|Publication number||US7099875 B2|
|Application number||US 10/601,359|
|Publication date||Aug 29, 2006|
|Filing date||Jun 23, 2003|
|Priority date||Jun 29, 1999|
|Also published as||US20040059882|
|Publication number||10601359, 601359, US 7099875 B2, US 7099875B2, US-B2-7099875, US7099875 B2, US7099875B2|
|Inventors||Isbay Kedem, Hana Moreshet, Douglas E. LeCrone, Bruce A. Pocock|
|Original Assignee||Emc Corporation|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (11), Referenced by (12), Classifications (22), Legal Events (5)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
This is a continuation-in-part of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 10/073,708 filed Feb. 11, 2002 for Method and Apparatus for Making Independent Data Copies in a Data Processing system that is a continuation of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 09/342,608 filed Jun. 29, 1999 for Method for Making Independent Data Copies in a Data Processing System, now U.S. Pat. No. 6,363,385 granted Mar. 26, 2003 which application is assigned to the same Assignee as this application.
1. Field of the Invention
This invention generally relates to data storage in data processing systems and more particularly to a method for copying data from one storage device to another storage device.
2. Description of Related Art
Copying data from one location, commonly a “source location” to a second or “destination location” is well known in the art. In some situations copying provides data redundancy. In other situations providing two or more copies enables a like number of independent applications or procedures to process the copied data independently.
In one conventional approach, as particularly well known in the use of personal computers, copying is performed on a file-by-file basis between different logical volumes or between different directories on the same logical volume. The conventional device utilizes a “copy” command that specifies a path to a source and file to be copied and a path to a destination location. The processor then copies the data from the source to the destination location. During the copy process no application can access the data at either the source location or the destination location.
In other systems involving larger and more sophisticated data storage facilities, applications may operate on multiple host processors. Such facilities often have the capability of performing copying independently of other host applications. That is, while data is being copied from a source to a destination, other programs or processes can operate on data in locations other than the source or destination file locations. However, in these systems any access to the source file or the destination file is precluded until such time the copy has been completed.
In such systems data can be identified either by physical or logical addresses. Physical addressing includes the identification of device number, a track number and a record number. Logical addressing refers to a logical volume, a file and in some instances a record. Each of these elements has a “granularity”, a term of differing values. For the physical device granularity, from the coarsest to the finest granularity is ranked as a physical disk, a track, a sector and a record; in logical devices, the element ranking is logical volume, file and record.
Data processing systems have evolved into two arbitrary classes, namely: “mainframe systems” and “open systems”. Generally speaking “mainframe systems” refer to larger IBM and IBM-like data processing systems with a powerful set of internal input-output commands that use CKD (Count-Key-Data) data formatting. “Open systems” refer to other data processing systems that operate with different internal input-output commands and different internal protocols and an FBA (Fixed Block Architecture).
Initially large capacity data storage devices were configured for operation with mainframe systems because at the time they were the only systems that had the power and storage capacity to handle large data sets. These systems also provided a track level of control. These systems have several ways to copy data from one location to another. For example, U.S. Pat. No. 6,101,497 discloses a process for obtaining a single copy of data by logical volume essentially independently of normal processing. However, this process requires a specially configured logical storage device called a BCV device.
More recently, however, open systems have become popular particularly with advances in networking and hardware capabilities. However open systems generally make copies on a file-by-file basis where one logical volume is involved. However, they do not have commands with the capability of handling data on a track-by-track basis. In recent times, the need for making single or multiple copies essentially independently of normal processing has become more desirable even in open systems. Moreover, it has become desirable to transfer entire logical volumes even to copy a subset because in open systems logical volume transfers can actually occur more quickly because it is not necessary to incur the overhead of finding data blocks associated with a single file which can be at any arbitrary position in a logical volume.
What is therefore needed is a method adapted for both mainframe systems and open systems for copying data from a source to a destination independently essentially of any processor operation with a minimal delay between the processing of a copy command initiating a copy process and the availability of both the source and destination locations for processing by different applications.
Therefore it is an object of this invention to provide an improved method for copying data from a source to a destination in a data storage facility that is useful in mainframe and open systems.
Another object of this invention is to provide an improved method of copying data from a source location to a destination location that occurs essentially independently of any host processes in both mainframe and open systems.
Still another object of this invention is to provide an improved method of copying data from a source to a destination with a minimum interruption to the interaction of processes operating on the source locations and the initiation of operations with the destination locations in both mainframe and open systems.
