|Publication number||US7081750 B1|
|Application number||US 09/852,033|
|Publication date||Jul 25, 2006|
|Filing date||May 10, 2001|
|Priority date||May 11, 2000|
|Also published as||US6801037|
|Publication number||09852033, 852033, US 7081750 B1, US 7081750B1, US-B1-7081750, US7081750 B1, US7081750B1|
|Original Assignee||Fonar Corporation|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (9), Referenced by (41), Classifications (10), Legal Events (8)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
This Application for Patent claims the benefit of priority from, and hereby incorporates by reference the entire disclosure of U.S. Provisional Application for patent Ser. No. 60/203,326, filed May 11, 2000.
1. Technical Field of the Invention
The present invention relates to the field of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and, in particular, to a system and method for aiding the efficient design of pulse sequences.
2. Description of Related Art
Until the development of MRI and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) technology by Dr. Raymond V. Damadian in the 1970's, diagnostic imaging of internal physiology was limited to techniques which provide limited soft tissue contrast. For example, as is well understood in the imaging art, computed tomography (CT) techniques depend on tissue density, e.g., soft tissue compared to bone, and usage of contrast media, e.g., barium, both affecting x-ray attenuation and detection. Although CT, at present, reveals better bone detail, MRI is far superior for most other soft tissues, illuminating the internal networks and pathways to physicians without the known deleterious effects of x-rays.
Although a full description of how MRI works is not necessary to the understanding of the subject matter of the present invention, a brief illustration of the physical principles involved is set forth below. In short, MRI is a diagnostic method for providing detailed specimen images through manipulation of atomic nuclei, specifically hydrogen, within a specimen tissue. A fundamental property of individual nuclear particles is that individual particles spin or rotate about their own respective axes. As is understood in physics, a spinning charged particle produces a magnetic moment directed along that particle's axis of rotation. These spinning nuclei and their resulting moments are randomly oriented in the absence of any external magnetic fields. However, by applying a magnetic field, the rotating nuclei essentially align their axes either in parallel or in opposition to the magnetic field. Those nuclei aligned in opposition to the magnetic field have a higher energy than those nuclei that are aligned in parallel with the field. A small majority of nuclei will be aligned in the lower energy state, i.e., in parallel, than opposed to the same field, usually only measuring in parts per million for the excess. By the addition of energy, e.g., by application of radio frequency (RF) energy, to these lower energy state excess nuclei, these nuclei can be transitioned to align themselves antiparallel or in opposition to the magnetic field. As is understood in the art, it is these few realigned nuclei that ultimately provide the information used to generate an MRI image.
While the respective nuclei are generally aligned with the applied magnetic field, it should be understood that this alignment is not precisely with a plane parallel to the axis of the magnetic field. Instead, the nuclear moments align at a slight angle from the axis of the magnetic field and precess about this axis. This frequency of precession, along with the magnetic moment caused by the alignment of the nuclei, comprise the phenomenon on which imaging by magnetic resonance is based.
The frequency of this atomic or nucleic precession, also referred to as the Larmor frequency, is a function of the specific nucleus and the strength of the external magnetic field. The nuclei will absorb energy and induce a signal in adjacent RF receptor coils only at the particle's Larmor frequency—an event referred to as “resonance.” In other words, by applying energy to the specimen at the Larmor frequency, the net magnetic moment of the excess nuclei may be reversed, or deflected, to the opposite or antiparallel direction by causing these parallel state particles to elevate to the higher energy state. The radiofrequency energy pulses applied are referred to as “excitation pulses.” The duration of the RF pulse specifies the duration of the nuclear moment deflection. When the excitation pulse is removed, the nuclei will then begin to lose energy, causing the net magnetic moment to return to its original, lower energy state orientation, and the energies emitted during this transmission are used to create the image of the specimen.
Present day MRI devices generally scan only hydrogen atoms. The hydrogen atom is most attractive for scanning since it comprises the largest atomic percentage within the human body and provides the largest magnetic resonance (MR) signal respective to other elements present in human organs. As described hereinabove, every nuclear particle spins about its axis and the individual properties of the spin are defined by the specific nuclear particle in question, e.g., hydrogen, creating a magnetic moment with a defined magnitude and direction. The Magnetic Resonance (MR) signal itself is a complex function dependent upon the concentration of the deflected hydrogen atoms, spin-lattice relaxation time (T1), spin-spin relaxation time (T2), motion within the sample and other factors as is understood in the art.
