|Publication number||US7126299 B2|
|Application number||US 10/896,816|
|Publication date||Oct 24, 2006|
|Filing date||Jul 22, 2004|
|Priority date||Jul 31, 2003|
|Also published as||US7106016, US20050024002, US20050040780, WO2005012028A1|
|Publication number||10896816, 896816, US 7126299 B2, US 7126299B2, US-B2-7126299, US7126299 B2, US7126299B2|
|Inventors||Robert D. Jackson|
|Original Assignee||Siemens Energy & Automation, Inc.|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (29), Referenced by (13), Classifications (12), Legal Events (4)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
This application claims priority to, and incorporates by reference herein in its entirety, pending U.S. Provisional Patent Application Ser. No. 60/491,598, filed 31 Jul. 2003.
U.S. Pat. No. 2,633,541 (Justus), which is incorporated by reference herein in its entirety, allegedly cites “a novel method of dissipating the heat created in resistors for absorbing the electrical energy generated in dynamic braking, which method avoids the objections to the prior methods described above. One object of my invention is to provide a system for dissipating the heat created by conversion of the electrical energy generated in dynamic braking to heat energy in apparatus which is relatively compact and light in weight. Another object is to provide a system and method for dissipating the electrical energy created in dynamic braking which comprises converting the electrical energy into heat and transferring the heat to the liquid in the cooling circuit of an internal combustion engine. A further object is to provide a system for dissipating the energy created in dynamic braking as heat added to the cooling fluid of an unloaded internal combustion engine, thereby maintaining the engine at an elevated temperature. Still another object of my invention is to provide a system for dissipating the energy created in dynamic braking as heat added to the cooling fluid of an internal combustion engine which system includes, for cooling said fluid, a fan whose speed is automatically varied with the amount of energy to be dissipated. A still further object of my invention is to provide a system for dissipating the energy created in dynamic braking as heat added to the cooling fluid of an internal combustion engine, which system includes means for circulating said fluid in proportion to the amount of energy to be dissipated.” See column 1, line 37 through column 2, line 9.
U.S. Pat. No. 4,173,732 (Anderson), which is incorporated by reference herein in its entirety, allegedly cites the “heat energy dissipation capacity of the provided dynamic braking resistors for a given transit vehicle is established and then the generated motor current supplied to those resistors by the regenerating propulsion motor of the vehicle during the brake mode of operation is controlled to limit as desired in accordance with that capacity the total energy dissipated by the dynamic braking resistors.” See Abstract.
Certain exemplary embodiments can comprise a method comprising: receiving electrical energy from a braking system of a vehicle at a working coil, the vehicle comprising a first wheel drive comprising a first electric motor; and via the working coil, transferring the electrical energy to a mass related to the vehicle via Hall Effect, the transferred electrical energy converted to heat energy in the mass.
A wide variety of potential embodiments will be more readily understood through the following detailed description, with reference to the accompanying drawings in which:
When the following terms are used herein, the accompanying definitions apply:
Energy management system 1000 can comprise a first wheel drive 1200 and a second wheel drive 1300. In certain exemplary embodiments, first wheel drive 1200 can comprise a first motor 1250. Second wheel drive 1300 can comprise a second motor 1350. In certain exemplary embodiments, first wheel drive 1200 and second wheel drive 1300 can be driven by a single electric or fossil fuel powered motor and/or engine. First wheel drive 1200 can be controllably rotatable at a first drive speed. Second wheel drive 1300 can be controllably rotatable at a second drive speed. The first drive speed can be distinct and/or different from the second drive speed.
First motor 1250 and/or second motor 1350 can be electric motors powered by an alternating current (AC) and/or electric motors powered by a direct current (DC). First motor 1250 and/or second motor 1350 can be an induction motor. The speed of first motor 1250 and/or second motor 1350 can be controlled via an AC inverter frequency controller, and/or a silicon controlled rectifier (SCR) speed control circuit, etc. The first drive speed and/or the second drive speed can be controllable via a braking system. First electric motor 1250 and/or second electric motor 1350 can generate electricity when a motion of a machine and/or vehicle is being retarded via controlling the speed of first electric motor 1250 and/or second electric motor 1350.
Energy management system 1000 can comprise an electrical bus 1400. Electrical bus 1400 can be electrically coupled to first motor 1250 and/or second motor 1350. Electrical bus 1400 can be adapted to electrically conduct electrical energy from first motor 1250 and/or second motor 1350 to a circuit 1500 adapted to dissipate electrical energy. Circuit 1500 can comprise DC Bus plus Filter capacitors. Circuit 1500 can comprise an SCR or another type of power switching device. Circuit 1500 can be adapted to transfer the electrical energy to a mass associated with vehicle 1100 via Hall Effect.