In accordance with this invention a data processing system includes a host device for generating commands during the processing of a host application. A host application has the capability of generating a command to initiate a process by which data is copied from predetermined source storage locations to predetermined destination storage locations. This method initially establishes an operating environment by identifying the data in source storage locations and the predetermined destination storage locations. A message is sent to the host application indicating that the copying has occurred whereupon the source and destination storage locations become available for use. Thereafter copying of the data from the predetermined storage locations begins and proceeds in an ordered manner while maintaining a record that indicates data that has been transferred.
The appended claims particularly point out and distinctly claim the subject matter of this invention. The various objects, advantages and novel features of this invention will be more fully apparent from a reading of the following detailed description in conjunction with the accompanying drawings in which like reference numerals refer to like parts, and in which:
Each host application accesses and processes data stored in a data storage facility 24 over a system bus 25 that can take any of several known forms including single and parallel bus structures. For purposes of this explanation the data storage facility 24 can be considered to store all the data that will be processed either by HOST APP A application 22 or HOST APP B application 23.
This invention can be implemented in a number of disk storage facilities of different types and configurations. The following description is made in the context of a specific data storage facility 24, namely a Symmetrix disk array storage device (DASD). However, the adaptation of the specifically described embodiments for implementing the invention with other data storage devices will be readily apparent to persons of ordinary skill in the art.
A Symmetrix disk array storage device as a data storage facility 24 includes a host adapter 26 and a cache memory 27 that communicate with each other and with a series of disk adapters and physical disk drives.
In accordance with this invention, mainframe systems have the capability of defining a block of data with a granularity that is finer than a logical volume. In open systems, the copy commands are generally limited to logical volumes. For mainframe systems it is possible to transfer the file 36 to a predetermined file location 40 in the logical volume 33 and the file 37 into a set of contiguous locations 41 in the logical volume 35 does not require the transfer of all the data in the logical volume 31. Rather, only the data in file 36 will transfer to the logical volume 33 and only the data in the file 37 will transfer to the locations in the logical volume 35. For open systems, the corresponding transfers would copy the data in the logical volume 33. Obviously if an open system were configured with each file being located in a single logical volume, the open system transfer would have the same capability as the mainframe system transfer.
For purposes of these two specific transfers in a mainframe system, the logical volume 31 is a source and so is termed a source storage device or source disk storage device 31 while the logical volumes 33 and 35 are destinations and are termed a DEST A device 33 and a DEST B device 35 to designate them as destination storage devices or destination disk storage devices.
Assume the HOST APP A application 22 processes data in the file 36. That application or any other host application as a requesting host application could then determine a need to make a copy of that file at the storage locations 40 in the DEST A device 33 for use by the HOST APP B application 23. The requesting host application achieves this result by issuing a special copy command (e.g., a FILE SMMF command). For a mainframe system one version of this command identifies a file in a source device, such as the file 36 and a destination for that file, such as the storage location 40 in the DEST A device 33. For an open system another version of this copy command defines a logical volume. For purposes of the following discussion, it will be assumed that such a configuration exists, so that “file 36”, the example, means a “file” in a mainframe context and a “logical volume” in an open system context.
The requesting host application and the host adapter 26 interact to establish an operating environment by, among other things, identifying storage locations in the source and destination storage devices for the transfer as will be described in greater detail with respect to
Immediately after the environment is established, there is no valid data in the DEST A storage device 33. However, and again as will be more clearly stated later, both the source and destination storage locations are available for use by host applications. A copy program proceeds in an orderly fashion to copy the data from the source storage locations to the destination storage locations. Any attempt to write data to the file 36 in source storage device 31 or to read or write data from any copy, such as the file copy in the storage locations in the DEST A device 33, produces a priority transfer of relevant data so that the data in the two copies of the data file are maintained with integrity. After each transfer, the information in the operating environment is updated.
The device headers 43 will include one entry for each logical device in the Symmetrix DASD. Three such entries are shown, namely: entry 47 for the device 31; entry 48 for device 33; and entry 50 for device 35. Each of these entries has the same organization. That is, the device entry 47 includes a header 51 and a plurality of entries for each cylinder in the device 31. Three specific entries are shown, namely: a Cylinder 0 entry 52, a Cylinder 1 entry 53 and a Cylinder n entry 54.
