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Publication numberUS714621 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateNov 25, 1902
Filing dateNov 21, 1900
Priority dateNov 21, 1900
Publication numberUS 714621 A, US 714621A, US-A-714621, US714621 A, US714621A
InventorsBaron Paul Tcherkassov, Robert Erwin Hill
Original AssigneeBaron Paul Tcherkassov, Robert Erwin Hill
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Type for type-writing or printing.
US 714621 A
Abstract  available in
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

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SPECIFICATION forming part of Letters Patent No. '714,Ei2l, dated November 25, 1902.

Application filed November 21, 1900. Serial No. 37,309. (No model.)

T a/ZZ whom it may concern:

Be it known that we, BARON PAUL TCHER- KASSOV, a subject of the Czar of Russia, re-

siding at St. Petersburg, Russia, and ROBERT ERWIN HILL, a citizen of the United States, residing at Chicago, in the county of Cook, State of Illinois, have invented certain new and useful Improvements in Types for Type- Writing or Printing, of which the following is a specication.

Our inventionhas for its object to produce really eiicient and well-shaped Arabic characters in type-writing or Vprintin g in those languages-such as the Arabic, Turkish, Persian, and Hindustani-wherein the Arabic alphabet is employed, and while the novel and distinguishing features of our invention are particularly adapted for employment inthe `art of type-Writing some of them are also applicable to the art of printing from movable types, linotypes, dto. 'y

As We are well aware that similar attempts have heretofore been made, it is of the utmost importance in order to a clear apprehension of the distinguishing features of our improvements to bear in mind several facts which We Will now state. First, the peoples of the Eastern countries employing the languages referred to are exceedingly conservative, especially with reference to the shape of the letters or characters which they employ in Writing or prin ting, and it is therefore imperative if changes from existing methods are sought to be introduced with expectation of their adoption that there should be as little i deviation from recognized standards of form `as possible; second, these peoples attach sought to avoid the use of compromise characters, by Which we mean single characters that are intended to do duty for dierent formsas initial, medial,or final-of the same letter, and also of modified charactersthat is, characters which are dilierent in shape or proportion from the standard forms-Which devicethe modifying of the characters-has been proposed by some in orderthat the difl ferent letters of the alphabet may be applied 6o to single blocks or types of uniform size, such as are ordinarily employed in type-writing machines. As is well known, most of the letters of the Arabic alphabet are written in four different forms, accordingly as the letter is used at the beginning of a Word, in the midst of a Word, at the end of a Word, or alone, and also that most of the letters are l joined to the next adjacent letters by connection marks or bars, so that the several let- 7o ters of a word constitute a logogram. While the number of characters employed in Writing or printing the Arabic languages is large,

`at least one hundred and two being used for the twenty-nine letters of the alphabet, the variety of fundamental outlines is much less than this total number, as a limited number of appendages in the form of dots and various forms of terminal tails are used, each of these appendages being applied to or com- 8o bined with two or more of the different fundamental characters to give the different values or signicances to these, so that it becomes possible to make up or construct the different characters of the language with a number of printing-type much smaller than the number of characters employed. Ve therefore use certain fundamental characters which alone print the single letter in one form and other appendage characters 9o which when combined in manner to be set forth with the fundamental characters produce the letters in other forms.

In Figure 1 of the accompanying drawings we have represented in `series the imprints of the characters which are to be used upon a type-writer embodying our improvements. We have represented the imprintsrnade from the type rather than the type themselves for ease and convenience in reading the letters. 10o The oblong figures which surround the several letters and characters in this view of the I ters required in usingthe Arabic alphabet,`

drawings represent the shape and relative size of the blocks or bodies of the types, and

by this means the positionsl of the several 'that others extend entirely across the type from edge to edge. The supplemental or appendage characters, such as represented in to 70, occupy such position upon the types whichbear them as their use and shape demands. From this arrangement we are enabled to conveniently form by a type-writing machine all of the formsof the several letwhichforms not only differ in shape, but also in horizontalextent, as may be seen by reference to the letter Sim Nos. 21 and 22, Fig. 1.v When this latter is employed at the beginning of a word, the form represented at '22 is employed, a form occupying less than one space horizontally, (taking the width ofa type-block asa unit.) When the letter comes in the midst of a word, the form at 21is used, and then its length is greater than when occupying an initial position. When it occurs at the end of a word, its form is again changed and still further lengthened, as represented in Fig. 4, and this form we produce by adding to the form at 21 the appendage character 66. Again, when `the letter is used alone the characters 22'and 66 are combined, and the letter then has a length intermediate between that represent-ed in Fig. 4 and at 21 in Fig. 1. It will thus be seen that the four forms of the letter Sin may be produced and that each form has not only its distinct shape, but also its distinct length, and we believe thatwe are the first to have made it possible to accomplish this by means of a practical type-writing machine of any of the types now in common use.

