of low cost. In another configuration, as illustrated in
In the illustrative embodiment of
In the exemplary embodiment of
The bobbin 210 is fashioned from a magnetically permeable material such as a soft ferrite or powdered iron, as is well known in the electrical arts. The manufacture and composition of such cores is well understood, and accordingly not described further herein. Presently, drum-shaped bobbins can be mass produced inexpensively and are available at a very low cost (on the order of $0.05 per unit in mass quantities). The bobbin 210 has a first flange 205 and a second flange 207. While it is common practice to produce bobbins whose flanges 205, 207 are equal in diameter, for use with the present invention, the first flange 205 typically has a larger diameter than the second flange 207. A bobbin that has the first flange 205 with a diameter substantially larger or smaller than the second flange 207 is referred to as an “asymmetric bobbin” or an “asymmetric drum core.”
As shown in
The distance from the inner surface of the sleeve 230 to the top of the second flange 207 defines a side (air) gap 235. When the second flange 207 of the bobbin 210 is positioned with respect to the corresponding flange of the other bobbin 211 to within a non-zero spacing, an end (air) gap 240 also results as shown in
To construct a transformer with a specific set of electrical characteristics, certain parameters must be considered. A first parameter is the turns ratio. The turns ratio is commonly defined as the ratio of the number of turns in the primary winding 216 divided by the number of turns in the secondary winding 217. Another parameter of interest is the dielectric strength of the conductor insulation. Magnet wire of the type previously described is generally suitable to meet the insulation requirement within the windings 216, 217. Other types of insulated wire with different dielectric strengths could be used as well. It will be apparent to those of ordinary skill in the polymer chemistry arts that any number of different insulating compounds may be used in the present application. A Parylene coating as is commonly used as a coating on magnet wire is selected in the present embodiment. Parylene is chosen for its superior properties and low cost; however, certain applications may dictate the use of other insulating materials. Such materials may be polymers such as for example fluoropolymers (e.g., Teflon, Tefzel), polyethylenes (e.g., XLPE), polyvinylchlorides (PVCs), or conceivably even elastomers. Additionally, mylar or other insulating tape (or even dip or spray-on coatings) may be used to separate layers of windings and/or provide an outer protective cover for the windings.
Yet another set of parameters involve the physical dimensions and makeup of the transformer itself. The material properties of the bobbins 210 and 211 influence linear and nonlinear transfer characteristics that may affect the frequency response, mutual inductance and THD (total harmonic distortion) of the transformer. Other bobbin parameters include the cross section shape, spool diameter 206, and diameters of the flange 205, 207. The horizontal length of the sleeve 230 impacts the transformer's transfer characteristic and also defines the end air gap 240 once the bobbin parameters have been fixed. It should be noted that the transfer function of the transformer can be dependent on all of these parameters, and a given mix of parameters can be selected to provide a transformer with a given shape and having a specified transfer characteristic.
Another important parameter of the present invention is the length of the side air gap 235. It has been discovered that, once all the other parameters have been fixed, the magnitude of the side air gap 235 somewhat independently influences the leakage inductance of the transformer. Leakage inductance, also called the “common mode inductance,” for balanced filters represents the inductance between the primary and secondary windings, and this inductance appears in series with the windings. The leakage inductance may be adjusted in order to meet a longitudinal impedance specification with which the device must comply. By adjusting the magnitude of the side air gap 235, the leakage inductance can be directly controlled without the need for a second transformer as is commonly using prior art EP-core based transformers. The ability to independently control the leakage inductance of the dual-core transformer 200 of
Still another important parameter of the present invention is the size or magnitude of the end air gap 240. It has been discovered that, once all the other parameters have been fixed, the size of the end air gap 240 influences (in substantial part independent of the side gap) the differential inductance of the transformer. This decoupling of the control over the leakage inductance and the differential inductance advantageously allows transformers to be designed to simultaneously conform to both a signal path transfer function specification and also a longitudinal impedance requirement. In prior art transformers such as the EP-core transformer of
Note that if desired, the foregoing end and side gaps 235, 240 may be optionally filled, either completely or in part, with a filler material (not shown) in order to further control inductance or other properties of the device 200. Hence, the present invention contemplates both unfilled (e.g. air) gaps and filled gaps. Such filler material may be for example a polymer, ceramic, or even a tape, and have magnetic permeability or reluctance comparable to that of the sleeve or drum core(s), or alternatively have substantially different permeability/reluctance. The use of such fillers to control inductance and other physical parameters of a transformer/inductive device are well known in the electronic arts, and accordingly not described further herein.
Referring now to
The device of
The sets of windings 272, 274 of the device 270 in
In one variant, the two windings are wound onto the core 292 in bifilar fashion, thereby providing balanced inductance and resistance values for the two windings. This approach provided maximum economy, since the bifilar winding ensures the desired balanced electrical properties without need for precise measurements of component parameters.