Another component of the MR signal is, of course, the particular series of RF and magnetic field gradient pulses employed in the form of pulse sequences. Varying the pulse sequences can produce considerable image differences, such as T1 emphasis (T1-weighted), T2 emphasis (T2-weighted), proton density emphasis or combinations thereof. Common sequences include Gradient Echo (GE), Spin Echo (SE), Inversion Recovery (IR), Double Spin Echo, 3-dimensional Gradient Echo (3DGE), 3-dimensional Spin Echo (3DSE), Fast Spin Echo (FSE), Partial Saturation (PS) and others. It is understood that these sequences are illustrative only and the present invention is in no way limited to application of only these specific sequences. Since one sequence image type may not optimally illustrate an area of consideration, multiple images using varying sequences of pulses may be required to fully analyze the area, as is understood in the art.
At present, conventional MRI systems offer fairly primitive interfaces for the design of the aforementioned pulse sequences. In particular, present MRI systems are ill-suited for sequence designers who must input and modify customized pulse sequences. Furthermore, this input is generally made by coding the sequence in a programming language, e.g., C, and is further complicated in that the coded sequence format must be tailored for each individual machine, thus necessitating that the sequence designer must be skilled in the programming arts along with the MRI technologies or alternatively requiring an MRI sequence designer to work in coordination with a programmer. Consequently, conventional systems generally lack real-time communications with the MRI scanner since each sequence must first be coded and compiled prior to being loaded on the system.
Accordingly, a first object of the present invention is to provide an improved MRI apparatus for more efficient creation and development of MRI pulse sequences.
It is a second object of the present invention to provide a graphical user-interface for performing the mathematical calculations related to MRI pulse sequence design, thereby providing an automatic graphical response of the interface to user manipulation, facilitating interaction between the user and the interface.
It is a third object of the present invention to provide a graphical user-interface for intermediating between the sequence designer and the MRI hardware such that the designer can directly view the details of the entire pulse sequence but can also access and modify the sequences directly through a mouse or keyboard.
It is a fourth object of the present invention to provide a real-time interface, or front-end, between the graphical user-interface and the MRI system hardware that enables real-time communication and interaction between the sequence creator and the MRI system hardware.
It is a fifth object of the present invention to provide real-time communication and interaction between the sequence creator and the MRI system hardware, enabling data acquisition and graphical display of the RF shapes, gradient waveforms and MRI signals received inside the magnetic field and providing analysis of this information in real-time.
It is a sixth object of the present invention to provide a real-time communication and interaction between the sequence creator and the MRI system hardware, thereby enabling dynamic manipulation of the details of a MRI pulse sequence accessed through the graphical user-interface.
It is a seventh object of the present invention to provide a real-time communication and interaction between the sequence creator and the MRI system hardware that enables detection of dynamic deficiencies of the MRI system through feedback information and possible compensation for the deficiencies through sequence manipulation.
It is an eighth object of the present invention to provide a foundation for development of automated calibration of imaging sequences of an MRI system.
The present invention is directed to a system, apparatus and method for facilitating magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) pulse sequence generation and modification and for real-time sequence input modification for use in conjunction with magnetic resonance imaging equipment. A graphical user interface is provided through a display coupled to a digital computer operating as the primary control system for a magnetic resonance imaging scanner and associated hardware. Through the graphical user interface, an operator, either at the site of the MRI unit or at a remote location, may choose or design sequences of radiofrequency pulses, gradient waveforms and other input parameters for the magnetic resonance imaging apparatus. Real-time information is also communicated to the operator through the graphical user interface allowing for real-time manipulation of the magnetic resonance imaging inputs and for displaying the magnetic resonance response thereto.
A more complete understanding of the system, method and apparatus of the present invention may be obtained by reference to the following Detailed Description when taken in conjunction with the accompanying Drawings wherein:
The numerous innovative teachings of the present application will be described with particular reference to the presently preferred exemplary embodiments. However, it should be understood that this class of embodiments provides only a few examples of the many advantageous uses of the innovative teachings herein. In general, statements made in the specification of the present application do not necessarily delimit any of the various claimed inventions. Moreover, some statements may apply to some inventive features but not to others.
