Search Images Maps Play YouTube News Gmail Drive More »
Sign in
Screen reader users: click this link for accessible mode. Accessible mode has the same essential features but works better with your reader.

Patents

  1. Advanced Patent Search
Publication numberUS7113264 B2
Publication typeGrant
Application numberUS 10/167,512
Publication dateSep 26, 2006
Filing dateJun 12, 2002
Priority dateJun 12, 2001
Fee statusPaid
Also published asDE10128449A1, DE10128449B4, US20030025898
Publication number10167512, 167512, US 7113264 B2, US 7113264B2, US-B2-7113264, US7113264 B2, US7113264B2
InventorsThomas Brinz
Original AssigneeRobert Bosch Gmbh
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Apparatus and method for testing a material
US 7113264 B2
Abstract
An apparatus for testing a material (2), having a measurement unit for measuring at least one electrical parameter of the material (2) to be tested, is proposed that ensures a measuring of all relevant parameters of the material (2) under identical measurement conditions. According to the present invention, this is achieved in that an optical measurement apparatus is provided for the simultaneous measurement of at least one optical parameter of the material (2) to be tested.
Images(2)
Previous page
Next page
Claims(23)
1. An apparatus for testing a material, comprising:
a measurement unit for measuring at least one electrical parameter of the material;
an optical measurement apparatus for a simultaneous measurement of at least one optical parameter of the material;
at least one electrode that is at least partially optically transparent;
wherein the material includes the at least one electrode that is at least partially optically transparent.
2. The apparatus according to claim 1, wherein the measurement unit and the optical measurement apparatus are situated in a common housing.
3. The apparatus according to claim 1, wherein the material is at least partially optically transparent.
4. The apparatus according to claim 1, wherein a measurement radiation of the optical measurement apparatus is provided depending on an optical transparency of the material.
5. The apparatus according to claim 4, wherein the measurement radiation includes at least one of infrared radiation, visible radiation and ultraviolet radiation.
6. The apparatus according to claim 4, wherein the optical measurement apparatus includes at least one sensor element for determining at least one of an intensity and a frequency range of the measurement radiation.
7. The apparatus according to claim 1, wherein the material is situated on a substrate that is at least partially optically transparent.
8. The apparatus according to claim 1, wherein the material is situated on a substrate that is at least partially optically reflective.
9. The apparatus according to claim 1, further comprising:
at least one electrode that is at least partially optically reflective.
10. The apparatus according to claim 1, wherein a measurement radiation of the measurement apparatus is provided depending on at least one of an optical transparency of at least one electrode, an optical reflection of the at least one electrode, an optical transparency of a substrate, and an optical reflection of the substrate.
11. An apparatus for testing a material, comprising:
a measurement unit for measuring at least one electrical parameter of the material; and
an optical measurement apparatus for a simultaneous measurement of at least one optical parameter of the material;
wherein the material includes a plurality of different materials, the plurality of different materials being situated on a substrate.
12. The apparatus according to claim 11, further comprising:
at least one electrode that is at least partially optically transparent.
13. The apparatus according to claim 11, wherein the measurement unit and the optical measurement apparatus are situated in a common housing.
14. The apparatus according to claim 11, wherein the material is at least partially optically transparent.
15. The apparatus according to claim 11, wherein a measurement radiation of the optical measurement apparatus is provided depending on an optical transparency of the material.
16. The apparatus according to claim 15, wherein the measurement radiation includes at least one of infrared radiation, visible radiation and ultraviolet radiation.
17. The apparatus according to claim 15, wherein the optical measurement apparatus includes at least one sensor element for determining at least one of an intensity and a frequency range of the measurement radiation.
18. The apparatus according to claim 11, wherein the material is situated on a substrate that is at least partially optically transparent.
19. The apparatus according to claim 11, wherein the material is situated on a substrate that is at least partially optically reflective.
20. The apparatus according to claim 11, further comprising:
at least one electrode that is at least partially optically reflective.
21. The apparatus according to claim 11, wherein a measurement radiation of the measurement apparatus is provided depending on at least one of an optical transparency of at least one electrode, an optical reflection of the at least one electrode, an optical transparency of a substrate, and an optical reflection of the substrate.
22. A method for testing a material, comprising:
measuring an electrical parameter of the material; and
simultaneously measuring an optical parameter of the material;
wherein the material includes a plurality of different materials, the plurality of different materials being situated on a substrate.
23. The method according to claim 22, wherein the optical parameter of the material is measured in the measuring step with a sensor.
Description
FIELD OF THE INVENTION