In another variant, the windings are would in layers, the lay (and length) of each winding determining the relationship between the inductance and resistance values of each individual winding. The windings may also be separated by insulating tape or coatings if desired. This approach imparts more cost to the device, but allows for selective control of the electrical properties associated with each winding. This variant reduces the inter-winding capacitance at the expense of matching; accordingly, the device could advantageously be used in applications such as low-cost isolated DC/DC converters, for example.
Referring now to
When the inductive device 260 is completely assembled (
The terminals are, in the illustrated embodiment, frictionally received within corresponding apertures formed in the risers formed on the bottom surface of the lower flange of the bobbin assembly 265. Alternatively, the terminals 269 may be molded directly, glued, or even heat staked into the bobbin assembly 265.
The device windings (not shown) are, as in previous embodiments, routed through the recesses 263 of the core 261 to the terminals 269 on the underside of the device 260. Alternatively, the terminals 269 may be made to protrude through the bottom flange of the bobbin assembly 265 (not shown) such that the windings may be terminated to the terminals 269 within the interior of the device. Termination of the windings may be accomplished using solder bonding, wire wrapping (using notched terminals if desired), or any other acceptable method.
Referring now to
As can be seen from
As yet another alternative, the terminals of the inductive device may be adapted for direct surface mounting to the PCB (i.e., without the base terminal array), as shown in
In the embodiments of
As shown in
The embodiment of
Note also that when mounted to a substrate or PCB, the inductive device(s) of the present invention may also optionally be encapsulated using an epoxy or polymer encapsulant (such as silicone) as is well known in the art.
Circuits Utilizing Controlled-Inductance Devices
Referring now to
Hence, using the controlled leakage inductive devices of the present invention, an isolation transformer can economically include a low-pass filter in combination with a high-pass filter. These high- and low-pass filter components can also be added independently of one another if desired.
Additionally, it will be recognized that the further addition of inductors in series on each side of the isolation transformer will produce a fifth-order low-pass filter response.
Referring now to
In the splitter circuit 500 of
On primary advantage of the splitter configuration of
Referring now to
As shown in
Referring now to
Method of Manufacture
Referring now to
It will be recognized that while the following description is cast in terms of a dual drum-core device, the method is generally applicable to the various other configurations and embodiments of inductive device disclosed herein with proper adaptation, such adaptation being within the possession of those of ordinary skill in the electrical device manufacturing field.
In a first step 630 of the method 600, a production run of drum cores is obtained. The production run may be obtained by purchasing the production run from an external entity or can involve fabricating a production run of drum cores. The drum core 210 of the exemplary transformer described above is preferably formed from a magnetically permeable material using any number of well understood processes such as material preparation, pressing, and sintering. The core may be optionally coated with a layer of polymer insulation (e.g., Parylene) or other material, so as to protect the windings from damage or abrasion. This coating may be particularly useful when using very fine gauge windings or windings with very thin film coatings that are easily abraded during the winding process. The core is produced to have specified material-dependent magnetic flux properties, a cross sectional shape, a cross sectional area, a horizontal length, and first and second flange diameters. If a terminal array is not used, then a production run of individual terminals used in conjunction with the core(s) are obtained and deformed per step 631.
In step 632, a production run of sleeves is obtained. The sleeve 230 of the exemplary transformer 200 is preferably formed from a magnetically permeable material using any of the aforementioned processes, or others as applicable. The sleeve also can be optionally coated with a layer of polymer insulation such as Parylene or other material, so that an inadvertent contact to another circuit element would have a lesser effect.
In step 634, a production run of wire (windings) is obtained. The production run may be obtained by purchasing a large contiguous spool of wire from an external entity or can involve fabricating a production run of wire. The wire is preferably copper-based magnet wire as discussed above, although other types of conductors may be used. As previously discussed, the wire can be insulated using any number of insulating coatings if desired. Additionally, where bifilar windings are called for, wire compatible with such applications is selected.
In step 636, the aforementioned components are organized to maintain integrity among production runs or batches. For example, if a production facility maintains stocks of such components, drum cores, sleeves, and wire from different production runs are stored separately. That is, neither the drum cores, sleeves, or wire spools from different production are mixed. Such segregation per step 636 is optional, but is preferred to maintain the integrity of a production run of inductive devices (e.g. transformers 200). Note also that some facilities may optionally maintain integrity among drum cores and sleeves but not wire, or among only drum cores, for example. Other combinations are possible, but maintaining complete production-run integrity of all three components is most desirable. Depending on the particular configuration, it may also be preferable to maintain production-run integrity among electrical terminals, base units 212 and any other components used to fabricate the inductive device.
In step 638, one or more samples of the inductive device are produced. Such sample(s) is/are then tested and modifications are made to bring the sample(s) into specification (step 639). Also, in one embodiment, a nominal turns number, N, is implemented in the sample. A production turns number is computed as N (production)=N (nominal) times the square root of the desired inductance divided by the inductance of the sample, as shown in Eqn. 1:
N R =N N×(L d /L s)1/2 (Eqn. 1)
NR=Production run turns
Ls=Sample inductance (average)
In step 640 of the method, the remaining drum cores of the production batch are wound in accordance with the number of turns determined from the samples of step 638.