Machine 2000 can comprise a first wheel 2700 and a second wheel 2800. First wheel 2700 and/or second wheel 2800 can be driven by an electric motor. The electric motor can be slowed via electric braking. Electric breaking can convert rolling and/or dynamic mechanical energy of machine 2000 to an electrical current.
Machine 2000 can comprise a working coil 2200, 2300, and/or 2400. Working coil 2200, 2300, and/or 2400 can be placed at predetermined locations of a machine such as adjacent to bed 2600 of machine 2000. Bed 2600 can comprise a substantial mass. Placing working coil 2200, 2300, and/or 2400 adjacent to a mass associated with machine 2000 can facilitate the dissipation of energy created, for example, via electric braking of machine 2000.
Dissipating energy using working coil 2200, 2300, and/or 2400 can increase the local and/or average temperature of, for example, bed 2600. Increasing the temperature of bed 2600 of machine 2000 can improve material discharge from bed 2600. That is, in certain circumstances, warming the material in bed 2600 can allow the material to more easily slide out of bed 2600 when tipped by lift 2500.
Working coil 2200, 2300, and/or 2400 can be designed to dissipate a maximum electrical load without heating bed 2600 to a temperature high enough, for example, to change a metallurgical grain structure of bed 2600, degrade the material contained in bed 2600, or otherwise create a problem with the material or bed 2600. Thus, bed 2600 and/or the material contained therein can be maintained within a predetermined temperature range, above a predetermined minimum temperature, and/or below a predetermined maximum temperature.
Heat transfer from surfaces dissipating heat from working coil 2200, 2300, and/or 2400, such as certain surfaces of bed 2600, can occur via conduction, convection and/or radiation. Heat transfer from surfaces dissipating heat from working coil 2200, 2300, and/or 2400 can be enhanced via the addition, for example, of a heat exchange apparatus, such as a fan, fin, heat exchanger, tubular heat exchanger, and/or finned tube heat exchanger, etc.
Energy dissipation circuit 3500 can comprise a tuned circuit. Energy dissipation circuit 3500 can be adapted to transfer energy from energy source 3100 via Hall Effect to a mass associated with the machine and/or vehicle, thereby inducing an electrical current in the mass. An inherent electrical resistivity of the mass can convert the electrical current to heat energy. Heat energy can be dissipated from the mass to a surrounding environment.
In certain exemplary embodiments, charging coil 4500 can be adapted to smooth pulses obtained from pulse generator 4300. Parameters of charging coil 4500 can be selected to provide a desired level of smoothing of the pulses.
Energy management circuit 4000 can comprise a series circuit 4600, which can comprise a capacitor 4800 and a working coil 4700 electrically coupled in series. In certain exemplary embodiments, pulses obtained from pulse generator 4300 can be provided to series circuit 4600 at a frequency near, other than, and/or approaching, but not matching, a resonant frequency of series circuit 4600.
Capacitor 4800 can be electrically coupled to energy source 4100. Capacitor 4800 can be adapted to cyclically charge and discharge responsive to variations in voltage in energy management circuit 4000, such as variations caused by the pulsed nature of the voltage supplied by conditioning circuit 4200. Working coil 4700 can be adapted to transfer energy from energy management circuit 4000 via Hall Effect to a mass associated with the machine and/or vehicle.
Energy management circuit 5000 can comprise an electrical bus 5150. Energy management circuit 5000 can comprise a pulse generator 5200 adapted to convert direct current electrical energy to a pulsed current. Pulse generator 5200 can be electromagnetically coupled to a transistor 5280 via a transformer 5250.
Transistor 5280 can be adapted to provide electrical pulses from electrical bus 5150 to a tuned circuit 5400. Electrical current can be passed through transistor 5280 responsive to the frequency of the pulses provided by transformer 5250. Transistor 5280 can be electrically coupled to an electrical bus 5150. Transistor 5280 can introduce a pulse of waveform 5900 to coil 5300 and the components “downstream” on coil 5300. By pulsing waveform 5900, slight variations can be introduced in an otherwise substantially constant voltage on bus 5150. The pulsing of waveform 5900 can introduce a waveform 5940 between transistor 5280 and coil 5300, which can be characterized as a substantially rectangular Direct Current voltage periodically and/or predictably transitioning between approximately zero volts and approximately the voltage output from, and/or voltage differential across, power source 5100.
Charging coil 5300 can be adapted to smooth pulsed electrical waveforms. Coil 5300 can provide a waveform 5960, which can be characterized as a smoothed rectangular Direct Current voltage periodically and/or predictably transitioning between approximately zero volts and approximately the voltage output from power source 5100.
