Search Images Maps Play YouTube News Gmail Drive More »
Sign in
Screen reader users: click this link for accessible mode. Accessible mode has the same essential features but works better with your reader.

Patents

  1. Advanced Patent Search
Publication numberUS7064355 B2
Publication typeGrant
Application numberUS 09/880,204
Publication dateJun 20, 2006
Filing dateJun 12, 2001
Priority dateSep 12, 2000
Fee statusPaid
Also published asEP1267420A2, EP1267420A3, US20020030194
Publication number09880204, 880204, US 7064355 B2, US 7064355B2, US-B2-7064355, US7064355 B2, US7064355B2
InventorsMichael D. Camras, Michael R. Krames, Wayne L. Snyder, Frank M. Steranka, Robert C. Taber, John J. Uebbing, Douglas W. Pocius, Troy A. Trottier, Christopher H. Lowery, Gerd O. Mueller, Regina B. Mueller-Mach, Gloria E. Hofler
Original AssigneeLumileds Lighting U.S., Llc
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Light emitting diodes with improved light extraction efficiency
US 7064355 B2
Abstract
Light emitting devices with improved light extraction efficiency are provided. The light emitting devices have a stack of layers including semiconductor layers comprising an active region. The stack is bonded to a transparent optical element having a refractive index for light emitted by the active region preferably greater than about 1.5, more preferably greater than about 1.8. A method of bonding a transparent optical element (e.g., a lens or an optical concentrator) to a light emitting device comprising an active region includes elevating a temperature of the optical element and the stack and applying a pressure to press the optical element and the light emitting device together. A block of optical element material may be bonded to the light emitting device and then shaped into an optical element. Bonding a high refractive index optical element to a light emitting device improves the light extraction efficiency of the light emitting device by reducing loss due to total internal reflection. Advantageously, this improvement can be achieved without the use of an encapsulant.
Images(6)
Previous page
Next page
Claims(64)
1. A light emitting device having a stack of layers including semiconductor layers comprising an active region, said device comprising:
a transparent optical element bonded to said stack by a bond at an interface disposed between said optical element and said stack, wherein said optical element is bonded to a surface of said stack, wherein a smallest ratio of a length of a base of said optical element to a length of said surface is greater than one.
2. The light emitting device of claim 1, wherein said optical element comprises an optical concentrator.
3. The light emitting device of claim 2, wherein said optical concentrator comprises a parabolic wall.
4. The light emitting device of claim 2, wherein said optical concentrator comprises a cone-shaped wall.
5. The light emitting device of claim 2, wherein said optical concentrator comprises a beveled side wall.
6. The light emitting device of claim 2, wherein said optical concentrator comprises a side wall coated with metallization.
7. The light emitting device of claim 2, wherein said optical concentrator comprises a side wall coated with a dielectric material.
8. The light emitting device of claim 1, wherein said optical element comprises a total internal reflector.
9. The light emitting device of claim 1, wherein said optical element is formed from a material selected from the group of optical glass, III-V semiconductors, II-VI semiconductors, group IV semiconductors and compounds, metal oxides, metal fluorides, diamond, yttrium aluminum garnet, and combinations thereof.
10. The light emitting device of claim 1, wherein said optical element is formed from a material selected from the group consisting of zirconium oxide, sapphire, GaP, ZnS, materials containing lead oxide, and SiC.
11. The light emitting device of claim 1, wherein said optical element includes one or more luminescent materials that convert light of a wavelength emitted by said active region to at least another wavelength.
12. The light emitting device of claim 1, wherein said optical element is coated with one or more luminescent materials that convert light of a wavelength emitted by said active region to at least another wavelength.
13. The light emitting device of claim 1, wherein said ratio is greater than about two.
14. The light emitting device of claim 1, wherein said stack is located in a recess of a surface of said optical element.
15. The light emitting device of claim 1, wherein a refractive index of said optical element for light emitted by said active region is greater than about 1.5.
16. The light emitting device of claim 15, wherein said refractive index is greater than about 1.8.
17. The light emitting device of claim 1, wherein a refractive index of said optical element is greater than or equal to a refractive index of said semiconductor layers for light emitted by said active region.
18. The light emitting device of claim 1, further comprising contacts electrically coupled to said semiconductor layers to apply a voltage across said active region.
19. The light emitting device of claim 18, wherein at least one of said contacts is highly reflective for light emitted by said active region and is located to reflect said light toward said optical element.
20. The light emitting device of claim 1, further comprising at least one beveled side located to reflect light emitted from said active region toward said optical element.
21. The light emitting device of claim 1, further comprising at least one layer highly reflective for light emitted by said active region located to reflect said light toward said optical element.
22. The light emitting device of claim 1, wherein said transparent optical element is directly bonded to at least one of said semiconductor layers.
23. The light emitting device of claim 1, wherein said stack comprises a transparent superstrate layer disposed above said semiconductor layers and directly bonded to said optical element.
24. The light emitting device of claim 23, wherein said superstrate layer has a refractive index for light emitted by said active region greater than about 1.8.
25. The light emitting device of claim 23, wherein said superstrate layer is formed from a material selected from the group of sapphire, SiC, GaN, and GaP.
26. The light emitting device of claim 23, wherein said optical element comprises one of ZnS, zirconium oxide, SiC, materials containing lead oxide, and sapphire, said superstrate comprises one of SiC, GaN, and sapphire, and said semiconductor layers comprise a III-Nitride semiconductor.
27. The light emitting device of claim 26, further comprising a first contact and a second contact electrically coupled to apply a voltage across said active region; said first contact and said second contact disposed on a same side of said stack.
28. The light emitting device of claim 23, wherein said optical element is formed from one of zirconium oxide, sapphire, material containing lead oxide, SiC, ZnS, and GaP, said superstrate is formed from a III-Phosphide material, and said semiconductor layers comprise one of III-Phosphide semiconductors and III-Arsenide semiconductors.
29. The light emitting device of claim 26, further comprising a first contact and a second contact electrically coupled to apply a voltage across said active region; said first contact and said second contact disposed on a same side of said stack.
30. The light emitting device of claim 1, further comprising a transparent bonding layer disposed between said optical element and a surface of said stack, said transparent bonding layer bonding said optical element to said stack.
31. A light emitting device having a stack of layers including semiconductor layers comprising an active region, said device comprising:
a transparent optical element bonded to said stack by a bond at an interface disposed between said optical element and said stack; and
a transparent bonding layer comprising a material different from a material forming the optical element, the transparent bonding layer being disposed between said optical element and a surface of said stack and bonding said optical element to said stack.
32. The light emitting device of claim 30, wherein said transparent bonding layer includes one or more luminescent materials that convert light of a wavelength emitted by said active region to at least another wavelength.
33. The light emitting device of claim 30, wherein said bonding layer has an index of refraction greater than about 1.5 for light emitted by said active region.
34. The light emitting device of claim 33, wherein said index of refraction is greater than about 1.8.
35. The light emitting device of claim 30, wherein said bonding layer has a thickness less than about 500 Angstroms.
36. The light emitting device of claim 30, wherein said surface includes a surface of one of said semiconductor layers.
37. The light emitting device of claim 30, wherein said surface includes a surface of a transparent superstrate layer disposed above said semiconductor layers.
38. The light emitting device of claim 37, wherein said superstrate layer has a refractive index for light emitted by said active region greater than about 1.8.
39. The light emitting device of claim 37, wherein said superstrate layer is formed from a material selected from the group consisting of sapphire, SiC, GaN, and GaP.
40. The light emitting device of claim 37, wherein said optical element comprises one of ZnS, zirconium oxide, material containing lead oxide, SiC, and sapphire, and superstrate comprises one of SiC, GaN, and sapphire, and said semiconductor layers comprise a III-Nitride semiconductor.
41. The light emitting device of claim 40, further comprising a first contact and a second contact electrically coupled to apply a voltage across said active region; said first contact and said second contact disposed on a same side of said stack.
42. The light emitting device of claim 37, wherein said optical element is formed from one of zirconium oxide, sapphire, materials containing lead oxide, SiC, ZnS, and GaP, said superstrate is formed from a III-Phosphide material, and said semiconductor layers comprise one of III-Phosphide semiconductors and III-Arsenide semiconductors.
43. The light emitting device of claim 42, further comprising a first contact and a second contact electrically coupled to apply a voltage across said active region; said first contact and said second contact disposed on a same side of said stack.
44. The light emitting device of claim 30, wherein said transparent bonding layer includes a lead oxide.
45. The light emitting device of claim 30, wherein said transparent bonding layer includes a tungsten oxide.
46. The light emitting device of claim 31, wherein said transparent bonding layer includes one or more luminescent material that convert light of a wavelength emitted by said active region to at least another wavelength.
47. The light emitting device of claim 31, wherein said bonding layer has an index of refraction greater than about 1.5 for light emitted by said active region.
48. The light emitting device of claim 47, wherein said index of refraction is greater than about 1.8.
49. The light emitting device of claim 31, wherein said bonding layer has a thickness less than about 500 Angstroms.
50. The light emitting device of claim 31, wherein said surface includes a surface of one of said semiconductor layers.
51. The light emitting device of claim 31, wherein said surface includes a surface of a transparent superstrate layer disposed above said semiconductor layers.
52. The light emitting device of claim 51, wherein said superstrate layer has a refractive index for light emitted by said active region greater than about 1.8.
53. The light emitting device of claim 51, wherein said superstrate layer is formed from a material selected from the group of sapphire, SiC, GaN, and GaP.
54. The light emitting device of claim 51, wherein said optical element comprises one of ZnS, zirconium oxide, materials containing lead oxide, SiC, and sapphire, said superstrate comprises one of SiC, GaN, and sapphire, and said semiconductor layers comprise a III-Nitride semiconductor.
55. The light emitting device of claim 54, further comprising a first contact and a second contact electrically coupled to apply a voltage across said active region; said first contact and said second contact disposed on a same side of said stack.
56. The light emitting device of claim 51, wherein said optical element is formed from one of zirconium oxide, sapphire, materials containing lead oxide, SiC, ZnS, and GaP, said superstrate is formed from a III-Phosphide material, and said semiconductor layers comprise one of III-Phosphide semiconductors and III-Arsenide semiconductor.
57. The light emitting device of claim 56, further comprising a first contact and a second contact electrically coupled to apply a voltage across said active region; said first contact and said second contact disposed on a same side of said stack.
58. The light emitting device of claim 31 wherein said transparent bonding layer is formed from a material selected from the group of optical glass, chalcogenide glass, III-V semiconductors, II-VI semiconductors, group IV semiconductors, metals, metal oxides, metal fluorides, yttrium aluminum garnet, phosphides, arsenides, antimonides, nitrides, and combinations thereof.
59. The light emitting device of claim 31 wherein said transparent bonding layer comprises an oxide of lead.
60. The light emitting device of claim 31 wherein said transparent bonding layer comprises an oxide of tungsten.
61. A light emitting device having a stack of layers including semiconductor layers comprising an active region, said device comprising:
an optical element bonded to said stack, the optical element comprising one of sapphire and SiC; and
a first contact and a second contact electrically coupled to apply a voltage across said active region;
wherein said stack of layers comprises at least one III-Nitride semiconductor layer and said first contact and said second contact are disposed on a same side of said stack.
62. A light emitting device having a stack of layers including semiconductor layers comprising an active region, said device comprising:
an optical element bonded to said stack;
wherein said optical element comprises one of sapphire and SiC.
63. The device of claim 62 further comprising a first contact and a second contact electrically coupled to apply a voltage across said active region;
wherein said stack of layers comprises at least one a III-Nitride semiconductor layer and said first contact and said second contact are disposed on a same side of said stack.
64. The device of claim 62 wherein the stack comprises a transparent superstrate, and optical element is bonded to a surface of the transparent substrate.
Description
RELATED APPLICATIONS