As discussed hereinabove, current magnetic resonance (MR) imaging apparatuses may utilize a number of different pulse sequences. More particularly, MR images are obtained by using an appropriate sequence of specific RF pulses, signal (echo)-gathering times (TE) and sequence repetition times (TR). For example, dependent on the desired image emphasis, e.g., T1, T2, or proton density, specific sequence types can produce dramatically different imaging results. As discussed, examples of common pulse sequences include Gradient Echo (GE), Spin Echo (SE), and Inversion Recovery (IR), as well as Double Spin Echo (DSE), 3-D Gradient Echo (3DGE), 3-D Spin Echo (3DSE), and Fast Spin Echo (FSE). Again, it is understood that the present invention is not limited by the sequences listed above. The present invention greatly simplifies the manipulation of MR imaging parameters by allowing for more efficient sequence design and parameter tailoring via a digital computer, as discussed in more detail hereinbelow. The present invention allows a designer to generate and modify a variety of sequences quickly and efficiently through a graphical user interface coupled to a digital computer, where the digital computer is itself may be coupled to the magnetic resonance imaging equipment. Additionally, the system of the present invention allows for real-time communication with the MR scanner providing real-time viewing of MRI signals, gradient waveforms and RF (pulse) shapes. Furthermore, sequences can be calibrated automatically and dynamically in response to parameter input from the designer.
The present invention may be more readily understood with reference to
Magnetic material provides a primary static, i.e., uniform and constant with respect to time, magnetic field for surrounding the specimen to be imaged. Gradient fields corresponding to the Cartesian coordinates are used for coding position information with respect to the MRI echoes. Therefore, three separate gradient coils 180 are required, each coil being independently driven. A digital computer 110 equipped with standard input devices, e.g., a keyboard 115, a mouse or pointer device 140, and output devices, e.g., a display 120, facilitate the sequence designer's interaction with the scan controller 130 and thus the overall MRI unit 150. An MRI pulse sequence containing all the information, e.g., three gradient waveforms, RF pulse shape definitions, signal acquisition timing data, etc., for generating an MRI signal, i.e. an echo, can be designed, modified or stored within computer 110 for application to the system according to the present invention.
With reference now to
RF shaper DACs 250 and 252 are responsible for converting the RF shape data, received over output lines 251 and 253, from the digital domain as defined in the MRI pulse sequence received by the scan controller 130 from computer 110, and modulating the representative RF shapes accordingly. The RF shapes are received and modulated by transmitter coil 190, generally at the Larmor frequency, to the subject specimen being analyzed in aperture 155. The frequency and phase of these modulations are controlled by synthesizers 230 over control lines 260 and 261. The echo resulting from the applied gradient waveforms and RF pulses is acquired by the receiver coil 195 during the relaxation periods and accordingly transmitted to the scan controller 130. Proper acquisition of the echo is facilitated by frequency and phase settings applied to the receiver channel by synthesizers 230. These frequency and phase settings are supplied to the scan controller by the MRI pulse sequence data received from computer 110. Thus, the MRI pulse sequence provided by computer 110, under command of an operator thereof, directs the operations for echo generation and acquisition.
Digital computer 110 includes a processor, e.g., a microprocessor from the family of Pentium™ processors manufactured by the Intel™ corporation for directing and performing operations and receiving and executing input from a user, e.g., from the keyboard 115 or pointer device 140. Digital computer 110 also contains a bank of random access memory (RAM) for storing and executing commands therefrom, and a long-term storage media, e.g., magnetic disk, for storing executable instructions that are retrievable and loadable into RAM. In a preferred embodiment, digital computer 110 has a Microsoft Windows™ operating system for coordinating and executing instructions and programs, coordinating communications to peripheral hardware, scheduling tasks and allocating hardware. The present invention preferably includes a Windows executable program stored in long-term storage media and executable from RAM, although other platforms are not precluded.
The present invention allows for efficient creation and customization of generic pulse sequences through a primary design interface 300, i.e., a graphical user interface presented in the form of a window 305, presented on display 120 and generally depicted in
A sequence parameters dialog box 500, as illustrated in
The various controls activated through the sequence tailor dialog box 600 are preferably available for user interaction therewith during which the current sequence design is displayed to the user according to an exemplary sequence display 700 as illustrated in
A second portion 706 of the sequence display 700 of
The third portion, RO section 710, of the sequence display 700 of
The lowermost portion 714 of the sequence display depicts the phase encoding (PE) graph 716.
Four horizontal lines 718, 720, 722, and 724 respectively indicate the zero-amplitude of the respective RF section 704, SS section 706, RO section 710, and PE section 714. The time coordinate commonly shared among each of the plots is represented according to standard convention along the horizontal and originating from the leftmost side of the sequence display 700. Preferably, the four sections of the sequence display 700 are automatically scaled according to calculated maximum and minimum amplitudes of the waveforms displayed therein. These calculations are performed upon confirmation of the original setting by selection of the OK button in settings dialog box 400. The conventions preferably defining these scaling calculations are:
RF 704—a maximum positive amplitude of a RF shape is of 100 scaling units;
SS 706—the gradient plateau corresponding to the slice selective RF pulse is of 100 scaling units;
RO 710—the gradient plateau corresponding to the data acquisition window is of 100 scaling units; and
PE 714—the absolute maximum amplitude among all the PE plateaus, which are stepped during the scan, is of 100 scaling units.