The invention relates to an apparatus and a method for testing a material.

BACKGROUND INFORMATION

Sensor materials that modify both an optical and electrical material parameter on the basis of a modification of a relevant environmental parameter may be required in at least some applications. For example, in CO2 sensors made of soft polymers having a colorant and an auxiliary base, both the color and the conductivity of the pH indicator may be modified.

In combinatorial chemistry, in which, for example, a large number of varying samples, possibly having slightly varying compositions, are to be examined, corresponding materials may be examined electrically or optically independently of one another. For example, corresponding material samples may be charged with carbon dioxide (CO2), while an electrical or optical parameter of the sample is measured.

Through the effect of the relevant environmental parameter, the material to be tested changes due to chemical conversions during the first measurement, for example, of the electrical parameter. This chemical conversion may falsify a subsequent second measurement, or prevent the subsequent measurement, for example, the optical measurement of an optical parameter of the material to be tested, from being performed using the same sample.

Thus, it is believed to be disadvantageous in that the measurement of the relevant parameters of the same sample may not be performed under identical measurement conditions.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

An object of an exemplary embodiment according to the present invention is to provide an apparatus for testing a material, having a measurement unit for the measurement of at least one electrical parameter of the material, in which a measurement of all relevant parameters of the material under identical measurement conditions is ensured, or at least made more probable.

An exemplary apparatus according to the present invention includes an optical measurement device for the simultaneous measurement of at least one optical parameter of the material to be tested.

This may permit a material sample to be measured at the same place and with the same modification, for example, with the same duration of effect of the relevant environmental parameter. Thus, the corresponding chemical conversion of the material sample may simultaneously be measured both electrically and optically. On the basis of the combination of the electrically and optically detected modification of the corresponding parameters, this may enable new statements to be made concerning the material to be tested, or concerning the corresponding chemical conversions of the material, which may result in a significant expansion of the knowledge concerning the corresponding chemical conversions of the material to be tested. This new knowledge may be advantageously used for the optimized further development of corresponding materials.

In addition, according to an exemplary embodiment of the present invention, the material sample may be tested and, if necessary, classified faster than in the prior art. In addition, an immediate comparison of the optical sensitivity of the material to be tested with its electrical sensitivity may be performed, so that additional statements concerning the material to be tested, or a selection with respect to the greater sensitivity of the material, may be made.

The measurement unit and the measurement apparatus may be situated in a common housing 4. This ensures, or at least increases the probability, of realizing a comparatively compact arrangement of the measurement unit with the measurement apparatus. This may result in an exemplary space-saving apparatus according to the present invention.

The modification of the electrical parameter and the modification of the optical parameter may be determined and evaluated at least depending on time, so that correspondingly generated parameter characteristics or curves may be compared. In this manner, a transition point, region or the like, of the chemical conversion occurring in the material due to the effect of the relevant environmental parameter, such as, for example, due to a charging with CO2 of the material to be tested, may be determined.

In addition, various sensitivities of the electrical parameters and of the optical parameters may be determined more precisely on the basis of the characteristic of the determined parameter curves, which may be, for example, linear, potential, or exponential.

In developing an exemplary embodiment according to the present invention, the material to be tested is fashioned at least partially optically transparent. This permits, for example, using the optical measurement device, internal chemical conversions of the material to be measured. Materials such as electrically conductive polymers, for example, polythiophenes or the like, may be tested. In principle, materials that are both electrically conductive and optically transparent may be tested.