In step 641, the wound windings are terminated to the terminals of each core if no terminal array is used. Such termination may be via winding, soldering, and/or any other known method which provides the required degree of electrical continuity.
In step 642, the wound drum cores are optionally sorted by their inductance values. This step involves measuring the inductance of each wound winding, and then sorting them based on the measured inductance. This procedure allows for a higher degree of balance or correspondence between the inductance values of the two wound cores used in the inductive device, thereby enhancing the inductance properties of each individual device. However, it will be recognized that other means other than sorting can be used to match up pairs of windings/cores having similar inductance deviations. Any method used to match measured inductance values of pairs of windings and/or cores in order to at least reduce the standard deviation of device performance criterion about the nominal value falls within the scope of the step 642.
In step 644, the sleeves are affixed to a selected pair of primary and secondary windings and their associated cores for the selected batch being manufactured. The sleeve is preferably affixed so as to minimize the right angle (L-shaped) air gap 245. This air gap is preferably made to be as close to zero as possible. Several methods can be used to affix the sleeve to the pair of drum cores. For example, the drum cores can be held into the sleeve by either gluing, using a formed wire or a flat spring.
In step 646 of the method 600, the sleeved pair of cores of the batch being manufactured may optionally be affixed to the base 212 or bases in some embodiments. Also, the wire used in the windings is connected to the appropriate terminals, e.g., 215 a and 215 b. The base itself is either manufactured as a part of this step, or is acquired from a third party. A set of bases used in a production run or batch of devices should also be consistent, but electrically affect transfer function and leakage inductance to a much lesser degree than the other components in the device.
In step 648, the devices 200 are optionally tested to insure they meet both the signal path transfer function requirements and/or the leakage inductance requirement. In some embodiments of the method, statistical sampling or statistical process control (SPC) may be performed by testing a statistically significant subset of the produced set of transformers to at least determine that the transformers meet specifications to within a statistical set of quality assurance specifications. Anecdotal sampling or other techniques may also be employed.
Lastly, when all of the devices for the present batch have been assembled (and tested if desired), the process is repeated for the next batch of devices per step 650.
It will be recognized that while certain aspects of the invention are described in terms of a specific sequence of steps of a method, these descriptions are only illustrative of the broader methods of the invention, and may be modified as required by the particular application. Certain steps may be rendered unnecessary or optional under certain circumstances. Additionally, certain steps or functionality may be added to the disclosed embodiments, or the order of performance of two or more steps permuted. All such variations are considered to be encompassed within the invention disclosed and claimed herein.
While the above detailed description has shown, described, and pointed out novel features of the invention as applied to various embodiments, it will be understood that various omissions, substitutions, and changes in the form and details of the device or process illustrated may be made by those skilled in the art without departing from the invention. For example, while the invention has been disclosed in terms of a component for telecommunications and networking applications, the inductive device architecture of the present invention could be used in other applications such as specialized power transformers. The foregoing description is of the best mode presently contemplated of carrying out the invention. This description is in no way meant to be limiting, but rather should be taken as illustrative of the general principles of the invention. The scope of the invention should be determined with reference to the claims.
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|International Classification||H01F17/04, H01F3/10, H01F27/00, H01F27/29, H01F17/06, H01F27/38, H01F19/04, H01F19/08|
|Cooperative Classification||H01F19/08, H01F27/38, H01F3/10, H01F17/043, H01F2027/297, H01F27/292|
|European Classification||H01F27/38, H01F17/04B, H01F27/29B|
|Mar 29, 2002||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: EXCELSUS TECHNOLOGIES, INC., CALIFORNIA
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:KIKO, FREDERICK J.;REEL/FRAME:012743/0304
Effective date: 20020205
|Sep 22, 2004||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: PULSE ENGINEERING, INC., CALIFORNIA
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|Mar 5, 2009||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: JPMORGAN CHASE BANK, N.A., AS ADMINISTRATIVE AGENT
Free format text: SECURITY AGREEMENT;ASSIGNOR:PULSE ENGINEERING, INC.;REEL/FRAME:022343/0821
Effective date: 20090304
|Jan 11, 2010||REMI||Maintenance fee reminder mailed|
|Jun 6, 2010||LAPS||Lapse for failure to pay maintenance fees|
|Jul 27, 2010||FP||Expired due to failure to pay maintenance fee|
Effective date: 20100606
|Dec 26, 2013||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: PULSE ELECTRONICS, INC., CALIFORNIA
Free format text: CHANGE OF NAME;ASSIGNOR:PULSE ENGINEERING, INC.;REEL/FRAME:031870/0001
Effective date: 20101028
|Jan 2, 2014||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: CANTOR FITZGERALD SECURITIES, NEW YORK
Free format text: NOTICE OF SUBSTITUTION OF ADMINISTRATIVE AGENT IN TRADEMARKS AND PATENTS;ASSIGNOR:JPMORGAN CHASE BANK, N.A.;REEL/FRAME:031898/0476
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