|Publication number||US7099848 B1|
|Application number||US 09/505,486|
|Publication date||Aug 29, 2006|
|Filing date||Feb 16, 2000|
|Priority date||Feb 16, 1999|
|Publication number||09505486, 505486, US 7099848 B1, US 7099848B1, US-B1-7099848, US7099848 B1, US7099848B1|
|Inventors||Timothy Robert Bratton|
|Original Assignee||Listen.Com, Inc.|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (52), Non-Patent Citations (3), Referenced by (8), Classifications (14), Legal Events (10)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
This application claims benefit of provisional application Ser. No. 60/120,717 filed Feb. 16, 1999.
This invention relates to coding and reproduction of audio signals.
Digital synthesizers or other electronic systems that create music or other sound can often be utilized as an electronic musical instrument or electronic sound machine. A digital synthesizer is often arranged to accept signals from a musician or operator interface and to produce digital output signals that represent analog signals in the audio frequency range. A digital synthesizer is also frequently arranged to accept pre-recorded sequences of music events in a Musical Instrument Digital Interface (MIDI) format.
A digital output signal from a digital synthesizer can be converted to an analog signal and delivered to equipment, such as a loudspeaker, tape recorder, mixer or other similar device, to reproduce the signals as intelligible sound. The digital synthesizer can be arranged to provide output signals that simulate the sounds of one or more conventional musical instruments. Alternatively, the synthesizer can be arranged to simulate sounds that would be emitted by a theoretical instrument having predetermined audio characteristics that are partly or wholly different from the corresponding characteristics of any convention, known instrument.
For previous synthesizers, synthesis of music and other sounds is a formidable task. A real musical instrument produces a complex blend of many different frequencies and impart what is commonly referred to as “tone color” or “timbre” to the associated sound. For example, a percussion sound made by a drum or cymbal is an aperiodic sound that cannot be fully described by any simple mathematical function. Accordingly, the reproduction or synthesis of digital signals representing sounds as rich and complex as a real musical instrument is a formidable task for digital signal sampling and processing. Ideally, the synthesizer should respond to the nuances of a musician's manipulation of the interface (e.g., a particular musical instrument). For example, a snare drum has many different audio characteristics when played in different locations, such as adjacent to the center of the drum membrane, adjacent to the rim, or on the rim of the drum. Additionally, the audio characteristics of a percussion instrument will vary with the striking force and stylistic inflection of the musician.
By providing a large enough waveform database, more realistic and expressive synthesis of a given group of sounds can be achieved. Many synthesizers relying on waveform sampling technology are used extensively in the music and multimedia fields for their ability to create musical sounds that closely emulate the sound of a musical instrument.
At present, a digital synthesizer system often utilizes a MIDI to control the synthesizer. The MIDI interface creates control signals or other MIDI control data. The MIDI control data may represent a music event, such as occurrence of specific musical notes from a particular musical instrument, such as a piano, drum or horn. However, MDI has some fundamental limitations. For example, a synthesizer that uses a MDI notation has trouble recreating a human voice.
A conventional synthesizer system utilizes a large solid state memory that stores the digital waveform signals representing each note played on a particular instrument. The memory can be a static random access memory (SRAM), a dynamic random access memory (DRAM), a read only memory (ROM) or some other similar memory with sufficiently rapid response. When a musician actuates a key or other interface device, the appropriate waveform is selected, depending upon the key actuated and upon the intensity and velocity of the key strike. The waveform is then converted into an analog output signal for sound reproduction. A digital waveform signal can be combined with other waveform signals that represent other musical notes being displayed, before the conversion to an analog output signal.
In this arrangement, the synthesizer, in effect, merely plays back digital recordings of individual musical notes or other sounds. Each waveform signal is stored as a collection of individual data words, each representing a single sample of the waveform at a particular time.
A sequencer is a device for editing musical data, such as MIDI events, and converting the musical data into a musical signal in real time. Synthesizers are frequently used together with a computer to play a musical score. In this arrangement, a sequencer reads a MIDI file as an ordered sequence. However, it is generally recognized that MDI files and synthesizers are unable to recreate the nuances in a recording or to capture the background noises of a live audience.
Other prior art systems store only one or a relatively few waveform signals representing each musical instrument. These stored waveforms are then adjusted by digital signal processing or other electronic techniques, such as nonlinear distortion, to reflect the frequency and amplitude changes associated with particular musical characteristics, as indicated by the MIDI control data. For example, the frequency and amplitude of a sample waveform representing middle C on a piano can be adjusted to synthesize a different piano note and volume. However, these synthesizers are unable to (re)produce the complex blends or tone color with high enough fidelity for the musically trained ear.