This application is a Continuation-In-Part of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 09/660,317 filed on Sep. 12, 2000, which is herein incorporated by reference in its entirety.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

1. Field of the Invention

The present invention relates generally to light emitting devices and more particularly to light emitting diodes with enhanced light extraction efficiency.

2. Description of the Related Art

The light extraction efficiency of a light emitting diode (LED) is defined as the ratio of the LED's external quantum efficiency to the LED's internal quantum efficiency. Typically, the light extraction efficiency of a packaged LED is substantially less than one, i.e., much of the light generated in the LED's active region never reaches the external environment.

Light extraction efficiency is reduced by total internal reflection at interfaces between the LED and surrounding material followed by reabsorption of the totally internally reflected light in the LED. For example, for a cubic geometry LED on a transparent substrate encapsulated in epoxy, the refractive index (n) at the emission wavelength changes from a value of, for example, nsemi˜3.5 in the LED semiconductor to nepoxy˜1.5 in the epoxy. The corresponding critical angle for total internal reflection of light incident on the epoxy encapsulant from the LED semiconductor of this example is θC=arcsin(nepoxy/nsemi)˜25°. Neglecting scattering and multiple reflections, light emitted over 4π steradians from a point in the active region of the cubic LED crosses a semiconductor/epoxy encapsulant interface only if it is emitted into one of six narrow light cones, one for each interface, with each light cone having a half angle equal to the critical angle. Additional losses due to total internal reflection can occur at the epoxy/air interface. Consequently, an efficient conventional geometry (for example, rectangular parallelepiped) transparent substrate AlInGaP LED encapsulated in epoxy, for example, may have an external quantum efficiency of only ˜40%, despite having an internal quantum efficiency of nearly 100%.

The effect of total internal reflection on the light extraction efficiency of LEDs is further discussed in U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,779,924; 5,793,062; and 6,015,719 incorporated herein by reference.

In one approach to improving light extraction efficiency, LEDs are ground into hemispherical shapes. Light emitted from a point in the active region of a hemispherically shaped LED intersects the hemispherical interface at near normal incidence. Thus, total internal reflection is reduced. However, this technique is tedious and wasteful of material. In addition, defects introduced during the grinding process may compromise the reliability and performance of the LEDs.

In another approach, LEDs are encapsulated (encased) in a material with a dome or hemispherically shaped surface. For example, the epoxy encapsulant of the above example may be dome shaped to reduce losses due to total internal reflection at the epoxy encapsulant/air interface. However, shaping the surface of a low refractive index encapsulant such as epoxy does not reduce losses due to total internal reflection at the semiconductor/low index encapsulant interface. Moreover, epoxy encapsulants typically have coefficients of thermal expansion that poorly match those of the semiconductor materials in the LED. Consequently, the epoxy encapsulant subjects the LED to mechanical stress upon heating or cooling and may damage the LED. LEDs are also encapsulated in dome shaped high index glasses, which increase the critical angle for the semiconductor/encapsulant interface. Unfortunately, optical absorption in high index glasses and mechanical stress typically degrade the performance of an LED encapsulated in such glass.

What is needed is a method for increasing the light extraction efficiency of light emitting diodes which does not suffer from the drawbacks of previous methods.

SUMMARY

Light emitting devices with improved light extraction efficiency are provided. The light emitting devices have a stack of layers including semiconductor layers comprising an active region. The stack is bonded to a transparent optical element.