The header 51 has a structure that is described in further detail later. Each of the cylinder entries, such as Cylinder 0 entry 52, points to a block of locations that define a Track ID table 55 with each location being assigned to a particular track in the cylinder. Two track entries are shown in the Track ID table 55, namely: a Track 0 entry 56 and a Track E entry 57 for individual physical devices in which each cylinder comprises fifteen data tracks.
The device entry 48 comprises a block 60 that includes a header 61 and cylinder entries.
With this background, it will be helpful now to discuss a mainframe system implementation of this invention in its entirety. After that discussion, the common and different processes and operations required for an open system implementation will be described.
Still referring to
A copy program that operates independently of the host processor array 21 is an integral component of this invention. This program operates in response to a command with a particular data structure that is shown in
In the disclosed embodiment, a request, in either form, directs a copy program located in the disk adapter associated with the source device, such as the copy program 84 in the disk adapter 30, to begin a process by which data is copied from the source storage locations to the destination storage locations.
It can be considered that a File SMMF copy command for a mainframe system implementation produce operating phases as follows:
In Symmetrix DASD data storage facility system each host adapter, such as host adapter 26, and disk adapter, such as the disk adapters 30, 32 and 34, contains a controller such as a controller 86 in the host adapter 26, a controller 87 in the disk adapter 30, a controller 88 in the disk adapter 32 and a controller 89 in the disk adapter 34. Each such controller has a similar structure and comprises a microprocessor that will include its own random access memory and that has access to the cache memory 27.
When a requesting host application in a mainframe system seeks to copy the file 36 to the storage locations 40, the requesting host application initiates a process 90 in
In step 94 the requesting host application begins a process for creating a session ID. A host adapter controller, such as the controller 86 in the host adapter 26, and control transfers to step 95 to establish that session ID number. More specifically, there is associated with each Track ID Table a data block for containing protection bits. The data block can be considered as a two-dimensional array with one row for each track and one column for each session. In the Symmetrix disk array storage systems, each row is 2 bytes wide to define up to 16 sessions. This array is located as PB header 96 on each Track ID table. In the following discussion a particular PB bit position will be identified in the form PB(x,y) where x indicates a track in a cylinder and y indicates a session number. During the session creation in step 95, the controller 87 determines whether any “y” column is available. If one is available, the controller 87 establishes a session identification correlated to the selected PB bit column. This assignment is applied to each PB header 96 associated with the source and destination devices. Establishing separate sessions will enable multiple copying operations to be processed in parallel even with overlapping areas, as for example if it should be desired to copy the file 36 to the DEST A destination device 33 and to copy another subset of data including the file 36 to another destination device.
After a session has been established and the PB column bit has been determined, control passes back to step 97 wherein the requesting host application establishes an extents track. First, the requesting host application reads the extents track, such as the extents track 85 assigned to this particular session. In an initial stage, the extents track will have no data. However, as will become apparent, the process of step 97 can be repeated during a given session. Consequently, step 97 performs various housekeeping operations such as adding any new extents required by the new command or eliminating any previously defined extents that are no longer valid.
Next the requesting host application re-sorts the extents list. In the specific implementation, the extents lists includes addresses in a the cylinder-block-head format as a sort field. Consequently the list is ordered by cylinder and by track for the most efficient transfer of data with minimal requirements for seek operations. Step 97 then builds the extents track according to the structure shown in
Each extents track, such as extents track 75 in
Each extents buffer 77 includes a flags field 113 including a NEW EXTENT flag that is set when the extents track is initially written; a REMOVE EXTENT flag that is set when it is desired to remove a specific extent; and an INVALID EXTENT flag that is set by the source device controller. The flags field 113 will contain other flags used for purposes that are not relevant to this specific invention.
Entries 114 and 115 collectively define the destination device. Specifically, entry 115 defines the destination device number while entry 114 defines the initial location of the storage locations 40 in the DEST A device 33. Entry 116 stores the session ID and entry 117 contains an EXTENT CRC code for all the preceding bytes in the extents buffer 77.