In another approach, some systems use digital filtering to adjust the harmonic content of a particular note. However, these systems require a large amount of computer power and can be affected by audio quality degradation.
What is needed is an audio synthesizer system that can reliably reproduce all types of sounds, including music and the human voice. Preferably, the system should allow a separation of music or other information-bearing sound into two or more selected components, where no single component allows reproduction of sounds resembling the original sounds. Preferably, the system should allow encryption or other encoding of one or more of the selected components and should allow change of parameters affecting the format of one or more of the components.
These needs are met by the invention, which provides a system for removing one or more selected segments (referred to collectively as pre-processing components, or PPCs) of a digital signal stream that represents an assembly of information-bearing sounds (ISA), including but not limited to music and one or more human voices, to produce a remainder data file (referred to as a reduced data file, or ISDF), having one or more components, after decimation of the ISA by removal of the PPC(s). The ISDF, as a first sequence, and the assembly of PPCs, as a second sequence are preferably processed differently and communicated using different communication channels. The ISDF is preferably encrypted or otherwise encoded, using an encryption key EK that may be chosen independently or may depend upon information contained in the PPC(s). A data supplement DS, associated with the PPC(s) sequence, contains one or more of the following information items: location of at least one PPC within the original ISA; size of one or more of the PPCs; size of one or more components of the ISDF; separation distance within the ISA of two consecutive PPCs (if two or more are removed); and at least a portion of the encryption key EK. The encrypted version of the ISDF, E(ISDF), is communicated over a first communication channel, and the PPC(s) and the associated data supplement DS are communicated over a second communication channel, which may be arranged as a secure communication channel. Optionally, the PPC(s) and associated data supplement channel may also be encrypted for communication. Optionally, more than one sequence of removed PPCs can be formed, each with an associated data supplement DS, and communicated separately from the remaining ISDF component(s).
The invention allows an assembly of information-bearing sounds ISA, such as music or the sound(s) of one or more human voices, to be disassembled into N+1 complementary sequences (N≧1), where any collection of N+1−k sequences (1≦k≦N), including the ISDF, will not allow reconstruction of an assembly of sounds resembling the original ISA.
One useful application of this invention is the provision of a legally protected ISA (e.g., an ISA covered by copyright) as N+1 sequences, where any collection of N or fewer sequences cannot be used to reproduce the original ISA. The invention would, for example, allow distribution of a subset N+1−k of these N+1 sequences to a prospective authorized listener at one time (e.g., for storage for possible future use) and distribution of the remaining k sequences (1≦k≦N) at another time, when the listener is now authorized to listen to the entire ISA.
Another useful application of the invention is the provision or earlier distribution of a first sequence, representing the bulk or majority of the sounds needed to accurately reproduce the ISA, where the first sequence has certain critical data removed. The second sequence, containing the remainder of the ISA data needed to accurately reproduce the ISA, is distributed using another channel and/or at another, more convenient time.
MP3, which refers to Layer 3 of the MPEG1 standard, has been developed and adopted as a useful audio compression standard for music and other assemblies of information-bearing sounds (ISAs). MP3 is discussed in some detail in ISO/IEC 11172-3, an international standards document, incorporated by reference herein. A protocol for creation of an MP3 file is well known to those of ordinary skill in the are of sound compression. Many software programs, such as Audio Catalyst, offered by Xing Technology, which runs on a personal computer, implement creation an MP3 file.
Digital samples that are part of the ISDF 21 and/or are part of the SIF 19 may be transferred from the DFS composes 17 to the DFS synthesizer 23 using the first communication channel 53) for ISDF samples) and/or the second communication channel 55 (for SIF samples) and/or may be recorded using the removable storage device 73 and subsequently transferred to the DFS synthesizer 23.
In a preferred embodiment, at least one of the first and second communication channels, 53 and 55, is the Internet. However, any other communication channel(s) can be used to communicate ISDF samples and/or SIF samples, including wireless methods, such as FM subcarrier, CDPD, transmission using the vertical blanking interval of a television signal, and other similar wireless methods.
The ISDF database 71A and the SIF database 71B may include samples from any of several sample sources.