In producing the types according to our invention we have observed the following rules:

n The types are all of uniform size (for typewriting purposes) and of the oblong shape represented in Fig. l,the proportions of height and width being approximately as` three is to two, and this proportion we have determined by taking the final form 'of the letter Lam for height and the medial form of Ba for width. This'arrangement wehave found gives the best results where beautyof outline or conformity to recognized standards of style andconvenience in adapting the printing in Arabic to type-writing machines is concerned. The line of alinement of the characters is located so as to coincide with the connectionline of the letters, as is usual in Arabic print, and this line is indicated by the dotted lines m in Fig. 1. The exact position of each letter or character upon its type or block has been carefully worked out to insure perfect connection of the different characters used in making up a word, and the positions are represented in the drawings.

In atype-Writing machine adapted for use in Writing in the languages which have been hereinbefore referred to, and which might be termed a Universal Eastern alphabet typewriter, we find that ninety characters serve all practical purposes and that any considerable reduction fom this number is attended with practical disadvantages. With this number of characters, arranged as shown in the drawings, we can print one hundred and thirty-four different letters or characters, and l this is ample for use in writing in the Arabic, Turkish, and Persian languages and also for use in the Hindustani language,with the addition of a few simple characters or appendages, which may be easily applied with the pen.

In using our alphabet in type-writing certain of the letters are printed directly by a single type-as, for instance, the letter Alif, (1 and 2.) Others are formed by the use ot' two types, which are struck one after the other, and to designate this manner of forming a letter we will in this specification make use of the verb construct. Thus the isolated form of Baf,,Fig. 2, is constructed from the character 3, representing c"Ba" in its initial form, and the appendage character 70, these two characters being struck in succession. Other letters are formed by the use of two types which are caused to print in the same space-that is to say, one character is first printed, and afterward another Vcharacter prints in the same space before the paper is allowed to move forward, or, if the paper should advance it is brought back, so that the space in which the partially-formed letter appears is in printing position, when the letter may be completed by striking the character required to complete the letter. This method of forming a letter we term making up, the terms constructing and making up being by us herein usedin an arbitrary manner to distinguish between the two methods of forming the letters which have just been pointed out. As an example of a madeup letter we have in Fig. 3 represented the isolated form of the letter Ha, this being made up from the primary character 9 and the appendage character 67.

The manner of forming the several letters of the Arabic language in their dierent forms may now be set forth.

Alt'f: This'letter has two forms, an initial and isolated form and a connected form,which is also used as the final form. These two forms are prod uced by single characters printing directly and are designated at 1 and 2 in the drawings.

Ba: This letter has four forms, the initial and `medial forms of which are printed direct by the use of characters 3 and 4, while the IOO IIO

isolated and `inal forms are constructed from characters 3 and 4 with character 70. y

Ta: This letter has four forms, the initial and medial forms being printed direct by the use of characters 5 and 6.and the isolated and final forms being constructed from characters 5 and 6 with character 70.

Tha: This letter has also four forms, in the production `of which the characters 7 and 8 are used alone for two forms and are used in combination with the terminal character for the other two forms.

` Geem: This letter has four forms, of which two are printed direct from characters 9 and 10, and two others, the isolated and final forms, are made up from characters 9 and'10 `with character 67.

Het and Kha: These two letters have each four forms, corresponding in the shape of their stems with the letter Geem, but 'differing in the use of the single dot. acters 1l and 12 are used in printing the letter Ha, and 13 and 14 in printing Kha, character 67 being used as for Geem.

Dal: This letter is used in two forms and is printed direct by characters 15 and 16.

Thal and Ra; These letters each have two forms, and each form according to our invention is printed direct from a single character, 17 and 18 being used for Thal and 19 and 2O for Ra Zat/in: This letter has two forms, and these are made up from characters 19 and 20, with the dot character 75.

Sin and Shi/n: These two letters each have four forms and are similar to each other in their stem formation, but differ iu that three dots are arranged above the stem in the letter Shin Twoforms of each letter are printed directly, characters 21 and22 being` used for Sin and 23 and 24 being used for Shinf the nal and isolated forms being constructed by combination with the character 66.

Schol: This letter has four forms, the inital and medial being printed direct from characters 25 and 26 and the isolated and final forms constructed from characters 25 and 26 with terminal character 66.

Thcthd: This letter has four forms, two of which are made up from characters 25 and 26 with the dot character 75, and two other formsthe isolated and linal-which are both made up and combined, the primary characters 25 and 26 being used in combination with characters and 66.

Ttah: We employ but two forms of this letter for all purposes, which are printed direct from the characters 27 and 28.