Detailed information regarding a particular point of a given plot may be obtained through user interaction with the user interface 305 preferably through directions of the mouse 140. An exemplary tool tip box 726 is displayed when the mouse pointer is positioned over a given point, or node of a displayed plot. As illustrated, the tool tip box 726 provides detailed numerical data representative of the subject node. The exemplary tool tip box 726 indicates that the selected node is the tenth node (starting from node zero) along the RO gradient and represents a timing of 43.52 milliseconds along the plot. Furthermore, the RO amplitude is also provided (0.000) as well as the respective time differences between the previous node (1.024 ms) and the next node (2.512 ms) of the associated plot. Data related to the other plots can be obtained by simply directing the mouse pointer to a displayed node on any of the displayed plots.
As previously mentioned with respect to
These various controls can be utilized for further plot enhancements, as illustrated in
Further controls are provided by selection of the shape editor radio button 616 in the sequence tailor dialog box 600 as depicted in
Selection of the modify parameters button 902 generates a shape modification dialog box 910, as illustrated in
If the user selects the select types button 904 in the shape editor dialog box 900, as shown in
When a sequence is created and modified, it can be saved with the original user-assigned name by selection of the Save item (not shown) provided by selection of the File menu editor item 340, as illustrated and described in connection with
After a sequence is designed and stored, an MRI scan is available to be performed. This is initiated through selection of the ScanSettings menu editor item 1000, as illustrated in
In the illustrative example, the MRI Scans option 1004 is selected and causes the MRI scan type drop down menu 1020 to be displayed. Eight different types of scans are illustratively available for selection, e.g., 2D-Scan 1022, 2D-Variable TR Scan 1024, 3D-scan 1026, FSE 2D-scan 1028, FSE 3D-scan 1030, Multiple 2D-Scans 1032, Multiple 3D-Scans 1034, and Combo Scan 1036. It should be understood, however, that the number and type of available scans is not limited to the illustrative examples depicted.
If a scan type selected does not have an associated sequence type already loaded as aforedescribed, an error message is generated and displayed to the user indicating the absence of the desired sequence type. Additionally, the error message is generated to remind the user that the desired scan did not match the type of sequence. A simple example of the image parameter setting is illustrated in
A Setting Combo Imaging Parameters dialog box 1050B, as illustrated in
The present invention also allows for ‘cut’ 1302, ‘copy’ 1304, ‘paste’ 1306, ‘invert’ 1308, and ‘flip’ 1310 procedures to further expedite sequence design and modification as may be better understood with reference to
An important innovative aspect of the present invention is the capability for real-time communication between the MRI scan controller 130 and the scanning hardware, e.g., MRI unit 150, allowing for immediate design modifications and corresponding visual feedback. In the current preferred embodiment, seven binary files corresponding to the graphic waveforms on the screen have been generated. The seven binary files correspond to the preferred seven DACs, the gradient DACs 240, 242, and 244, the RF shaper DACs 250 and 252, and the synthesizer DACs 231 and 232 interfacing the MRI control system, the computer 110, with the MRI scanning hardware. Thus, two binary files exist for synthesizers, two for shapers, and three for the gradients. Utilizing seven binary files for real-time communication between the MRI hardware and control system is only a preferred embodiment of the present invention. As previously mentioned, the system and method are not, however, limited to such an arrangement but can be extended or reduced to any number of DACs depending upon the actual system on which the present invention is applied.
In order to provide real-time design and feedback, an accurate time frame reference is needed to be established. Since all of the digital electronic devices in the overall MRI system accept integer values generally limited by the bit-size of the associated DAC, small errors can accumulate during operation due to round-off of input data from various assignments and calculations when the sequence is built. This may sometimes lead to serious consequences for proper realization of a MRI pulse sequence. Thus, it is particularly important for a real-time interactive system, as described herein, to provide verification and round-off correction procedures between the displayed graphics and all the DACs to ensure time alignment throughout the entire sequence design process. The timing error due to roundoff depends on the settings of the time-resolution, generally on the order of microseconds, in the hardware. However, the accuracy of all calculations and roundoff subroutines in the user interface is preferably on the order of a single nanosecond. Every piecewise segment of the waveform is rounded off to be an integer-multiple of the three different time units, i.e., the unit for the RF pulses, the unit for the gradient waveforms and the unit for the sampling rate. Potential conflicts among the three time coordinates are resolved prior to the integral conditions, i.e. the gradient waveform specifications required to produce an echo, being applied. In a preferred embodiment of the present invention, satisfaction of the integral conditions are performed automatically by the underlying algorithm. This occurs not only at the initial sequence design stage, but also during gradient waveform modification, for example. Thus, the present invention provides a dynamic response to the user's adjustment by dynamic calculation and adjustment for satisfaction of the requisite integral conditions, e.g., by input via mouse 140 such as dragging of the gradient for modification thereto or by delta tuning.