In some embodiments, the optical element is a lens, for example a hemispheric lens or a Fresnel lens. In other embodiments, the optical element is an optical concentrator using, for example, a total internal reflector (TIR). The optical element is formed, for example, from optical glass, III-V semiconductors, II-VI semiconductors, group IV semiconductors and compounds, metal oxides, metal fluorides, diamond, sapphire, zirconium oxide, yttrium aluminum garnet, or combinations thereof. The refractive index of the optical element for light emitted from the active region is preferably greater than about 1.5, more preferably greater than about 1.8.

In one embodiment, the transparent optical element is directly bonded to at least one of the semiconductor layers of the stack. In another embodiment, the transparent optical element is directly bonded to a transparent superstrate disposed above the semiconductor layers. The transparent superstrate preferably has a refractive index for light emitted from the active region greater than about 1.8.

In other embodiments, the light emitting device includes a transparent bonding layer disposed between the optical element and a surface of the stack. The transparent bonding layer bonds the optical element to the surface of the stack. In one embodiment, the surface includes a surface of one of the semiconductor layers. In another embodiment, the surface includes a surface of a transparent superstrate layer disposed above the semiconductor layers. The transparent bonding layer is formed, for example, from metals, phosphide compounds, arsenide compounds, antimonide compounds, nitride compounds, or any of the materials listed above for the transparent optical element. In one embodiment, the transparent bonding material has an index of refraction for light emitted from the active region greater than about 1.5, preferably greater than about 1.8.

A method of bonding a transparent optical element to a light emitting device having a stack of layers including semiconductor layers comprising an active region is provided. The method includes elevating a temperature of the optical element and the stack and applying a pressure to press the optical element and the stack together. In one embodiment, the method also includes disposing a layer of a transparent bonding material between the stack and the optical element. The bonding method can be applied to a pre-made optical element or to a block of optical element material which is later formed or shaped into an optical element such as a lens or an optical concentrator.

Bonding a high refractive index optical element to a light emitting device improves the light extraction efficiency of the light emitting device by reducing loss due to total internal reflection. Advantageously, this improvement can be achieved without the use of an encapsulant.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

FIG. 1A is a schematic diagram of an optical element and a light emitting diode to be bonded to each other in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention.

FIG. 1B is a schematic diagram of an optical element bonded with a bonding layer to a light emitting diode in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention.

FIG. 1C is a schematic diagram of an optical element bonded to a light emitting diode in accordance with another embodiment of the present invention.

FIG. 1D is a schematic diagram of an optical concentrator bonded to a light emitting diode in accordance with another embodiment of the present invention.

FIG. 2 is a schematic diagram of an optical element directly bonded to a light emitting diode in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention.

FIG. 3 is a schematic diagram of an optical element bonded with a bonding layer to a light emitting diode having beveled sides in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention.

FIG. 4 is a schematic diagram of an optical element bonded with a bonding layer to a light emitting diode having substrate and superstrate layers in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention

FIG. 5 is a schematic diagram of an optical element directly bonded to a light emitting diode having substrate and superstrate layers in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention

FIG. 6 is a schematic diagram of an optical element bonded with a bonding layer to a light emitting diode having a “flip chip” geometry in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention.

FIG. 7 is a schematic diagram of an optical element directly bonded to a light emitting diode having a “flip chip” geometry in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention

FIG. 8 is a schematic diagram of an optical element bonded with a bonding layer to a light emitting diode having an active region substantially perpendicular to the optical element.

FIG. 9 is a schematic diagram of an optical element bonded directly to a light emitting diode having an active region substantially perpendicular to the optical element.

FIG. 10 is a schematic diagram of a light emitting diode located in a recess of a surface of an optical element to which it is directly bonded.

FIG. 11 is a schematic diagram of a light emitting diode located in a recess of a surface of an optical element to which it is bonded with a bonding layer.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

FIG. 1A depicts a transparent optical element 2 and a light emitting diode (LED) die 4 to be bonded to each other in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention. In FIG. 1B, in accordance with one embodiment of the present invention, transparent optical element, 2 is bonded to LED die 4 with a transparent bonding layer 6.

The term “transparent” is used herein to indicate that an optical element so described, such as a “transparent optical element,” a “transparent bonding layer,” a “transparent substrate,” or a “transparent superstrate” transmits light at the emission wavelengths of the LED with less than about 50%, preferably less than about 10%, single pass loss due to absorption or scattering. The emission wavelengths of the LED may lie in the infrared, visible, or ultraviolet regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. One of ordinary skill in the art will recognize that the conditions “less than 50% single pass loss” and “less than 10% single pass loss” may be met by various combinations of transmission path length and absorption constant. As used herein, “optical concentrator” includes but is not limited to total internal reflectors, and includes optical elements having a wall coated with a reflective metal or a dielectric material to reflect or redirect incident light.

LED die 4 illustrated in FIGS. 1A and 1B includes a first semiconductor layer 8 of n-type conductivity (n-layer) and a second semiconductor layer 10 of p-type conductivity (p-layer). Semiconductor layers 8 and 10 are electrically coupled to active region 12. Active region 12 is, for example, a p-n diode junction associated with the interface of layers 8 and 10. Alternatively, active region 12 includes one or more semiconductor layers that are doped n-type or p-type or are undoped. N-contact 14 and p-contact 16 are electrically coupled to semiconductor layers 8 and 10, respectively. Active region 12 emits light upon application of a suitable voltage across contacts 14 and 16. In alternative implementations, the conductivity types of layers 8 and 9, together with contacts 14 and 16, are reversed. That is, layer 8 is a p-type layer, contact 14 is a p-contact, layer 10 is an n-type layer, and contact 16 is an n-contact.

Semiconductor layers 8 and 10 and active region 12 are formed from III-V semiconductors including but not limited to AlN, AlP, AlAs, AlSb, GaN, GaP, GaAs, GaSb, InN, InP, InAs, InSb, II-VI semiconductors including but not limited to ZnS, ZnSe, CdSe, CdTe, group IV semiconductors including but not limited to Ge, Si, SiC, and mixtures or alloys thereof. These semiconductors have indices of refraction ranging from about 2.4 to about 4.1 at the typical emission wavelengths of LEDs in which they are present. For example, III-Nitride semiconductors such as GaN have refractive indices of about 2.4 at 500 nm, and III-Phosphide semiconductors such as InGaP have refractive indices of about 3.7 at 600 nm.

Contacts 14 and 16 are, in one implementation, metal contacts formed from metals including but not limited to gold, silver, nickel, aluminum, titanium, chromium, platinum, palladium, rhodium, rhenium, ruthenium, tungsten, and mixtures or alloys thereof. In another implementation, one or both of contacts 14 and 16 are formed from transparent conductors such as indium tin oxide.

Although FIGS. 1A and 1B illustrate a particular LED structure, the present invention is independent of the number of semiconductor layers in LED die 4, and independent of the detailed structure of active region 12. Also, LED die 4 may include, for example, transparent substrates and superstrates not illustrated in FIGS. 1A and 1B. It should be noted that dimensions of the various elements of LED die 4 illustrated in the various figures are not to scale.

In one embodiment, a layer of bonding material is applied to a top surface 18 of LED die 4 (FIG. 1A) to form transparent bonding layer 6 (FIG. 1B) with which to bond optical element 2 to LED die 4. Transparent bonding layer 6 is, for example, about 10 Angstroms (Å) to about 100 microns (μm) thick. The bonding material is applied, for example, by conventional deposition techniques including but not limited to spinning, sputtering, evaporation, chemical vapor deposition (CVD), or as part of material growth by, for example, metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD), vapor phase epitaxy (VPE), liquid phase epitaxy (LPE), or molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). Transparent bonding layer 6 is optionally patterned with, for example, conventional photolithographic and etching techniques to leave contact 14 uncovered by bonding material and thus to permit contact 14 to make electrical contact with optional metallization layer 20 on optical element 2. Metallization layer 20, in one embodiment a mesh and in other embodiments a continuous or patterned layer, for example, about 2 Å to about 5000 Å thick, transmits greater than about 10%, preferably greater than about 50%, of incident light and provides a physically accessible electrical contact coupled to contact 14. Metallization layer 20 is formed, for example, from metals or transparent conductors such as indium tin oxide.