Zeh: lVe use but two forms of this letter for all purposes, and these are made up from The char- Gain: There are four forms of this letter, the initial and medial forms of which are printed directly from characters 31 and 32, and the isolated and terminal forms are made up from these characters with terminal character 67.

Fa: There are four forms of this letter, all of which we produce, two by printing direct from characters 33 and 34 and two ol' which we construct by the use of these characters with the terminal character 70.

Khaf: What has been said with reference to letter Fa may be repeated with respect to this letter, except that the fundamental characters used are made as represented at 35 and 36.

Iaf: This letter has four forms, two of which we form direct from characters 37 and 38, while the other forms-the isolated and the finalare both constructed and made up, the appendage character 70 being used in the construction and the appendage 76 in the making up, these two being combined with the fundamental characters 37 and 38, respectively.

Lam: There are four forms of this letter, each of which we print direct from a single character, and such characters are represented at 39, 40, 41, and 42.

Mt'm: There are also four forms of this letter, two of which are printed direct by characters 43 and 44 and two are made up from characters 43 and 44 with appendage 68.

Noon: There are four forms of this letter, for the printing of which we use four separate characters, printing directly, and they are represented at 45, 46, 47, and 48.

Wet/w: There are two forms of this letter, which we print direct from characters 49 and 50.

Het: There are four forms of this letter, and each form we print direct from a separate character, these being represented at 51, 52, 53, and 54.

Ya: There are four forms of this letter, and cach of them we print direct from a single character, the characters being represented at 55, 56, 57, and 58.

Lam-AH: There are two forms of this letter or combination, and they are printed direct from the characters 59 and 60. This conlpletes the Arabic alphabet; but special forms of the letter Ta are sometimes needed, and these are made up by using the primary characters 53 and 54 and the single-dot character 65.

It will thus be seen that we have made provision for printing one hundred and two forms IIO represented in the lower row of Fig. 1, the four orthographlic signs most generally used for all Eastern languages-viz., Djasm or Sukkan 72, Madda 77, Tashdid or Shadad 79, and Hamza SO--the horizontal' bar 69, which is sometimes used to lengthen a final character, so as to avoid too long blank spaces at the end of a line, the combination sign for parenthesis 73, the mark of interrogation 71, and the asterisk 74C, are amply sufticient for use in Writing Arabic.

For printing in the Turkish and Persian languages there are the following special characters required:

Pot: This letter is printed in four forms, of which two are printed direct from the char- -acters 61 and 62, and two others are constructed from characters 61 and 62 with 70.

Tshz'm: There are four forms of this letter, of which two are printed from characters 63 and 64, land two are made up from these characters and the terminal appendage 67.

Zhu: This letter has two forms and is made up from characters 19 and 2O and the threedot character 78.

Gaf: Turkish Saghyr-noon or mutenoon. This letter has four forms and is made up by combining the letter Kat with the three-dot character 78.

In the writing of the Hindustaui or Urdu languages a few special characters or marks are required; but these are so conveniently applied with the pen4 that we have not made any provision for them in the arrangement of characters shown.

What we claim as our invention, and desire to secure by Letters Patent, is-

1. Types for use in writing and printing in those languages employing the Arabic alphabet, which types are of a uniform size based on the heightof the final form of the letter Lam, and the width of the medial form of the letter Ba. i

2. Types for use in the writing and printing of languages employing the Arabic alphabet, bearing primary characters corresponding with the initial and medial forms of the letters, and appendage characters on separate types, which, when combined with the primary characters, constitute the iinal and isolated forms of the letters.

3. Types for the printing of the characters of the Arabic alphabet for type-Writer and other purposes, comprising the initial and medial forms of the following letters, Alif, Ba, Ta, Tha, Geem, Ha, Kha, Dal, Thal, Ra, Sin, Shin, Sahd, Ain, Gain, Fa, Khaf, Kat, Mim, Waw, and Lam-Alif, and appendage characters 66, 67, 68, and 70 arranged to be combined with such of the said letters as have four forms, to constitute isolated and final forms.

ln testimony whereof we have hereunto set our hands in presence of two subscribing Witnesses.


Witnesses to signature of Baron Paul Tcherkassov H. LOVIAGUINE, H. F. STAPLE.

Witnesses to signature of Robert Erwin Hill:


Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2613795 *Apr 17, 1946Oct 14, 1952Mergenthaler Linotype GmbhChinese typewriter
US3267852 *Dec 23, 1964Aug 23, 1966Smith Kline French LabType font particularly adapted for producing chemical notations
US4714362 *Jun 11, 1982Dec 22, 1987Contitronix Inc.Typewriter daisy wheel
USD780838 *Sep 21, 2015Mar 7, 2017Adobe Systems IncorporatedType font
Cooperative ClassificationB41B1/02