Tuned circuit 5400 can comprise a capacitor 5500 and a working coil 5600. Capacitor 5500 can be electrically coupled to working coil 5600 in series or parallel. Capacitor 5500 can be adapted to cyclically charge and discharge responsive to variations in voltage in energy dissipation circuit 5000. Responsive to input pulses, tuned circuit 5400 can produce a waveform 5980, which can be characterized as an approximately symmetrical alternating current voltage.
Working coil 5600 can be adapted to transfer energy from energy dissipation circuit 5000 via Hall Effect to a mass 5700, which can be related to, attached to, a component of, and/or integral to, the machine and/or vehicle. Working coil 5600 can induce an electrical current in mass 5700. The electrical current in mass 5700 can be induced as eddy currents. Mass 5700 can be a ferrous material and/or a nonferrous material, such as aluminum, copper, or any other electrically conductive material. The electrical current can penetrate mass 5700 to a desired and/or predeterminable penetration depth. The predeterminable penetration depth can be a function of an electrical frequency. The amount of electrical energy dissipatable by mass 5700 can be limited by the melting point of mass 5700, and/or a lower temperature limitation. For example, if mass 5700 is made of steel, the forging power of 500 kW/s/lb acts as a potential upper limit for dissipatable energy transfer.
In certain exemplary embodiments, a mine haul truck might require approximately 4 MW of power dissipation over about 20 minutes under a retarding condition. The penetration depth can be inversely proportional to a square root of the frequency and the magnetic permeability of mass 5700. Thus, a higher frequency can result in a lower penetration depth. For example, an approximately 1000 Hz electrical frequency can result in a penetration depth (if mass 5700 is steel) of approximately 0.1 inch. A relatively low penetration depth can improve convective and/or radiation heat transfer from a surface of mass 5700. A deeper penetration depth can improve conductive heat transfer from a surface of mass 5700.
At activity 6200, if desired, electrical energy provided as alternating current can be rectified to direct current, which, in certain embodiments, can be easier to manage downstream.
At activity 6400, the electrical energy can be provided to a downstream tuned circuit as a periodic and/or pulsed voltage waveform via, for example, a transistor, a chopper circuit, an inverter circuit, a single phase bridge circuit, and/or a three phase bridge circuit, etc. The periodic and/or pulsed voltage waveform can be generated at a magnitude, duration, shape, frequency, and/or phase adapted to the size, material(s), parameters, and/or configuration of a working coil, tuned circuit, and/or mass associated with the vehicle to which the energy will be transferred for dissipation.
At activity 6600, prior to being received by the tuned circuit, the electrical energy can be smoothed, such as via, for example, a charging coil, which can be adapted to smooth voltage waveform changes. Smoothing a voltage waveform can improve operation of the tuned circuit and/or a transfer of the electrical energy to the mass associated with the vehicle.
At activity 6700, electrical energy can be transferred to the mass associated with the vehicle. The mass can be an electrically and magnetically conductive material, such as cast iron, steel, copper, and/or aluminum, etc. The energy can be transferred via Hall Effect wherein a working coil that receives the electrical energy can electromagnetically induce an electrical current in the mass. The electrical current induced in the mass can penetrate to a depth related to the frequency of the pulse and the size of the working coil. Certain exemplary embodiments can utilize an electrical pulse frequency between about 400 Hz and about 10,000 Hz, including all values and subranges therebetween. The flow of electrical energy to the working coil can be affected by the impact of a capacitor that is either in series or parallel with the working coil.
At activity 6800, the energy transferred to the mass can be converted to heat energy. That is, an electrical resistance of the mass can transform the electrical energy to heat energy. The mass can dissipate the heat energy to a surrounding environment via, for example, convective heat transfer to air surrounding the vehicle and/or conductive heat transfer to substances in contact with the mass.
In certain exemplary embodiments, a pulse frequency can be selected based upon material properties of the mass associated with the vehicle. For example, for a steel mass the frequency can be selected at 1000 Hz. The capacitor and working coil can be selected to satisfy the formula:
Frequency=(1/(2*Π))*(square root (1/(L*C))),
In certain exemplary embodiments, the charging coil can have an inductance of approximately 1/10 of the inductance of the working coil.
On oscilloscope output 7000, the DC bus voltage is shown as a waveform 7100, and illustrates the effect of the pulse on that bus voltage as a bus voltage blip 7150. The pulses excited the tuned circuit to create an oscillating voltage waveform 7200 and a lagging oscillating current waveform 7300. As indicated by bus voltage blip 7150, the pulse was applied as waveform 7300 approached a peak 7250. Application of the pulse helped to keep the tuned circuit operating at resonance. Various pulse parameters, e.g., magnitude, duration, frequency, shape, and/or phase, etc., can be adjusted as desired to create different effects upon waveforms 7200 and/or 7300.