In an alternative embodiment, transparent bonding layer 6 is formed on substantially flat surface 22 of optical element 2 or on the surface of metallization layer 20 and optionally patterned with, for example, conventional photolithographic and etching techniques to permit electrical contact between contact 14 and metallization layer 20. In another embodiment transparent bonding layers such as bonding layer 6 are formed on both surface 18 of LED die 4 and surface 22 of optical element 2. In other embodiments, contact 14 is not separately provided, and bonding layer 6 is patterned to permit electrical contact between metallization layer 20 and n-layer 8. In the embodiment shown in FIG. 1C, neither contact 14 nor bonding layer 6 is separately provided, and metallization layer 20 additionally functions as a bonding layer. In other embodiments, contact 14 is not located on surface 18 and the metallization layer 20 is not used.

Though the following discussion assumes that bonding layer 6 is formed on LED die 4 rather than on surface 22 of optical element 2 or on both LED die 4 and surface 22, the process described below can be simply modified to implement the latter embodiments.

In one implementation, the bonding material from which transparent bonding layer 6 is formed is a high index optical glass, i.e, an optical glass having a refractive index greater than about 1.5 in the range of wavelengths emitted by active region 12. Preferably, the refractive index is greater than about 1.8. Transparent bonding layer 6 is formed, for example, from Schott glass SF59, a dense flint glass which has refractive index (n)˜1.95 at ˜600 nanometers (nm) and a glass transition temperature (TG)˜362° C. Alternatively, transparent bonding layer 6 is formed from high index optical glasses including but not limited to Schott glass LaSF 3, with n˜1.81 at ˜600 nm and TG˜630° C.; Schott glass LaSF N18, with n˜1.91 at ˜600 nm and TG˜660° C.; and mixtures thereof. These glasses are available from Schott Glass Technologies Incorporated, of Duryea, Pa. Bonding layer 6 may also be formed from a high index chalcogenide glass, such as (Ge,Sb,Ga)(S,Se) chalcogenide glasses, for example.

In other implementations, bonding layer 6 is formed from III-V semiconductors including but not limited to GaP (n˜3.3 at 600 nm), InGaP (n˜3.7 at 600 nm), GaAs (n˜3.4 at 500 nm), and GaN(n˜2.4 at 500 nm); II-VI semiconductors including but not limited to ZnS (n˜2.4 at 500 nm), ZnSe (n˜2.6 at 500 nm), ZnTe (n˜3.1 at 500 nm), CdS (n˜2.6 at 500 nm), CdSe (n˜2.6 at 500 nm), and CdTe (n˜2.7 at 500 nm); group IV semiconductors and compounds including but not limited to Si (n˜3.5 at 500 nm), and Ge (n˜4.1 at 500 nm); organic semiconductors, metal oxides including but not limited to tungsten oxide, titanium oxide (n˜2.9 at 500 nm), nickel oxide (n˜2.2 at 500 nm), zirconium oxide (n˜2.2 at 500 nm), indium tin oxide, and chromium oxide; metal fluorides including but not limited to magnesium fluoride (n˜1.4 at 500 nm) and calcium fluoride (n˜1.4 at 500 nm); metals including but not limited to Zn, In, Mg, and Sn; yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG), phosphide compounds, arsenide compounds, antimonide compounds, nitride compounds, high index organic compounds; and mixtures or alloys thereof.

Bonding layer 6 includes, in one implementation, luminescent material that converts light of wavelengths emitted by active region 12 to other wavelengths. The luminescent material includes, for example, conventional phosphor particles, organic semiconductors, II-VI or III-V semiconductors, II-VI or III-V semiconductor quantum dots or nanocrystals, dyes, polymers, and materials such as GaN that luminesce from defect centers. If bonding layer 6 includes conventional phosphor particles, then bonding layer 6 should be thick enough to accommodate particles typically having a size of about 5 microns to about 50 microns.

In one implementation, bonding layer 6 is formed from a high index material (refractive index at the LED's emission wavelengths greater than about 1.5, preferably greater than about 1.8) having a refractive index less than that of the top layer of LED die 4, for example, semiconductor layer 8. Hence, a critical angle exists for total internal reflection of light incident on the semiconductor layer 8/bonding layer 6 interface from inside LED die 4. This critical angle is increased compared to the critical angle for an interface between LED die 4 and epoxy or air, however, and more light is extracted through surface 18 into bonding layer 6 than would be extracted into an epoxy encapsulant or air. In another implementation, the refractive index of bonding layer 6 (for example, ZnS or ZnSe) is greater than or equal to that of semiconductor layer 8 (for example, GaN), and none of the light incident on bonding layer 6 from inside LED die 4 is totally internally reflected. Neglecting Fresnel reflection losses, which can be minimized by approximately matching the refractive indices of bonding layer 6 and the top layer of LED die 4, in the latter case also more light is extracted through surface 18 into bonding layer 6 than would be extracted into an epoxy encapsulant or air.

In another implementation, transparent bonding layer 6 is formed from a low index bonding material, i.e., a bonding material having a refractive index less than about 1.5 at the LED's emission wavelengths. Magnesium fluoride, for example, is one such bonding material. Low index optical glasses, epoxies, and silicones may also be suitable low index bonding materials. One of ordinary skill in the art will recognize that efficient transmission of light from LED die 4 across transparent bonding layer 6, formed from a low index material, to optical element 2 can be achieved if bonding layer 6 is sufficiently thin. Accordingly, in this implementation losses due to total internal reflection at the LED die 4/bonding layer 6 interface are reduced by making the thickness of bonding layer 6 less than about 500 Å, preferably less than about 100 Å. Optical element 2 might bond poorly to LED die 4 if the roughness of surface 18 or surface 22 or typical height of irregularities on surface 18 or surface 22 exceed the thickness of bonding layer 6. In this embodiment, surfaces 18 and 22 are optionally polished to achieve a surface roughness of magnitude less than or equal to the thickness of bonding layer 6.

If LED die 4 includes material that absorbs light emitted by active region 12, and if bonding layer 6 is formed from a low index material but is not thin as described above, then a large portion of the light emitted by active region 12 will typically be trapped in LED die 4 and lost to absorption even if bonding layer 6 is itself nonabsorbing. In contrast, a bonding layer 6 formed from a high index material will typically couple a larger fraction of light emitted by active region 12 out of LED die 4 into optical element 2, even if the high index bonding material is a material such as a chalcogenide glass, for example, which absorbs a portion of the emitted light.

After transparent bonding layer 6 is applied to LED die 4, the substantially flat surface 22 of optical element 2 is placed against bonding layer 6. The temperature of bonding layer 6 is then raised to a temperature between about room temperature and about 1000° C., and optical element 2 and LED die 4 are pressed together for a period of time of about one second to about 6 hours at a pressure of about 1 pound per square inch (psi) to about 6000 psi. The inventors believe that in this process optical element 2 is bonded to LED die 4 by a bond effected between optical element 2 and bonding layer 6 (formed on LED die 4) by, for example, material transfer via shear stress, evaporation-condensation, liquification (or melting or softening) followed by solidification, diffusion, or alloying. The inventors believe that in other implementations optical element 2 is bonded to LED die 4 by a bond similarly effected by, for example, material transfer between bonding layers formed on each of optical element 2 and LED die 4 or between bonding layer 6 (formed on optical element 2) and LED die 4. Thus, a bonded interface characterized by material transfer may be disposed between optical element 2 and LED die 4. In one implementation, for example, surface 18 at the interface of n-layer 8 and bonding layer 6 is such a bonded interface. In another implementation, an interface of bonding layers formed on each of optical element 2 and LED die 4 is a bonded interface. In another implementation, an interface of optical element 2 and bonding layer 6 is a bonded interface.