Referring again to
While in the wait state 120, the data storage facility 24, and particularly the destination device controller 88 responds to establish the environment and initiate the copy operation all as shown in
When the host adapter in the data storage facility 24, such as the host adapter 26, receives an establish extents system call, the destination device controller, such as the destination device controller 88, receives the system call and verifies various parameters in step 123 of
Assuming verification, control passes to step 124 wherein the host adapter locks the destination device such as the DEST A device 33. In step 125 the host adapter controller 86 places an ATTN signal in a request buffer for the source device, such as an ATTN flag in the request buffer 72 shown in
Control then passes to a procedure 127 shown in
Once all this information has been transferred to the track ID tables associated with the destination device, control transfers to step 135 to set the protection bits in the session column are set for each track on the entire extent for the source device. Step 136 resets the NEW EXTENT flag in the flags field 113 shown in
Control then passes back to step 143 in
As will now be apparent, the steps of
In some applications the copy program is initiated by a system call so control passes to step 150 to read the extents track, such as the extents track 75 in
Step 153 is the first step in a loop that tests the IND flag for each track for the defined extent in the destination device, such as the IND flags 132 in the Track ID Table 64 in
Clearing the IND flag assures that an application processing that track in the destination device will not try to copy the track; clearing the PB bit in the source device assures that the track will not be copied if a host application accesses that track in the source device 31. If there are additional tracks to be processed in step 160 control passes to step 161 to identify a next track and the control returns to step 153.
If step 154 determines that the IND bit is not set, no copying occurs and control passes directly to step 160. When all the tracks have been identified in sequence, it is considered that the extent has been transferred and the copy program terminates.
As previously indicated, the second operating phase insures data integrity during the copying process even though a host application can access the source device file 36 or the destination device file 40 before data is actually copied.
During a normal operation, if a PB bit in the source device Track ID Table, such as the Track ID Table 56 in
If the PB bit for a track is set, the track is included in the file and still needs to be transferred, so step 172 transfers control to step 175. Step 175 assures that there is a lock on the source device and uses step 176 to call the copy program of
If the IND bit is set, it is necessary to immediately perform operations to assure that, in the case of a read request, the data is current or, in the case of a write request, the copy program operating in its normal mode does not overwrite new data. Thus, step 182 transfers control to step 183. Step 183 assures a lock on the destination device. Step 184 then sends a request to the source device to initiate the copy program such as the copy program 84 in the source device disk adapter 30 for the file 36. This request has the basic structure shown in
If the IND bit for a track is cleared, the track either is not in an extent or has already been copied. When the condition exists and the session is active, step 182 transfers control to step 186, bypassing steps 183, 184 and 185. Step 186 then performs the read or write operation and sends an acknowledgement to the destination host application in step 187.
Now referring to the termination/modification phase,
In step 193 the requesting host application issues a REMOVE EXTENTS system call.
The host adapter and destination device adapter, such as the host adapter 26 and the destination device adapter 30, respond. Initially the host adapter uses the same process that is depicted in steps 123 through 126 in
Once the procedure in
Step 211 determines whether the process is complete. That is, the source device controller 87 tests to determine if all the INVALID EXTENT flags, such as the invalid extent flag in the flags field 113 for the extents buffer 77, have been set. If they have, step 211 diverts to 212 to issue a remove session ID system call before completing operations. Otherwise the process in
Although not shown in a figure, the remove session ID system call for a particular device clears all the PB bits from the associated extents, such as the PB bits in the column position assigned to the session for the source device and makes that PB column or session position available for other uses.
The foregoing discussion describes an operation by which a single file in a single set of contiguous data tracks in a source device are transferred to a contiguous set of tracks in a destination device particularly between the file 36 in the source device 31 and the storage locations 40 in the DEST A destination device 33. There are a wide variety of other transfer variations that can be implemented with this same approach. Indeed it is the foregoing structure and operations that permit more complex data transfers to be made.
For example, file 37 in
It is also possible for a single copy command or a succession of copy commands to request the transfer of the file 36 to storage locations 40 and the file 37 to storage locations 41. In this case the establishment of the extents track will again produce a single extents track because both the files 36 and 37 are in non-overlapping locations in the same source device. In the particular embodiment shown in
Transfers can also be effected within a single session. For example, supposing that in addition to transferring the files 36 and 37 to storage locations 40 and 41 in
As previously indicated a single session can effect as many transfers as desired limited normally by the space available or assigned for the device headers. However, a single session can not be used to transfer files in which data overlaps. For example, in
Thus, this invention as described with respect to mainframe systems, provides a method that is particularly adaptable for use in data storage facilities that normally transfer data of a given coarse granularity such as transfers by entire logical volumes. Specifically, this invention allows subsets of that data to be moved thereby eliminating the transfer of irrelevant data.