For this experiment, the value of DC bus voltage was approximately 81.6 volts, and the tuned circuit current was approximately 3.1 amps. Thus, the tuned circuit had an impedance of approximately 26.4 ohms resulting in a dissipated power of approximately 250 watts.
where ΔT is the temperature rise in degrees Celsius (° C.), Q is the energy dissipated in the mass in kilojoules per second (kJ/sec), M is the mass of the mass in kilograms (kg), and Hm is the specific heat of the mass (0.5 kJ/kg ° C. for the steel pipe of this experiment). A time period of 60 seconds was used as a calculation basis. For this experiment Q was designed to be approximately 1000 watts or 1 kJ/sec. Thus, for this experiment, the calculated and/or predicted rise in temperature was:
ΔT=(1 kJ/sec*60 sec)/(1.95 kg*0.5 kJ/kg ° C.)=62° C.
The experiment included temperature monitoring of the pipe to compare the predicted temperature rise to an actual temperature rise in the pipe. The results are reported in Table 1:
The actual measurements indicated a temperature rise slightly below that predicted according to the formula. Although not intending to be limited by any particular theory or hypothesis, this difference was possibly due to convective air cooling of the pipe during the experiment. Certain exemplary embodiments can use calculations to predict a temperature rise in, for example, a mine haul truck bed.
On oscilloscope output 8000, the DC bus voltage is shown as a waveform 8100. The pulses excited the tuned circuit to create an oscillating voltage waveform 8200 and a lagging oscillating current waveform 8300. As indicated by a bus voltage blip 8150, the pulse was applied as waveform 8300 approached a peak 8250.
For this experiment, the average value of DC bus voltage was approximately 81.6 volts, and the tuned circuit current was approximately 15.4 amps. Thus, the tuned circuit had an impedance of approximately 5.3 ohms resulting in a dissipated power of approximately 1256 watts.
Consequently, the experiments illustrated in
Still other embodiments will become readily apparent to those skilled in this art from reading the above-recited detailed description and drawings of certain exemplary embodiments. It should be understood that numerous variations, modifications, and additional embodiments are possible, and accordingly, all such variations, modifications, and embodiments are to be regarded as being within the spirit and scope of the appended claims. For example, regardless of the content of any portion (e.g., title, field, background, summary, abstract, drawing figure, etc.) of this application, unless clearly specified to the contrary, there is no requirement for the inclusion in any claim of the application of any particular described or illustrated activity or element, any particular sequence of such activities, or any particular interrelationship of such elements. Moreover, any activity can be repeated, any activity can be performed by multiple entities, and/or any element can be duplicated. Further, any activity or element can be excluded, the sequence of activities can vary, and/or the interrelationship of elements can vary. Accordingly, the descriptions and drawings are to be regarded as illustrative in nature, and not as restrictive. Moreover, when any number or range is described herein, unless clearly stated otherwise, that number or range is approximate. When any range is described herein, unless clearly stated otherwise, that range includes all values therein and all subranges therein. Any information in any material (e.g., a United States patent, United States patent application, book, article, etc.) that has been incorporated by reference herein, is only incorporated by reference to the extent that no conflict exists between such information and the other statements and drawings set forth herein. In the event of such conflict, including a conflict that would render a claim invalid, then any such conflicting information in such incorporated by reference material is specifically not incorporated by reference herein.
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|U.S. Classification||318/380, 318/375, 318/161|
|International Classification||B60L7/00, H05B6/10, H05B6/04, B60L7/02, H02P3/12|
|Cooperative Classification||B60L2200/26, B60L7/02, H05B6/04, H05B6/105|
|Nov 5, 2004||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: SIEMENS ENERGY & AUTOMATION, INC., GEORGIA
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:JACKSON, ROBERT D.;REEL/FRAME:015965/0802
Effective date: 20041101
|Mar 9, 2010||FPAY||Fee payment|
Year of fee payment: 4
|May 18, 2010||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: SIEMENS INDUSTRY, INC.,GEORGIA
Free format text: MERGER;ASSIGNOR:SIEMENS ENERGY AND AUTOMATION AND SIEMENS BUILDING TECHNOLOGIES, INC.;REEL/FRAME:024411/0223
Effective date: 20090923
Owner name: SIEMENS INDUSTRY, INC., GEORGIA
Free format text: MERGER;ASSIGNOR:SIEMENS ENERGY AND AUTOMATION AND SIEMENS BUILDING TECHNOLOGIES, INC.;REEL/FRAME:024411/0223
Effective date: 20090923
|Mar 14, 2014||FPAY||Fee payment|
Year of fee payment: 8