If transparent bonding layer 6 is formed on LED die 4 from an optical glass, for example, then in one implementation the temperature of bonding layer 6 is raised to about the strain point temperature of the optical glass. The strain point temperature, which is near to but less than the glass transition temperature (TG), is the temperature at which the optical glass has a viscosity of about 1014.5 poises. The strain point temperature also corresponds to the first nonlinearity in a plot of expansion versus temperature for the optical glass, and thus represents the lower limit of the annealing range. The resulting flexibility and lowered surface tension of the optical glass in layer 6 at temperatures near or above the strain point temperature allow the optical glass to microscopically conform to surface 22 and to effect a bond between optical element 2 and bonding layer 6.

The process of bonding optical element 2 to LED die 4 described above may be performed with devices disclosed in U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,502,316 and 5,376,580, incorporated herein by reference, previously used to bond semiconductor wafers to each other at elevated temperatures and pressures. The disclosed devices may be modified to accommodate LED dice and optical elementes, as necessary. Alternatively, the bonding process described above may be performed with a conventional vertical press.

Transparent optical element 2 is formed, for example, from SiC (n˜2.7 at 500 nm), aluminum oxide (sapphire, n˜1.8 at 500 nm), diamond (n˜2.4 at 500 nm), or any of the materials listed above for use as bonding materials in transparent bonding layer 6, excluding the metals. A severe mismatch between the thermal expansion coefficients of optical element 2 and LED die 4 to which optical element 2 is bonded can cause optical element 2 to detach from LED die 4 upon heating or cooling. Also, approximately matching thermal expansion coefficients reduces the stress induced in LED die 4 by bonding layer 6 and optical element 2. Hence, in one implementation optical element 2 is formed from a material having a thermal expansion coefficient approximately matching the thermal expansion coefficient of LED die 4 to which optical element 2 is bonded.

In one embodiment, transparent optical element 2 has a shape and a size such that light entering optical element 2 from LED die 4 will intersect surface 24 of optical element 2 at angles of incidence near normal incidence. Total internal reflection at the interface of surface 24 and the ambient medium, typically air, is thereby reduced. In addition, since the range of angles of incidence is narrow, Fresnel reflection losses at surface 24 can be reduced by applying a conventional antireflection coating 25 to surface 24. The shape of optical element 2 is, for example, a portion of a sphere such as a hemisphere, a Weierstrass sphere (truncated sphere), or a portion of a sphere less than a hemisphere. Alternatively, the shape of optical element 2 is a portion of an ellipsoid such as a truncated ellipsoid. The angles of incidence at surface 24 for light entering optical element 2 from LED die 4 more closely approach normal incidence as the size of optical element 2 is increased. Hence, the smallest ratio of a length of the base of transparent optical element 2 to a length of the surface 18 of LED die 4 is preferably greater than about 1, more preferably greater than about 2.

One of ordinary skill in the art will recognize that the maximum size for which an optical element 2 of a particular material continues to be transparent as defined above is determined by the absorption constant of the optical element material at the emission wavelengths of the LED. In one implementation, optical element 2 is a Fresnel lens. Fresnel lenses are typically thinner than, for example, spherical optical elements of comparable focal lengths, and hence are less absorptive.

In some implementations, optical element 2 includes an optical concentrator, for example an optical concentrator using a total internal reflector (TIR). FIG. 1D provides an example of an optical concentrator bonded to LED die 4. Although FIG. 1D depicts surface 23 of the optical concentrator (optical element 2) as having a parabolic shape, surface 23 may have any shape designed to concentrate light, such as a cone-shape or a beveled shape, and may be coated with metallization or a dielectric material. Active layer 12 of LED die 4 is positioned to reduce the amount of light that experiences total internal reflection at surface 24. For example, active layer 12 may be distributed about the focal point of optical element 2. A photon which would have intersected surface 24 at an angle greater than the critical angle in the absence of surface 23 intersects surface 24 at an angle within the critical angle if it first reflects off surface 23. Therefore, surface 23 increases the likelihood of a photon escaping LED die 4.

In yet another implementation, optical element 2 is a graded index optical element having, for example, a refractive index decreasing in the direction perpendicular to surface 22 or decreasing radially from a maximum near a center of surface 22.

Optical element 2 includes, in one implementation, luminescent material that converts light of wavelengths emitted by active region 12 to other wavelengths. In another implementation, a coating on surface 22, for example, includes luminescent material. The luminescent material includes, for example, conventional phosphor particles, organic semiconductors, II-VI or III-V semiconductors, II-VI or III-V semiconductor quantum dots or nanocrystals, dyes, polymers, and materials such as GaN that luminesce from defect centers. Alternatively, a region of optical element 2 near surface 22 is doped, for example, with a luminescent material.

The magnitudes of the refractive indices of optical element 2 (noptical element), bonding layer 6 (nbond), and the top layer of LED die 4 (nLED) can be ordered in six permutations. If nLED≦nbond≦noptical element or nLED≦noptical element≦nbond, then losses due to total internal reflection are eliminated, but Fresnel losses may occur. In particular, if nLED=nbond=noptical element, then light enters optical element 2 from LED die 4 without losses due to Fresnel or total internal reflection. Alternatively, if nbond≦nLED≦noptical element but either nbond>nepoxy or bonding layer 6 is thin as described above, then, neglecting Fresnel reflection losses, more light is extracted into optical element 2 than would be extracted into an epoxy encapsulant or air. Similarly, if nbond≦noptical element≦nLED but either nbond>nepoxy or bonding layer 6 is thin as described above and noptical element>nepoxy, then, neglecting Fresnel reflection losses, more light is extracted into optical element 2 than would be extracted into an epoxy encapsulant or air. If noptical element≦nbond≦nLED or noptical element≦nLED≦nbond but noptical element>nepoxy, then, neglecting Fresnel reflection losses, more light is extracted into optical element 2 than would be extracted into an epoxy encapsulant or air. Thus, transparent optical element 2 preferably has a refractive index at the emission wavelengths of LED die 4 greater than about 1.5, more preferably greater than about 1.8. A similar analysis applies if the ambient medium is air (nair˜1) rather than an epoxy encapsulant, with nair substituted for nepoxy.

If bonding layer 6 includes phosphor particles and the refractive index of the bonding material, preferably a high index chalcogenide glass, approximately matches the refractive index of the phosphor particles, then scattering by the phosphor particles of light emitted by the active region or by the phosphor particles will be negligible. Preferably, the refractive indices of the phosphor particles, the bonding material, the top layer (for example n-layer 8) of LED die 4, and the optical element are all about equal. This is the case if the top layer of LED die 4 is InGaN, the phosphor particles are SrS:Eu and/or SrGaS:Eu, and the optical element is ZnS.

Referring to FIG. 2, in an alternative embodiment transparent optical element 2 is bonded directly to a top surface 18 of LED die 4 without the use of a separate bonding layer. The inventors believe that a bond is effected between optical element 2 and LED die 4 by, for example, material transfer via shear stress, evaporation-condensation, liquification (or melting or softening) followed by solidification, diffusion, or alloying. Metallization layer 20, if present, is patterned to allow surface 22 of optical element 2 to directly contact surface 18. Surface 22 is optionally also patterned by etching, for example. In one implementation of this embodiment, transparent optical element 2 is formed from a material, such as those listed above, which could be used to form a separate bonding layer. In another implementation, the material from which the top layer of LED die 4 (for example, n-layer 8 in FIG. 2) is formed is suitable as a bonding material. Thus either optical element 2 or a top layer of LED die 4 functions additionally as a bonding layer, and no separate bonding layer is necessary. In one implementation, the interface of optical element 2 and LED die 4 at surface 18, for example, is a bonded interface characterized by mass transfer between optical element 2 and LED die 4.