The DFS synthesizer 23 can operate in many different modes, including the following: (1) synthesize an MP3 file from an ISDF database 71A and from SIF samples streamed from the second communication channel 55; (2) synthesize an MP3 file from ISDF samples streamed from the first communication channel 53 and from an SIF database 71B; (3) synthesize an MP3 file from an ISDF database 73A and from SIF samples streamed from the second communication channel 55; and (4) synthesize an MP3 file from an ISDF database 71A and from an SIF database 73B.
In step 95, the encoded version E(ISDF) is communicated using a first communication channel, and the augmented PPC sequence, PPC+DS, is communicated using a second communication channel. The first and second communication channels may be the same, if desired. Alternatively, the second communication channel may be a secure channel, to protect an non-encoded augmented PPC sequence, PPC+DS, from disclosure to unauthorized entities.
In step 97, the encoded version E(ISDF) and the augmented PPC sequence, PPC+DS (or E(PPC+DS)), are received or otherwise provided, and a decoding (e.g., decryption) process is begun. In step 99, the data supplement DS within the augmented PPC sequence, PPC+DS, is examined, the PPC and/or ISDF parameters are identified, and (optionally) part or all of the encoding key EK is recovered. In step 101, the encoded version E(ISDF) is decoded, to (re)produce the ISDF. In step 103, the PPC components are repositioned among the ISDF components to recover the original ISA. In step 105 (optional), the ISA is provided for an ISA repository for playback, display, storage or further processing.
Optionally, the steps 97–103 may be varied by providing a first of the two sequences, E(ISDF) or PPC+DS, in a first database that is available at one or more locations to any potential user. However, possession of the first sequence, or of the second sequence, along, does not allow the user to reproduce the sounds of the original ISA. Each of the first sequence and the second sequence is a decimated version of the original ISA; and the sounds, if any, reproduced by the first sequence or by the second sequence alone are, preferably, not intelligible. The second sequence is withheld until the user has obtained proper authorization (e.g., a license) to reproduce the sounds of the original ISA. The first sequence may, if desired, represent the majority or bulk of the digital signals needed to reproduce the original ISA so that the remainder (second sequence) requires far less bandwidth or communication capacity for delivery than does the original ISA.
The encoding procedure may, for example, incorporate an encryption process, such as cipher block chaining (CBC), described by Bruce Schneier, Applied Cryptography, John Wiley & Sons, Second Edition, 1996, pp. 193–197. In one implementation of CBC, a cleartext block of a selected size is EXclusively ORed (XORed) or EXclusively NORed (XNORed) with a key block and with a preceding ciphertext block to produce a new ciphertext block. The resulting ciphertext block is XORed or XNORed with a next consecutive cleartext block and with the next consecutive key block, and so on until a final encrypted block is generated. The operations XOR and XNOR are each symmetric, commutative, associative and bilinear so that order is not important within the ith step. If Pi, Ci and Ki (i=1, 2, . . . ) represent cleartext block number i, ciphertext block number i and key block number i, respectively, a CBC procedure can be represented mathematically as
C(i+1)=Pi XNOR Ci XNOR Ki, (1)
and the initial ciphertext block (i=1) can be specified by one or more of the PPCs. The choice XNOR, rather than XOR, is made here because of a useful “inversion” relation
A XNOR A=I (identity) (2)
for any block A of binary symbols. With this approach, preferably, the size of a key block Ki is the same as the size of a cleartext block Pi and is the same as the size of a cipher text block Ci. This constraint can be relaxed somewhat.
When the encrypted message E(ISDF) is received, the process is reversed, beginning with an initial ciphertext block Ci′ that is determined using information obtained from that data supplement component(s) received as part of the encrypted message E(ISDF):
P(i+1)=C(i+1)′ XNOR Ci′ XNOR Pi. (3)
Each of Eqs. (1) and (3) illustrates a sub-encryption cycle (or sub-decryption cycle) for the encryption or decryption process, where an initial ciphertext block is optionally provided by a key block Ki with i=1. Each sub-encryption cycle, set forth as an example in Eq. (1), will have an independently specified key component Ki.
In step 117, the strip count index SC is decremented by 1 (SC→SC−1). In step 119, the system examines the last unit in the particular component of the second sequence (PPCs) and determines if this last unit is an end-of-file unit (EOF=0). If the answer to the query in step 119 is “yes”, the system sets an EOK flag equal to a selected value (e.g., EOK=1), in step 121, and the procedure terminates, at step 123.
