US 713165 A
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No; 7l3,|65. Patented" Nov. 11,4902.
0. soovsmlm METHOD OF 'SDLIDIFYING AND EXCAVATING THE SOIL AND CONSTRUCTING TUNNELS.
' (Application filed m 7, 1902,) (No Model.) 2 Sheets-$heet I.
W/TNESSES: //vv/v H @W M E, ATTOHNEK THE Moms PETERS coy. PHOTO-H1110 WASNINGTDN. r:v c.
No. 7|3,l65. Patented Nov. :1, I902.
METHOD OF SOLIIJIFYING EXCAVAT ING THE S OlL AND CONSTRUCTING TUNNELS.
(Application filed May 7, 1902.) (No Model.) 2Sheeis-8heet 2.
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UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE.
CHARLES SOOYSMITI-I, NEW YORK, N. Y.
METHOD OF SOLIDIFYING AND EXCAVATING THE SOIL AND CONSTRUCTING TUNNELS.
SPECIFICATION forming part of Letters Patent No. 713,165, dated November 11, 1902.
Application filed May 7, 1902. Serial No.106,352. (No model.)
To all whom it may concern.-
Be it known that I, CHARLES SooYsMrrH, a citizen of the United States, and a resident of New York, in the county of New York and State of New York, have invented certain new and useful Methods of Solidifyiug and Excavating the Soil and Constructing Tunnels, of which the following is a specification.
My invention relates to excavations and tunnels, and especially to excavations or tunnels in soft or yielding or. water-bearing materials, and has especial reference to those instances Where the freezing method may be advantageously or necessarily employed.
The objects of my invention are to provide a practical method of freezing, excavation, and construction which shall be at once economical, easy, rapid, safe, and stable and to permit the excavation and construction of the main tunnel while preparing for the excavation in advance of the same and without delay or interference. These objects I attain by the use of the processes and devices illustrated in the accompanying drawings, described in the following specification, and claimed hereinafter.
In the drawings like letters of reference refer to like parts throughout the respective views.
The figures are cross-sections of an excavation or tunnel,showing myimproved methods.
Figure 1 shows a main tunnel having a pilottunnel in front of the main tunnel and pipes approximately parallel sunk from above and intersected by the pilot-tunnel. Fig. 2 shows a pilot-tunnel situated above a main tunnel and intersecting a plurality of pipes radiating fanwise from the axis of the pilot-tunnel and covering the cross-section of the main tunnel. Fig. 3 shows a novel arrangement or system of pipes, a part of which are intersected by a pilot-tunnel. Fig. 4 shows a pilottunnel on each side of the main tunnel and pipes sunk from above so as to be intersected by the same and pipes subsequently sunk from within the pilot-tunnels. Fig. 5 shows a modification of this idea, in that all the pipes are sunk from above and intersected by the pilot-tunnels. Fig. 6 shows a plurality of main tunnels and two pilot-tunnels difierently located. Fig. 7 shows a further modification of my invention, in which a plurality of pipes are sunk from above and intersected by a plurality of pilot-tunnels. Fig. 8 shows a similar arrangement of pipes; but the intersecting pilot-tunnels are constructed above and below the main tunnel or tunnels.
Referring to the figures, l is the main tunnel; 2, the pilottunnel; 3, pipes sunk or driven from above; 4, pipes or holes driven, implaced, or bored from the pilot-tunnel; 5, conduits or pipes for the supply and circulation of a vehicle of cold; 6, small pipes carrying the medium of cold into the pipes 7 for the purpose of circulating the same therein; 7, small pipes in pipes 3 for circulation.
In the case of the construction of snbaqueons tunnels it has been proposed to drive a small pilot tunnel or tunnels and in some cases to run out pipes from this through which to circulate the freezing medium. It has also been proposed to run out pipes from completed portions of a large tunnel in order to freeze the material in advance, so that further excavation could be made; but these methods of doing the freezing through a small pilot-tunnel or pipes radiating from it will in some cases be slow and tedious to carry out, because of the difficulty of inserting the pipes from the small pilot-tunnel or through the frozen material, as by some of the devices heretofore invented. I endeavor by my invention to overcome these difficulties and provide a means whereby the pipes for freezing in order to construct a subaqueous tunnel may be put down from above in the open, and at the same time or subsequently a connection may be made with these pipes through a small pilot-tunnel preferably intersecting them, so that the circulation of a medium of cold may be conducted through the small tunnel.