For optical element 2 directly bonded to LED die 4, if nLED≦noptical element or if noptical element<nLED but noptical element>nepoxy, then, neglecting Fresnel reflection losses, more light is extracted into optical element 2 than would be extracted into an epoxy encapsulant. A similar analysis applies if the ambient medium is air (nair˜1) rather than an epoxy encapsulant, with nair substituted for nepoxy.

Transparent optical element 2 is directly bonded to LED die 4 at temperatures and pressures as described above for the bonding process utilizing bonding layer 6. In one implementation, surface 18 of LED die 4 or surface 22 of optical element 2 is doped with a material exhibiting a high diffusivity such as, for example, Zn or Si. Such doping can be accomplished during materials growth by MOCVD, VPE, LPE or MBE, for example, or after materials growth by, for example, implantation. In another implementation, a thin layer of a high diffusivity material is disposed between optical element 2 and LED die 4 by deposition on at least one of surfaces 18 and 22. Deposition can be accomplished, for example, by conventional means such as evaporation or sputtering. The inventors believe that during the bonding process the high diffusivity material diffuses across the interface between optical element 2 and LED die 4 and enhances material transfer between optical element 2 and LED die 4. The amount of high diffusivity material used should be sufficiently low to maintain the transparency of, for example, optical element 2 and the top layer of LED die 4.

Application of the bonding method is not limited to a pre-made optical element. Rather, transparent optical element 2 may be a block of transparent optical element material that is bonded to LED die 4 in the manner described above, and then formed into optical element 2. Optical element 2 may be formed using etching, perhaps in conjunction with photolithography or other lithographic techniques, electron beam lithography, ion beam lithography, X-ray lithography, or holographic lithography. Wet or dry chemical etching techniques such as plasma etching, reactive ion etching (RIE), and chemically-assisted ion beam etching (CAIBE) may be used as well. Also, optical element 2 may be milled into a surface of the transparent optical element material using ion beam milling or focused ion beam milling (FIB), ablated into the surface with a scanning electron or a laser beam, or mechanically machined into the surface by sawing, milling, or scribing. In addition, optical element 2 may be stamped into the block of transparent optical element material using the method disclosed in U.S. patent application Ser. No. 09/823,841 which is herein incorporated by reference.

It is advantageous to bond LED die 4 to optical element 2 rather than to conventionally encase LED die 4 in an encapsulant. For example, the light extraction efficiency through surface 18 of LED die 4 bonded to optical element 2 with or without bonding layer 6, as described above, is improved compared to a conventional epoxy encapsulated LED. In addition, LED die 4 need not be subject to the damaging stress experienced by epoxy encapsulated (encased) LEDs. Moreover, in the absence of epoxy encapsulants, which degrade at relatively low temperatures, LED die 4 can be run at higher temperatures. Consequently, the light output of LED die 4 can be increased by running the LED at higher current densities.

If desired, however, LED die 4 bonded to optical element 2 could be additionally encapsulated in, for example, epoxy or silicone. Such encapsulation of LED die 4 bonded to optical element 2 would not effect the light extraction efficiency through surface 18 of LED die 4 into optical element 2. Total internal reflection at the interface of surface 24 and the encapsulant would be minimized, as described above, by the shape and size of optical element 2.

In some implementations, LED die 4 includes, for example, metallization for electrical contacts that degrades at elevated temperatures. In other implementations, LED die 4 is bonded to a submount, not shown, with solders or silver bearing die-attach epoxies that degrade at high temperatures. (Note that die-attach epoxy is to be distinguished from an epoxy encapsulant.) Consequently, in one implementation the process of bonding optical element 2 to LED die 4, with or without a bonding layer 6, occurs at temperatures less than about 500° C. in order to avoid, for example, degrading the metallization or the die-attach epoxy. In another implementation, optical element 2 is bonded to an incomplete LED die, for example, an LED die missing some or all metallization. In the latter implementation, fabrication of the LED die is completed after the optical element bonding process.

As FIGS. 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, and 11 illustrate, the structure of LED die 4 may differ from the structure depicted in FIGS. 1A, 1B, 1C, 1D, and 2. Like reference numbers in FIGS. 1A, 1B, 1C, 1D, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, and 11 designate the same parts in the various embodiments.

In the embodiment of FIG. 3, sides 26 and 28 of LED die 4 are beveled such that they intersect bonding layer 6 at angles α and β, respectively, less than 90° and intersect active region 12 at angle γ and δ, respectively, greater than 90°. Though two beveled sides are shown in FIG. 3, in other embodiments LED die 4 has more or less than two beveled sides and is, for example, substantially conical or pyramidal in shape.

Beveled sides 26 and 28 reflect light emitted from active region 12 toward bonding layer 6. Light that might otherwise have been trapped in LED die 4 or lost out the sides of the die is thereby advantageously extracted through bonding layer 6 and optical element 2. In one embodiment, LED die 4 is surrounded by a low refractive index medium such as air, and a portion of the light incident on beveled sides 26 and 28 from active region 12 is totally internally reflected toward bonding layer 6. In another embodiment, beveled sides 26 and 28 are coated with a reflective coating, in one implementation a metal layer and in another implementation a dielectric layer, that reflects light toward bonding layer 6.

In one embodiment, contact 16 is highly reflective. Accordingly, in this embodiment light incident on contact 16 is reflected toward bonding layer 6 and optical element 2 either directly or after additional reflection from side 26 or side 28. The light extraction efficiency of LED die 4 is consequently increased.

In the embodiments illustrated in FIGS. 4 and 5, LED die 4 includes conducting transparent superstrate 30 electrically coupled to metallization layer 20 and electrically coupled to n-layer 8, and conducting, optionally transparent, substrate 32 electrically coupled to p-layer 10 and to contact 16. Superstrate 30 and (optionally) substrate 32 are formed, for example, from semiconductors having a band gap energy greater than the energy of photons emitted by LED die 4. Superstrate 30 is formed from a material having an index of refraction at the emission wavelengths of active region 12 preferably greater than about 1.5, more preferably greater than about 1.8. In other implementations, sides 26 and 28 of LED die 4 are beveled and highly reflective and contact 16 is highly reflective, as described above. In the embodiment illustrated in FIG. 4, transparent optical element 2 is bonded to superstrate 30 with bonding layer 6, and n-layer 8 is electrically coupled to metallization layer 20 by n-contact 14. In the embodiment illustrated in FIG. 5, transparent optical element 2 is directly bonded to superstrate 30 and n-contact 14 is not separately provided.

Contact 14 and contact 16 are disposed on the same side of LED die 4 in the “flip chip” embodiments illustrated in FIGS. 6 and 7. Since optical element 2 is bonded to the opposite side of LED die 4 from contacts 14 and 16, no metallization layer is required on optical element 2 in these embodiments. The light extraction efficiency into optical element 2 is improved by the absence of the metallization layer. In other implementations, sides 26 and 28 of LED die 4 are beveled and highly reflective and contact 16 is highly reflective, as described above. Transparent superstrate 34 is formed from a material such as, for example, sapphire, SiC, GaN, or GaP, having an index of refraction at the emission wavelengths of active region 12 preferably greater than about 1.5, more preferably greater than about 1.8. In the embodiment illustrated in FIG. 6, optical element 2 is bonded with bonding layer 6 to transparent superstrate 34. In the embodiment illustrated in FIG. 7, optical element 2 is directly bonded to transparent superstrate 34.