A measurement radiation of the measurement apparatus is provided depending on the optical transparency of the material to be tested. The measurement radiation may include, for example, infrared, visible, and/or ultraviolet radiation. If necessary, this may permit the testing, of numerous varying materials having a variety of optical properties or parameters.

In another exemplary embodiment according to the present invention, the measurement apparatus includes at least one sensor element for determining an intensity and/or a frequency range of the measurement radiation. For example, the optical measurement apparatus, such as, for example, a light-emitting diode or the like, may include a radiation source having a relatively narrow frequency band. For this purpose, a measurement of the intensity of the measurement radiation using a corresponding sensor element may determine the optical parameter or the modification thereof.

If necessary, a corresponding radiation source may emit a measurement radiation having a comparatively broad frequency band. In this case, the overall frequency band may be scanned using a scan unit, and the optical parameter or the modification thereof may be acquired.

The material to be tested may be situated on a substrate that is at least partially optically transparent. This enables the material to be tested to be situated on the substrate. In addition, this may permit an optical measurement to be realized via transmission of the measurement radiation. For example, the radiation source may be situated on one side of the substrate and the sensor element may be situated on the other side of the substrate, so that the measurement radiation transmits to both the material to be tested and to the at least partially optically transparent substrate.

Alternatively, the material to be tested may be situated on a substrate that is at least partially optically reflective. In this case, the optical measurement apparatus may be provided on the side of the substrate on which the material to be tested is situated. This may permit a compact exemplary apparatus according to the present invention and a comparatively simple mounting of the substrate, with the material sample to be tested located thereon, on a relatively simple place of deposit.

The material to be tested is penetrated twice due to the reflection at the at least partially optically reflective substrate, so that a higher degree of sensitivity of the material to be tested may be realized for the measurement of the optical parameter.

In yet another exemplary embodiment according to the present invention, at least one electrode, which is at least partially optically transparent, is provided. For example, in the above-described measurement of the optical parameter of the material to be tested by transmission of the measurement radiation, a corresponding electrode may enable a further optimization, since this permits the measurement radiation to penetrate one or more electrodes.

In still another exemplary embodiment according to the present invention, the at least partially optically transparent electrode is the material to be tested. In this manner, a second electrode, which may be necessary and comparatively expensive to realize, may become superfluous. This may, for example, reduce the expense of testing the material.

At least one electrode that is at least partially optically reflective is provided. In this manner, for example, the measurement of the optical parameter of the material to be tested, using reflection of the measurement radiation, may be improved in that the measurement radiation is reflected alternatively to, or in combination with, the reflection at the corresponding substrate, or is additionally reflected at the corresponding electrode that is at least partially optically reflective. This may improve the measurement of the optical parameter by reflection.

The measurement radiation of the measurement apparatus is provided depending on the optical transparency and/or reflection of the electrode and/or of the substrate. This may permit the measurement radiation to adapt to the electrodes or to the substrate.

Numerous different materials to be tested may be situated on the substrate. In this manner, for example, simultaneous testing of numerous materials of a wide variety may be performed, through which the development of corresponding sensor materials may be improved.

A classification of the materials or samples to be tested may be performed. In addition, using corresponding electronic evaluation units, an almost automatic testing and/or classification of the various materials or samples may be performed.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

FIG. 1 is a schematic illustration showing details of an exemplary apparatus according to the present invention.

FIG. 2 is a schematic illustration showing details of another exemplary apparatus according to the present invention.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

FIG. 1 shows a material 2 and two electrodes E1 and E2 on a substrate 1. Substrate 1 is at least partially transparent, for example, to accommodate a measurement radiation shown as beam L1, L2, L3, or L4. For example, with the use of visible or UV light, for example, glass or quartz may be used as the material for substrate 1, and with the use of infrared light, for example, silicon or sapphire may be used.