In actually carrying out my method I prefer to first drive or sink or otherwise place a plurality of pipes of suitable size, about six inches in diameter, so that they will penetrate the material it is desired to'freeze to the required depth. I may do this by any suitable means or method, as by a driver, awaterjet, or otherwise, the particular means or method of placing these pipes employed in this operation not being part of this invention, and I place these pipes in such relation to each other, both as to direction, angular position, and alinement, that all of them will be intersected, or nearly so, by one or more lines parallel to the axis of the main tunnel. Usually after placing these pipes I advance one or more small pilot-tunnels of sufficient size to permit the work to be carried on therein, probably about six or seven feet in diameter or height. These may be of any suitable or convenient shape, material, and construction and are of course substantially parallel to the axis of the proposed main tunnel; but they may be on either or both sides or above and below or in the line of the proposed main tunnel. In Fig. 1 I have shown these pipes placed parallel to each other and in advance of and covering the whole cross-section of the main tunnel to be constructed. The pilot tunnel is here shown of rectangular cross-section, its width being somewhat greater than the width of the proposed main tunnel. It will be seen that this pilot-tunnel intersects all these pipes near their center. The ends of these pipes will of course be sealed, and they may be so adjusted as to their length and their depth in the soil that they may extend the necessary distance above and below the pilottunnel to produce the required area of congealment. After the pilot-tunnel has been excavated sufficiently to disclose the pipes 3 the latter may be cut, and the small pipes 6, which carry the vehicle of cold from the main pipe 5, are inserted or connected to pipes 7, so as to produce a circulation of the freezing medium. I have not here shown in detail the construction or arrangement of this circulating system, as the mere mechanical details are not features of my invention, the method of piping being well known in the art of freezing. Thus I have shown but one pipe 6, leading to each soil-pipe 3, whereas of course a plurality or their equivalent will be necessary to produce circulation. As the main tunnel is constructed in rear of the excavation of the frozen material, the excavation for the pilot-tunnel of course becomes a part of the main tunnel, and such parts of the pipes 3 are removed as are within the area of the tunnel-face. This operation is not further described herein, as it is sufficiently set forth in my application for Patent, Serial No. 86,946, filed December 23,1901, and that of Charles Page Perin, Serial No. 9&654, filed February 18, 1902, and, besides, is sufficiently familiar to those skilled in the art.
In Fig. 2 I show the pipes as having been sunk at different angles from the vertical through a line drawn parallel to and above the axis of the main tunnel and on which line as an axis the pilot-tunnel is subsequently constructed so as to intersect the pipes,which are, as already explained, then out off inside the pilot-tunnel and small pipes for freezing run into them from the cold-supply pipes in the main tunnel. It will be seen that the pipes 3 radiate like a fan below the pilot-tunnel and cover the cross-sectional area of the proposed tunnel.
Fig. 3 shows a plurality of tunnels with the parallel pipes 3 sunk from above and shows a portion of the latter, as 3 3', intersected by the pilot-tunnel, which is here shown between the main tunnels. The pipes 3 are joined at the top by a horizontal or connecting member, and prior to their emplacement the small pipes 7, already referred to, have been placed in them, (this being preferably done in every instance.) The pipes 3 may be subsequently cut or opened after the excavation of the pilot-tunnel uncovers them and the usual connection made with the cold-supply.
In Fig. &the pipes 3 are sunk from the surface at such angles that the pilot-tunnels2 2 when constructed intercept them at or near their lower ends. The pipes 4 may then be sunk in sections from the interior of the pilottunnels and subsequently connected up with the freezing apparatus, as before described, or holes without lining or pipes may be in some cases forced and the freezing effect produced therein.
In Fig. 5 I employ a similar arrangement, except that the pipes 3 3 are sunk from surface, so as to be intersected by the pilottunnel.
In Fig. 6 I employ two rectangular pilottnnnels diagonally disposed with respect to a plurality of main tunnels and the pipes 3 3, sunk from above, while the pipes L 4 are run out or bored from the pilot-tunnels. Of course the exact location or shape of the pilot-tunnels or pipes is not material. In Figs. 6, 7, and 8 the arrangement has been sufficiently described, and the arrangement and construction are obvious.