In one implementation of the embodiments illustrated in FIGS. 6 and 7, optical element 2 is formed from ZnS, superstrate 34 is formed from SiC or GaN, and n-layer 8 is formed from a III-Nitride semiconductor such as GaN. In another implementation, optical element 2 is formed from GaP, superstrate 34 is formed from GaP, and n-layer 8 is formed from a III-Phosphide semiconductor such as an AlInGaP alloy. If present, transparent bonding layer 6 is formed, for example, from ZnS.

In the embodiments illustrated in FIGS. 8 and 9, the orientation of n-layer 8, p-layer 10, and active region 12 is substantially perpendicular to optical element 2. As in the embodiments illustrated in FIGS. 6 and 7, no metallization layer is required on optical element 2. In the embodiment illustrated in FIG. 8, optical element 2 is bonded with bonding layer 6 to LED die 4. In the embodiment illustrated in FIG. 9, optical element 2 is directly bonded to LED die 4. In one implementation, LED die 4 is sawn (“diced”) from a wafer with cuts made in a direction substantially perpendicular to layers 8 and 10 and to active region 12. In this implementation, the surface of LED die 4 to be bonded to optical element 2 is optionally polished to reduce its roughness. In other implementations, sides 26 and 28 of LED die 4 are beveled, contact 14 and contact 16 are highly reflective, and reflective layer 36 is located to reflect light into optical element 2.

In the embodiments of FIGS. 10 and 11, LED die 4 is located in a recess 38 in surface 22 of optical element 2 to which LED die 4 is bonded. In the embodiment illustrated in FIG. 10, optical element 2 is directly bonded to LED die 4. In the embodiment of FIG. 11, optical element 2 is bonded to LED die 4 with bonding layer 6.

While the present invention is illustrated with particular embodiments, the invention is intended to include all variations and modifications falling within the scope appended claims.

Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3769536Jan 28, 1972Oct 30, 1973Varian AssociatesIii-v photocathode bonded to a foreign transparent substrate
US4109054May 19, 1976Aug 22, 1978Ferro CorporationCopper-aluminum alloy; alumina film; boron, lead and silicon oxides with fluorine
US4391683Sep 10, 1982Jul 5, 1983Bell Telephone Laboratories, IncorporatedMask structures for photoetching procedures
US4675058 *Oct 3, 1985Jun 23, 1987Honeywell Inc.Light emitting diodes
US4689652Mar 11, 1985Aug 25, 1987Hitachi, Ltd.For converting optical information into an electric signal
US4815084May 20, 1987Mar 21, 1989Spectra Diode Laboratories, Inc.Semiconductor laser with integrated optical elements
US4983009Nov 28, 1988Jan 8, 1991Bt&D Technologies LimitedLight transmitting device utilizing indirect reflection
US4988579Jul 19, 1989Jan 29, 1991Sharp Kabushiki KaishaA substrate, a light emitting part and a conductive part joined to the substrate, a pair of electrodes for applying a voltage
US5040868May 31, 1990Aug 20, 1991Siemens AktiengesellschaftSurface-mountable opto-component
US5055892Aug 29, 1989Oct 8, 1991Hewlett-Packard CompanyHigh efficiency lamp or light accepter
US5130531Jun 6, 1990Jul 14, 1992Omron CorporationReflective photosensor and semiconductor light emitting apparatus each using micro Fresnel lens
US5132430Jun 26, 1991Jul 21, 1992Polaroid CorporationHigh refractive index polymers
US5255171 *Nov 27, 1991Oct 19, 1993Clark L DouglasColored light source providing intensification of initial source illumination
US5317170Apr 13, 1993May 31, 1994Xerox CorporationHigh density, independently addressable, surface emitting semiconductor laser/light emitting diode arrays without a substrate
US5376580Mar 19, 1993Dec 27, 1994Hewlett-Packard CompanyWafer bonding of light emitting diode layers
US5502316Oct 12, 1995Mar 26, 1996Hewlett-Packard CompanyWafer bonding of light emitting diode layers
US5528057May 27, 1994Jun 18, 1996Omron CorporationSemiconductor luminous element with light reflection and focusing configuration
US5553089 *Oct 18, 1994Sep 3, 1996Toyota Jidosha Kabushiki KaishaSemiconductor laser stack with lens and method of manufacturing the same
US5661316Sep 20, 1996Aug 26, 1997Hewlett-Packard CompanyMethod for bonding compound semiconductor wafers to create an ohmic interface
US5698452 *Aug 31, 1995Dec 16, 1997Lucent Technologies Inc.Method of making integrated detector/photoemitter with non-imaging director
US5724376Nov 30, 1995Mar 3, 1998Hewlett-Packard CompanyTransparent substrate vertical cavity surface emitting lasers fabricated by semiconductor wafer bonding
US5779924Mar 22, 1996Jul 14, 1998Hewlett-Packard CompanyOrdered interface texturing for a light emitting device
US5793062Oct 24, 1997Aug 11, 1998Hewlett-Packard CompanyTransparent substrate light emitting diodes with directed light output
US5837561May 23, 1997Nov 17, 1998Hewlett-Packard CompanyFabrication of transparent substrate vertical cavity surface emitting lasers by semiconductor wafer bonding
US5875205Feb 12, 1997Feb 23, 1999Siemens AktiengesellschaftOptoelectronic component and method for the manufacture thereof
US5898185 *Jan 24, 1997Apr 27, 1999International Business Machines CorporationHybrid organic-inorganic semiconductor light emitting diodes
US5917201 *Sep 4, 1997Jun 29, 1999Epistar Co.Light emitting diode with asymmetrical energy band structure
US5925898Jan 26, 1998Jul 20, 1999Siemens AktiengesellschaftOptoelectronic transducer and production methods
US5966399Oct 2, 1997Oct 12, 1999Motorola, Inc.Vertical cavity surface emitting laser with integrated diffractive lens and method of fabrication
US6015719Apr 24, 1998Jan 18, 2000Hewlett-Packard CompanyTransparent substrate light emitting diodes with directed light output
US6075627Apr 23, 1999Jun 13, 2000Digital Optics CorporationDiffusing imager and associated methods
US6091020 *Oct 16, 1997Jul 18, 2000The Boeing CompanyPhotovoltaic cells having a concentrating coverglass with broadened tracking angle
US6091694Sep 8, 1998Jul 18, 2000Siemens AktiengesellschaftSolid immersion lens with semiconductor material to achieve high refractive index
US6155699Mar 15, 1999Dec 5, 2000Agilent Technologies, Inc.Efficient phosphor-conversion led structure
US6165911Dec 29, 1999Dec 26, 2000Calveley; Peter BradenMethod of patterning a metal layer
US6214733Nov 17, 1999Apr 10, 2001Elo Technologies, Inc.Process for lift off and handling of thin film materials
US6233267Jan 19, 1999May 15, 2001Brown University Research FoundationBlue/ultraviolet/green vertical cavity surface emitting laser employing lateral edge overgrowth (LEO) technique
US6258699May 10, 1999Jul 10, 2001Visual Photonics Epitaxy Co., Ltd.Light emitting diode with a permanent subtrate of transparent glass or quartz and the method for manufacturing the same
US6412971Mar 1, 1999Jul 2, 2002General Electric CompanyLight source including an array of light emitting semiconductor devices and control method
US6429462 *Dec 29, 1999Aug 6, 2002D-Led CorporationInjection incoherent emitter
US6469785Mar 16, 1998Oct 22, 2002Zeptosens AgOptical detection device based on semi-conductor laser array
US6483196Apr 3, 2000Nov 19, 2002General Electric CompanyFlip chip led apparatus
US6495862 *Dec 20, 1999Dec 17, 2002Kabushiki Kaisha ToshibaNitride semiconductor LED with embossed lead-out surface
US20020141006Mar 30, 2001Oct 3, 2002Pocius Douglas W.Forming an optical element on the surface of a light emitting device for improved light extraction
US20040051106Jan 15, 2002Mar 18, 2004Osram Opto Semiconductors GmbhLight-emitting diode and method for the production thereof
EP0926744A2Dec 15, 1998Jun 30, 1999Hewlett-Packard CompanyLight emitting device
JPH09167515A * Title not available
JPS5565473A Title not available
WO2000069000A1May 12, 2000Nov 16, 2000Osram Opto Semiconductors GmbhLight-emitting diode arrangement
WO2000070687A1May 15, 2000Nov 23, 2000Osram Opto Semiconductors GmbhLed module for signaling devices
WO2001041219A1Nov 20, 2000Jun 7, 2001Cree Lighting CoMicro-led arrays with enhanced light extraction
WO2001041225A2Nov 28, 2000Jun 7, 2001Cree Lighting CoEnhanced light extraction in leds through the use of internal and external optical elements
WO2001080322A2Apr 19, 2001Oct 25, 2001Osram Opto Semiconductors GmbhHigh-radiance led chip and a method for producing the same
WO2002037578A1Nov 6, 2001May 10, 2002Osram Opto Semiconductors GmbhRadiation-emitting chip
Non-Patent Citations
Reference
1"Bulk Measurement", Sairon Technology, Inc., pp. 1-3.
2Aluminum Oxide, Al203 For Optical Coating, , CERAC, Inc. Technical Publications, pp. 1-4.
3Babic et al., "Room-Temperature Continuous-Wave Operation of 1.54-mum Vertical-Cavity Lasers", IEEE Phontonics Technology Letters, vol. 7, No. 11, Nov. 1995, pp. 1225-1227.
4Carr, "Photometric Figures of Merit for Semiconductor Luminescent Sources Operating in Spontaneous Mode", Infrared Physics, 1966, vol. 6, pp. 1-19.
5Chua et al., "Dielectrically-Bonded Long Wavelength Vertical Cavity Laser on GaAs Substrates Using Strain-Compensated Multiple Quantum Wells", IEEE Photonics Technology Letters, vol. 6, No. 12, Dec. 1994, pp. 1400-1402.
6Chui et al., "High-Efficiency AlGaInP Light-Emitting Didodes", Semiconductor And Semimetals, vol. 64, Chapter 2, pp. 49-128.
7Fischer et al., "Highly Refractive Glasses to Improve Electroluminescent Diode Efficiencies", Journal of the Electrochemical Society: Solid State Science, Dec. 1969, pp. 1718-1722.
8J.W. Osenbach, et al., Low Cost/High Volume Laser Modules Using Silicon Optical Bench Technology, 1998 Electronic Components and Technology Conference, pp. 581-587.
9Joseph S. Hayden, Passive and Active Characterization of Hybrid Glass Substrates for Telecommunication Applications, 8 pages.
10Joshua Israelsohn, "Switching the light fantastic", Techtrends, EDN, Oct. 26, 2000, 10 pages.
11Mary T. Strzelecki et al., "Low Temperature Bonding of Glasses and Glass Ceramics", 8 pages.
12Patent Abstracts of Japan, Publication No. 09-153645, date of publication: Oct. 6, 1997, inventors: Asami Shinya, Koike Masayoshi, Akasaki Isamu and Amano Hiroshi, 15 pages.
13Robert D. Simpson et al., "Hybrid Glass Structures For Telecommunication Applications", 8 pages.
14Thomas R. Anthony, "Dielectric isolation of silicon by anodic bonding", J. Appl. Phys. vol. 58, No. 3, Aug. 1, 1985, pp. 1240-1247.
15WO 00/70687, Translation from German, World Organization of Intellectual Property.
16WO 006900, Translation from German, World Organization of Intellectual Property.
17WO 01/80322 A2, Translation from German, World Organization of Intellectual Property.
18WO 02/37578 A1, Translation from German, World Organization of Intellectual Property.
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US7390117May 2, 2006Jun 24, 20083M Innovative Properties CompanyLED package with compound converging optical element
US7446343Jan 13, 2007Nov 4, 2008Philips Lumileds Lighting Company, LlcPhosphor converted light emitting device
US7525126May 2, 2006Apr 28, 20093M Innovative Properties CompanyLED package with converging optical element
US7618163Apr 2, 2007Nov 17, 2009Ruud Lighting, Inc.Light-directing LED apparatus
US7841750Aug 1, 2008Nov 30, 2010Ruud Lighting, Inc.Light-directing lensing member with improved angled light distribution
US7864635 *Jul 16, 2007Jan 4, 2011Hitachi, Ltd.Recording head
US7902564Dec 22, 2006Mar 8, 2011Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V.Multi-grain luminescent ceramics for light emitting devices
US7902566Nov 24, 2008Mar 8, 2011Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V.Color control by alteration of wavelength converting element
US7943944 *Jun 20, 2003May 17, 2011Osram Opto Semiconductors GmbhGaN-based radiation-emitting thin-layered semiconductor component
US8013345Nov 7, 2007Sep 6, 20113M Innovative Properties CompanyOptical bonding composition for LED light source
US8026115Nov 15, 2007Sep 27, 20113M Innovative Properties CompanyOptical bonding composition for LED light source
US8049234Oct 8, 2007Nov 1, 2011Philips Lumileds Lighting Company LlcLight emitting devices with improved light extraction efficiency
US8202742Jan 28, 2011Jun 19, 2012Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V.Color control by alteration of wavelength converting element
US8338846Jun 24, 2009Dec 25, 2012Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V.Wavelength converted light emitting diode with reduced emission of unconverted light
US8348475May 29, 2009Jan 8, 2013Ruud Lighting, Inc.Lens with controlled backlight management
US8362506Aug 27, 2008Jan 29, 2013Osram Opto Semiconductors GmbhOptoelectronic semiconductor body
US8388193Jul 15, 2008Mar 5, 2013Ruud Lighting, Inc.Lens with TIR for off-axial light distribution
US8415694Feb 23, 2010Apr 9, 2013Philips Lumileds Lighting Company LlcLight emitting devices with improved light extraction efficiency
US8486725Jun 4, 2012Jul 16, 2013Philips Lumileds Lighting Company, LlcColor control by alteration of wavelenght converting element
US8604497Sep 26, 2003Dec 10, 2013Osram Opto Semiconductors GmbhRadiation-emitting thin-film semiconductor chip
US8628985Oct 4, 2011Jan 14, 2014Philips Lumileds Lighting Company LlcLight emitting devices with improved light extraction efficiency
WO2011033406A2Aug 20, 2010Mar 24, 2011Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V.Molded lens incorporating a window element
WO2013043844A1 *Sep 20, 2012Mar 28, 2013The Regents Of The University Of CaliforniaLight emitting diode with conformal surface electrical contacts with glass encapsulation
Classifications
U.S. Classification257/98, 257/81, 257/680, 257/94, 369/112.01, 257/99, 257/E33.073, 257/96, 257/E33.067, 257/E33.068
International ClassificationH01L33/40, G02B1/00, G02B3/08, G02B3/04, G02B3/00, H01L33/20, H01L33/50, H01L33/58
Cooperative ClassificationH01L33/20, H01L33/58, H01L33/405, H01L33/505
European ClassificationH01L33/58
Legal Events
DateCodeEventDescription
Dec 16, 2013FPAYFee payment
Year of fee payment: 8
Dec 14, 2009FPAYFee payment
Year of fee payment: 4
Mar 27, 2007CCCertificate of correction
Sep 7, 2001ASAssignment
Owner name: LUMILEDS LIGHTING US, LLC, CALIFORNIA
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:CAMRAS, MICHAEL D.;KRAMES, MICHAEL R.;SNYDER, WAYNE L.;AND OTHERS;REEL/FRAME:012148/0235;SIGNING DATES FROM 20010618 TO 20010726