An indium-tin oxide electrode (ITO electrode) may, for example, be used as conductive and optically transparent electrodes E1 or E2, which may be sputtered onto substrate 1, if necessary, as an interdigital electrode structure. The interdigital electrode structure may have the shape of a double line of an electrode system. In this case, the lines or electrodes may be fashioned, for example, with a comb shape, the teeth of which mesh without touching one another.

The measurement of at least one electrical parameter of material 2 to be examined may occur, for example, via a current measurement, voltage measurement or resistance measurement between the two electrodes E1 or E2, using an electronic measurement unit 5 connected via lines 6.

In accordance with this exemplary embodiment of the present invention, beam L1, L2, L3, or L4 is generated and measured simultaneously during the electrical measurement, using an optical measurement device 7 which includes at least one radiation source 9 and a sensor element 8.

For exemplary purposes only, electrode E2 is shown as reflecting light beams L2 or L4. Light beams L2 or L4 penetrate material 2 twice, due to the reflection at electrode E2. As a result of a chemical conversion of material 2 due to a modification of an environmental parameter (not shown), for example, a charging with CO2 of the apparatus, incident light beam L2 or L4, shown as a solid line, is changed to exiting light beam L2 or L4, shown as a broken line. In this case, beam L4 may be provided if material 2 is fluorescent.

The modification is measured by the sensor and is evaluated by an evaluation unit. Both an intensity and also a modification in the frequency spectrum of beams L1, L2, L3, or L4 may be acquired and evaluated.

For the measurement of beams L2 or L4, the optical sensor element 8 is situated on the side of substrate 1 on which the radiation source is located. This permits a comparatively compact exemplary apparatus according to the present invention. Substrate 2 need not be optically transparent. For example, substrate 2 may be fashioned as ceramic substrate 2 made of aluminum oxide or the like, or it may be fashioned in optically reflective fashion.

In another exemplary embodiment according to the present invention, in which beams L1 or L3 penetrate substrate 1 and material 2, the optical sensor element 8 is situated on the side of substrate 1 opposite the source of radiation. Given a transmission measurement according to light beam L1, for example, electrode E1 may be optically transparent. In this case, optically transparent electrode E1 may be made of electrically conductive polymers or the like.

FIG. 2 shows yet another exemplary apparatus according to the present invention. In this exemplary embodiment, elements comparable to the elements according to the exemplary embodiment described above with reference to FIG. 1 have the same reference characters.

In contrast to the apparatus described above with reference to FIG. 1, in the exemplary apparatus according to FIG. 2, the material to be tested is fashioned as a material 3 that does not connect the electrode fingers E1, whereby this material is simultaneously applied to electrode E1, as second electrode E2. For example, material 3 may be merged at a suitable point on substrate 1. Alternatively, for example, four different materials 3 a, 3 b, 3 c, 3 d may be applied on four different electrodes E1 a, E1 b, E1 c, E1 d.

Numerous varying material samples 2, 3 may be applied together onto a substrate 1. For example, a matrix-type arrangement of widely varying material samples 2, 3 may be provided.

Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3401589 *Dec 23, 1964Sep 17, 1968IbmMethod of controlling a testing apparatus through the use of a photograph of the object being tested
US3421079 *Apr 26, 1966Jan 7, 1969Us NavyMeasuring thin film thickness using interferometric-capacitance technique
US3443214 *Mar 25, 1968May 6, 1969Massachusetts Inst TechnologyLight reflecting magnetic liquid apparatus for mapping magnetic fields
US3807860 *Jan 31, 1973Apr 30, 1974Environmental Devices CorpMethod and apparatus for determining pollution index
US4564808 *Mar 11, 1983Jan 14, 1986The United States Of America As Represented By The United States Department Of EnergyDirect determination of quantum efficiency of semiconducting films
US5344754Jan 13, 1993Sep 6, 1994Avocet Medical, Inc.Applying to a matrix target, measurement of electrical resistance, timing and detection of signals
US5379102 *Dec 22, 1992Jan 3, 1995E.R.C. Company Ltd.System for identifying jewels
US5568252 *Dec 23, 1994Oct 22, 1996Dainippon Screen Manufacturing Co., Ltd.Method and apparatus for measuring insulation film thickness of semiconductor wafer
US5570175 *Aug 3, 1995Oct 29, 1996Ceram Optec Industries Inc.Method for determination of degree of molecular dissociation in plasma using combined electrostatic measurement and emission spectroscopy
US5844249 *Jan 7, 1997Dec 1, 1998Hoechst AktiengesellschaftApparatus for detecting defects of wires on a wiring board wherein optical sensor includes a film of polymer non-linear optical material
US6026323Sep 23, 1997Feb 15, 2000Polartechnics LimitedTissue diagnostic system
US6055044 *Jun 29, 1998Apr 25, 2000Ando Electric Co., Ltd.Apparatus for measuring characteristics of optical fiber
US6157449 *Oct 19, 1998Dec 5, 2000Symyx TechnologiesDepolarized light scattering array apparatus and method of using same
US6228652Feb 16, 1999May 8, 2001Coulter International Corp.Single transducer for simultaneously measuring the dc (direct current) volume, rf (radiofrequency) electroconductivity, light scatter, and fluorescence properties of blood cells passing through a detection zone; classification and counting
US6421124 *Dec 2, 1998Jul 16, 2002Canon Kabushiki KaishaPosition detecting system and device manufacturing method using the same
US6462817 *May 12, 2000Oct 8, 2002Carlos Strocchia-RiveraMethod of monitoring ion implants by examination of an overlying masking material
US6511854 *Jul 30, 1997Jan 28, 2003The Uab Research FoundationDisassociating a biological binding partner from a corresponding second binding partner associated with a waveguide surface comprised of indium tin oxide; electrical potential as a square wave polarization function
US6525807 *Jan 21, 2000Feb 25, 2003Sysmex CorporationParticle analyzing apparatus
US6573497 *Jun 30, 2000Jun 3, 2003Advanced Micro Devices, Inc.Calibration of CD-SEM by e-beam induced current measurement
US6594012 *Jul 2, 1997Jul 15, 2003Canon Kabushiki KaishaExposure apparatus
US20030035109 *Feb 15, 2001Feb 20, 2003Gerhard HartwichDevice and method for detecting organic molecules in a test substance
DD279952A1 Title not available
DE4400689A1Jan 12, 1994Jul 13, 1995Koch Alexander W Prof Dr Ing HMeasuring probe for determining local characteristics of gaseous medium
DE19701904A1Jan 21, 1997Jul 23, 1998Axel HemmerSystem for quantitative determining of surface moisture of esp. hygiene articles such as baby diapers
GB2047884A Title not available
GB2174800A Title not available
JPH08145894A Title not available
JPH11148919A Title not available
SU1467404A1 Title not available
WO1991008472A1Nov 27, 1990Jun 13, 1991Seivers Research IncProcess and apparatus for simultaneous measurement of sulfur and non-sulfur containing compounds
WO1996014569A2Nov 6, 1995May 17, 1996Cognitive Solutions LtdDetector for chemical analysis
Classifications
U.S. Classification356/72
International ClassificationG01N21/00, G01N21/55, G01N21/33, G01N21/59
Cooperative ClassificationG01N21/55, G01N21/33, G01N21/59
European ClassificationG01N21/59, G01N21/55
Legal Events
DateCodeEventDescription
Mar 20, 2014FPAYFee payment
Year of fee payment: 8
Mar 23, 2010FPAYFee payment
Year of fee payment: 4
Oct 7, 2002ASAssignment
Owner name: ROBERT BOSCH GMBH, GERMANY
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:BRINZ, THOMAS;REEL/FRAME:013395/0183
Effective date: 20020624