US 715013 A
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.I ls. nusu a A. n. THM/En. PHUCESS 0F TBETIHG THE UTSIUES 0F SHIPS, 81.6-, FOB IKING THE LESS VISIBLE.
(Appumxm ma Apr. x'r, non.)
Patented Dec. 2, |902.
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UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE.
GEROME BRUSH AND ABBOTT HANDERSON THAYER, OF DUBLIN, NEW
.PROCESS F TREATING THE OUTSIDES 0F SHIPS, 6to., FOR MAKING THEM LESS VISIBLE.
srncrmcanou forming pm of Letter- Patent No. 715,013, dated December 2, 1902.
' Anuman am April 17.1902. serai so. 103.801. Hummm-l To alt whom it may concern:
Be it known that we, Gaaonm BRUSH and ABBorr HANDERsoN THAYER, residing 'at Dublin, in the county of Cheshire ahd State of New Hampshire, have-invented a new and useful Process of Treating the Outsides of Objects, Especially Ships, to Make them Less Yisible, of which the following is a specificat on.
lol The reason any object is easily seen, no matter what color it is painted, is because when near enough to be distinguished its various surfaces reflect, respectively, different amounts of light, the upwardfacing surfacesanchas the deck, tops of turrets, risc.,
of a ship-beingthe lightest,.the vertical surfaces less light, the surfaces facing downward less, and the deep recesses still less. far away, so that its various surfaces blend so into one, a ship may be visible owing to the contrast of the whole object with the surrounding sky and water. A white ship may be seen against so bright a sky as to look almost like a black one. Therefore it makes a5 little difference what color a ship is painted if it be with only one color, as either the whole ship will silhouette against the sky beyond or its different parte will present a strong contrast of light and shade among them- 3o selves.
Our invention consists in so painting the ship or other object as to prevent the existence of contrasta of light and shade.
Referring to the annexed drawings, which form part of this specification, Figure 1 shows a side view of a man-of-war, to which our invention may be applied. Fig. 2 shows a side view of a torpedo-boat; Fig. 3, an end view of the torpedo-boat shown in Fig. 2; and Figs.
4o 4 and 5, a side and a sectional view, respectively, of another form of boat to which our invention may be applied.
Referrlngto the drawings by letters, A represents that portion of the ships structure facing upward and which according to our invention is painted blue or green. l
B represents the vertical or nearly vertical surfaces, to which we give a lighter color than 5o to the surfaces facing n ward.
. O represents those snr aces of the structure which face downward and to which we give astill bri hter or white color. When the structure of the form shown by that part a dark color, such as Whenof Fig. 3 from a to b-that is, a curved struc' 55 ture, which has no vertical or nearly-vertical surfaces-we find that we obtain the best result by giving to the surface, beginning at a, a dark color and making the colors gradually blend from such dark color to a light-color, 6o the surface being lightest when it reaches the point b-that is, the surface beginning at a will be dark, the intermediate point (marked c) being less dark, and at b the color being y still lighter-while in cases like that of a submarinetorpedo-boat the graduationcontinues ,down to white at d.
A ship or other object treated by our method tends when out on the open sea to appear transparent and to cause the observer to seem 7o to look through it, as if it were not there.
What we claim as our invention, and wish to secure by Letters Patent, is-
1. The method of making an object less visible, which consists in giving to that part of the surface of the object which would refleet the most light a comparatively dark color and to that part which wou'fl reiiect the least light a camparatively light color, so as to prevent the existence of contrasts of light and 8c shade.
2. The method of making an object less visible, which consists in giving to the upper surface of the object a dark color and to the lower part or surface of the object a light color and gradually making the colors blend from dark at the upper` part to light at thc lower part of the object, as and for the purposes set forth.
3. The method of making objects less visi- 9o ble, which consists in giving to the upper surfaces of such objects a dark color and gradually making the colors blend from dark at the upper part to light at the lower part of the object, and in pitching'this gradation of 95 color so that the resultant monochrome shall be as near as possible to the average background against which the ship or other object thus painted shall be seen.
In testimony of which we have hereunto setonr hands und seals in the presence nl' im attesting witnesses.
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