The open systems implementation of this invention uses many previously described processes involved with the mainframe systems. In the open systems command the granularity is limited to logical volumes. Operating systems in open systems generally do not have the capability of copying blocks of data on a track-by-track basis with a granularity less than a logical volume because in an open system logical volumes constitute the only level of granularity in which a track-by-track coherence exists. Consequently an open systems command merely needs to define the source by a logical volume identifier, e.g., a device name or number, and the destination by a reference address. Although the command has a different syntax, it still produces the three-phase operation described above. As a result, the organization of the header 51 shown in
Conventionally in an open system it is most likely that a request for a copy operation will be initiated by the source device for purposes of security and control.
Now referring to
When control transfers to the data storage facility in the open system implementation, step 307 introduces an intermediate step 310 to establish and populate the data structure 300 of
Within the data storage facility, the host adapter controller 86 and disk adapter controller 88 operate as shown in
Steps 316 and 317 are introduced to the copy program shown in
A response during the copy phase to a write operation from either the source host or a host at a destination in an open system is exactly the same as described in
Now referring to the termination/modification phase, in a mainframe system the operations shown in
Thus it will now be apparent that both implementations of this invention for mainframe systems and open systems provide an improved method for copying data from a source to a destination in a data storage facility. This copying occurs essentially independently of any host process. It also occurs with a minimum interruption to the interaction of the processes operating on the source locations and the initiation of operations with the destination locations.
If the window is open, or slice is active, step 330 transfers control to step 331 to initiate the task in a repetitive or iterative fashion while the time slice is active. Step 331 uses the information in the LSC data element 302 shown in
Initially the time window will still be open, so step 334 sets the IND flag 132 and PB bit for the track. Step 335 sets the indirect address for the track. Step 336 handles any write pending operations for the track. Step 337 clears the IN_CACHE flag 133 for the track. These are the same functions as shown in step 131. However, they only occur for one track during this iteration.
Step 340 then determines whether there are more tracks in the cylinder. If there are, control transfers back to step 331. So long as the window remains open these tasks will continue to be processed in an iterative fashion with each iteration processing one track. If the time window closes, control again transfers from step 332 to step 333 to break the operation. However, the ISC data element 302 in
When all the tracks in a cylinder have been processed, step 340 transfers control to step 341 to update the LSC data element 302 to point to the next cylinder in the source disk storage device. When all the cylinders have been processed, step 342 terminates the operation. This may include sending a message back to the host application indicating that all the processing has been completed and that the copying programs can begin. This process may also include setting OP data element to indicate an establish operation and setting the operation status data element 305 to a “done” value. If more cylinders require a transfer, step 342 transfers control back to step 331 to select an initial read/write head and thereby define an initial track in the cylinder.
As will now be apparent, the use of the time slice methodology of
If the invention is implemented with a separation of the “establish” and “copy” phases, step 342 transfers control to step 343 that issues a message back to the host application. This message indicates completion of the “establish” phase. The application program thereafter can manually or automatically issue a command with arguments indicating that the “copy” phase should begin.
Step 350 in
The impact of setting an active flag is shown in the copy program and request responses of
These two features of time slice processing and operating phase separation taken collectively provide a system for copying data that has a minimum or controlled impact on other processor operations and allows the transfer to occur essentially concurrently with other operations. In both the mainframe and open system implementations, multiple commands or command sets can cause transfers of multiple copies of the same or different source data to different destinations. The only limit is whether sessions are available for each such copying operation.
This invention allows transfers to occur in both mainframe and open systems with minimal interruptions to other host applications. As described, the host application is merely dedicated for the purpose of establishing an operating environment for the transfer and steps, such as those shown in
As another advantage, this invention enables an application to request access to the files at the source or the file copy at the destination even during the copying phase. The system provides means for processing the request to preserve data integrity. Moreover, the method permits a host application in a mainframe system to define copy requests that have a range of complexities. A given command can initiate copying of a single file to single destination or copying of multiple files located on multiple physical devices in a data storage facility.
The specific description of this invention has been in terms of two particular implementations with a specific data storage facility with disk data storage devices configuration. Specific flags such as IND flags, have been defined.
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|U.S. Classification||711/162, 714/E11.126, 707/E17.007, 707/999.01, 707/999.201, 707/999.202, 714/6.23, 707/610|
|International Classification||G06F3/06, G06F17/30, G06F11/14|
|Cooperative Classification||Y10S707/99952, Y10S707/99953, G06F3/0613, G06F3/067, G06F3/065, G06F11/1466|
|European Classification||G06F11/14A10P6, G06F3/06A2P4, G06F3/06A6D, G06F3/06A4H4, G06F17/30C|
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