Satisfaction of the integral conditions, as had by the present invention, may better be understood with reference to
To refocus the spins that are in motion, higher order integral conditions are required. This scenario is illustrated in
As described, the present invention is generally composed of two portions: the graphical user-interface and the real-time MRI interface, or front-end. The real-time MRI interface allows communication between the graphical user-interface, and thereby the user, with the system hardware. The primary task of the front-end is to translate the output, e.g., the seven binary files, of the graphical user-interface into the data format required for input to the hardware and MRI controller and to retrieve the digitized signal from the system for either display in proper graphical form or delivery back to the user-interface for interaction purposes. Three types of analyzers for handling the three different kinds of signals, i.e. MRI signals, gradient waveforms and RF shapes, received from inside the aperture 155 are required. All three analyzers require the real-time feedback and capabilities for a fully real-time and interactive MRI process.
Accordingly, a second window (in addition to the aforedescribed primary user interface 300 window, and the various manifestations thereof) is created when the real-time interface is invoked and is illustrated in
Second window 1700 contains various menu editor items, e.g., File 1702, Scan Control 1704, Seq Tuning 1706, Tuning Tools 1708 and Scan 1710. When a sequence is created along with the corresponding exam and .va files, as described hereinabove, the sequence can be selected by the options available (not shown) through the File menu editor item 1702. In order to generate and receive the MRI signal, several system parameters have to be tuned properly for the loaded sequence. These parameters include, for example, the settings of the central frequency of the magnet 170, the power gain of the RF amplifier, the gain of the receiver, etc. Tuning of these parameters is performed through a scan control dialog box which is invoked by selection of the Scan Control menu editor item 1704. The scan control dialog box preferably has numerous edit-boxes and selection buttons corresponding to the aforementioned parameters settings. Graphical displays of the signal intensity, spectrum and phase of the MRI echo are also preferably provided in subframes for easy user viewing.
Once these parameters are tuned, calibration of the sequence may be initiated by user selection of the Seq Tuning menu editor item 1706 which preferably generates a sequence tuning dialog box 1800, including four control frames 1802, 1804, 1806, and 1808, for graphical display, as illustrated in
A scan parameters dialog box 1900, as illustrated in
Preferably, there will be two modes of communication between the graphical user-interface and the front-end. A manual load is available any time a sequence is selected via the procedure described with reference to the second window 1700 of
A second mode of communication between the graphical user-interface and the front-end is referred to as auto load and is initiated as soon as the calibration check box 610 of the sequence tailor dialog box 600 is selected. Thereafter, any change of the sequence through the various sequence modification techniques are provided for the graphical user-interface and automatically reloaded and transmitted to the hardware. These resulting signals are immediately retrieved thereby providing the user with a real-time display of the various effects of the user modifications.
Since the desired sequence often becomes distorted inside the aperture 155, the auto-load mode is particularly suitable for dynamic correction of the gradient waveforms. For instance, the phase information of an MRI echo may be calculated and provided to the graphical user-interface through the front-end. This information may be used to reset the reference frequency and phase of the sequence. Such an automated iterative procedure may be used for phase adjustment and alignment of the MRI echoes as well.
Furthermore, initiation of the auto-load mode had by selection of the calibration check box 506 of the sequence tailor dialog box 600 preferably terminates the aforedescribed automatic integral conditioning thereby providing more freedom for sequence manipulation. Concurrently, all related restrictions for modification are terminated.
Although preferred embodiments of the method and apparatus of the present invention have been illustrated in the accompanying Drawings and described in the foregoing Detailed Description, it will be understood that the invention is not limited to the embodiment disclosed, but is capable of numerous rearrangements, modifications and substitutions without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention as set forth and defined by the following claims.
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|U.S. Classification||324/309, 600/416, 324/318|
|International Classification||G01R33/54, A61B5/055, G01V3/00|
|Cooperative Classification||G01R33/543, G01R33/546, G01R33/54|
|May 10, 2001||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: FONAR CORPORATION, NEW YORK
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:ZHANG, GUOPING;REEL/FRAME:011873/0139
Effective date: 20010509
|Mar 5, 2002||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: JDS UNIPHASE CORPORATION, CALIFORNIA
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS MACHINES CORPORATION;REEL/FRAME:012660/0090
Effective date: 20011227
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