I prefer to operate as follows: The line of the proposed tunnel having been selected, I usually first sink or otherwise place a plurality of pipes 3, preferably of course closed at top and bottom and which preferably contain one or more smaller pipes 7 to be subsequently connected to the cold-supply pipes 5 in the pilot-tunnel 2. These pipes are so located and arranged that one or more pilottnnnels, which may be located in any position relative to the main tunnel, but parallel thereto, will intersect either all these pipes 3 or so many of them as will permit the connection of the cold-supply pipes 5 in the pilot-tunnel to one or more of the small pipes 7 in pipes 3 or some of the pipes 3, forming a system or group, as in Fig. 3. I usually now construct the intersecting pilot-tunnels as before mentioned. These pilot-tunnels may or may not be lined, depending upon the nature of the soil. As I uncover the pipes 3 I may cut or separate or open the latter, so as to permit me to connect the pipes 7 to the pipes 5 by pipes 6. The pipes 5 are connected to a freezing apparatus or other cold-supply preferably either in the main excavation or at the base of operations on shore, or, if desired, on a float anchored above the place of immediate freezing, in which latter case one of the pipes 3 could be left temporarily reaching to the surface for this purpose. The freezing process may then be carried on as desired and extended or confined to such portions as may be necessary and the main tunnel excavation and construction accomplished in the frozen area, the portions of the pipes 3, 3, 3 and 4 left after the excavation and construction assisting to support and secure the main structure and may be incorporated therein.
I do not limit myself to the form, location, arrangement, size, or material shown, or to the exact order of process mentioned, as these illustrations and description are typical, and may be modified and extended; but
What I do claim, and desire to secure by Letters Patent, is
1. The method of solidifying the ground which consists in sinking a plurality of pipes containing small pipes,'intersecting the. same by one or more pilot-tunnels, and circulating a medium of cold in the pipes from the pilottunnel, substantially as described.
2. The method of solidifying the ground consisting in sinkinga plurality of pipes, intersecting the same by one or more pilot-tunnels, and circulating amedium of cold in the pipes from the pilot-tunnel, substantially as described.
3. The method of solidifying the ground which consists in sinking a plurality of rows of parallel pipes, intersecting the same by one or more pilot-tunnels, and introducinga vehicle of cold into the pipes from the pilottunnel, substantially as described.
4. The method of solidifying the ground which consists in sinking a plurality of rows of pipes set at such angles as to cross each other on a certain line, intersecting said pipes on said line by a pilot-tunnel, and introducing a vehicle of cold into the pipes from the pilot-tunnel, substantially as described.
5. The method of solidifying the ground which consists in sinking a plurality of pipes, and intersecting the same by one or more pilot-tunnels, and freezing the soil about the same, substantially as described.
6. The method of solidifying the ground consisting in sinking a plurality of rows of parallel-connected pipes, intersecting some of the pipes in each row by one or more pilottunnels, and introducing a medium of cold into the pipes from the pilot-tunnel, substantially as described.
7. The method of solidifying the ground which consists in sinking a plurality of rows of pipes, certain pipes in each row crossing other pipes in the same row on a certain line; intersecting these pipes on said line of crossing by a pilot-tunnel, and circulating a. me dium of cold in said pipes from the pilot-tunnel, substantially as described.
8. The method of solidifying consisting in sinking a plurality of pipes at opposite angles from the vertical, so that they cross or approximately meet, intersecting said pipes by one or more pilot-tunnels on the line of the crossing or meeting, freezing the soil by a medium of cold from the pilot-tunnel.
9. The method of solidifying the soil'consisting in intersecting a plurality of pipes sunk at angles and on opposite sides from the vertical, by a pilot-tunnel and circulating a medium of cold in said pipes from said tunnel, substantially as described.
10. The method of solidifying consisting in intersecting a plurality of pipes sunk in the earth, by a plurality of pilot-tunnels; forming cavities in the earth from said pilot-tunnels, and circulating a medium of cold in said pipes and cavities from said tunnels, substantially as described.
1l.' The method of constructing excavations which consists in sinkinga plurality of pipes so as to substantially surround the area to be excavated, intersecting said pipes by a plu rality of pilot-tunnels, freezing the soil about the proposed area of excavation by the circulation of a medium of cold from the pilot-tunnels, substantially as described.
12. The method of excavating which consists in sinking a plurality of pipes extending over and on either side of the area proposed to be excavated, intersecting said pipes by a pilot-tunnel, solidifying the soil beyond and on either side of the area to be excavated, by the circulation of a medium of cold from the pilot tunnel, and excavating the material within the proposed area, substantially as described.
13. The method of constructing an excavation which consists in solidifying the soil over and on either side of the proposed excavation, but not elsewhere, so as to form a roof of solidified material, and excavating the material beneath said roof, substantially as described.
14. The method of constructing a tunnel which consists in solidifying the soil over and on either side of the proposed tunnel, but not elsewhere, so as to form a roof of solidified material, excavating the material within the area of the proposed tunnel, and completing the tunnel structure, substantially as described.
Signed at New York, in the county of New York and State of New York, this 15th day of March, A. D. 1902.
A. KENT, E. L. ABBOTT.