If the answer to the query in step 119 is “no”, the system determines if the strip count index satisfies SC≦0, in step 127. If the answer to the query in step 127 is “no”, the system recycles to step 115 and the procedure continues. If the answer to the query in step 127 is “yes”, the system initializes the strip count index to FB+TK(c1), in step 129, where TK(c1) is a selected subset of the content TK(c) held at the location TK. Use of a combination FB+TK(c1), with TK(c1) variable, allows the number of sub-cycles covered in the (following) steps 121 through 129 to be varied or “dithered” within the procedure.
In step 131, the system encrypts the first block, or the next consecutive block, in the first sequence of units (ISDF). In step 133, the system decrements the (new) strip count index SC (SC→SC−1). In step 135, the system determines if an EOF is present in this block. If the answer to the query in step 135 is “yes”, the procedure terminates at step 137. If the answer to the query in step 135 is “no”, the system determines if the (new) strip count index satisfies SC≦0, in step 139. If the answer to the query in step 139 is “no, the system recycles to step 131 and the procedure continues. If the answer to the query in step 139 is “yes”, the system recycles to step 113 and the procedure continues.
In step 149, the system examines the last unit in the particular component of the second sequence (PPCs) and determines (1) if this last unit is an end-of-file unit and (2) if EOK=1. If the answers to the compound query in step 149 are “yes” and “yes”, the procedure terminates, at step 151. If the answer to one or both parts of the compound query in step 149 is “no”, the system sets the EOK flag equal to another selected value (e.g., EOK=0), in step 155. In step 157, the system determines if the assembly count index satisfies AC≦0.
If the answer to the query in step 157 is “no”, the system recycles to step 145 and the procedure continues. If the answer to the query in step 157 is “yes”, the system resets an initial assembly count index, AC=FB+TK(c1), in step 159, where TK(c1) is a selected subset of the content TK(c). Again, use of a combination FB+TK(c1), with TK(c1) variable, allows the number of sub-cycles covered in the (following) steps 161 through 169 to be varied or “dithered” within the procedure.
In step 161, the system decrypts the next consecutive block of a reassembled original sequence. In step 163, the system decrements the (new) assembly count index (AC→AC−1). In step 165, the system examines the last unit in the particular component of the first sequence (ISDF) and determines (1) if this last unit is an end-of-file unit and (2) if EOK=0. If the answers to this compound query in step 165 are “yes” and “yes”, the system terminates the procedure, at step 167. If the answer to one or both parts of the compound query in step 165 is “no”, the system determines, at step 169, if the assembly count index AC satisfies AC≦0. If the answer to the query at step 169 is “no, the system recycles to step 161 and the procedure continues. If the answer to the query in step 169 is “yes”, the system recycles to step 143 and the procedure continues.
In another embodiment, no PPCs are removed, and the entire file becomes an ISDF. No data supplement DS need be included, unless (part of) the encoding/encryption key EK is to be communicated with the encoded/encrypted version E(ISDF) or as part of an SIF. Otherwise, the SIF and the DS may be deleted in this embodiment. With reference to
The disclosed procedure relies primarily upon several features to provide secure communication of an ISA, as two or more sequences, where no combination of less than all the sequences will produce an assembly of sounds that adequately resemble the original ISA. First, portions of the message, the PPCs, are removed from the original ISA and are communicated separately, optionally using a secure channel. Second, the remainder of the ISA, the ISDF, is encrypted, using an encoding or encryption key that can vary in length and other characteristics from one block or component of the ISDF to another, as indicated in the discussion of
Among other things, an unauthorized (or unlicensed) recipient of the encoded/encrypted version E(ISDF) and/or of the augmented PPC sequence PPC+DS would need to be aware of (1) the encoding or encryption key used to process the encoded/encrypted version E(ISDF) (and, optionally, used to encrypt the augmented PPC sequence PPC+DS), (2) the placement and meaning of ISDF, PPC and/or EK information contained in the data supplement DS, (3) the use of the information in the data supplement DS to reposition the PPCs within a decoded or decrypted ISDF, and (4) possible variation of the encoding/encryption key from one ISDF component to the next, in order to fully decode or decrypt an intercepted ISDF representing and ISA. The number of parameters and block-to-block variability incorporated in this system allows one to distribute or otherwise provide one or more, but less than all, of the sequences formed from the ISA, without making available any version that can be intelligibly played back. The missing sequence(s) from the ISA can be distributed to licensed or otherwise authorized “listeners”, by another channel and/or at another time.
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|U.S. Classification||705/57, 704/E19.008, 348/561, 725/89, 725/142, 725/88, 345/671|
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